Organic Acids Test (The Great Plains Laboratory)

Organic acids are chemical compounds excreted in the urine of mammals that are products of metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of chemical reactions in living beings by which the body builds new molecules and breaks down molecules to eliminate waste products and produce energy. Organic acids are organic compounds that are acidic. Organic acids are substances in which carbon and hydrogen are always present but which may also contain the elements of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus as well.

The Organic Acids Test offers a comprehensive metabolic snapshot of a patient’s overall health with 75 markers.  It provides an accurate evaluation of intestinal yeast and bacteria.  Abnormally high levels of these microorganisms can cause or worsen behavior disorders, hyperactivity, movement disorders, fatigue and immune function. Many people with chronic illnesses and neurological disorders often excrete several abnormal organic acids in their urine. The cause of these high levels could include oral antibiotic use, high sugar diets, immune deficiencies, acquired infections, as well as genetic factors.

2-Hydroxyphenylacetic (female)

Optimal range: 0.06 - 0.66 mmol/mol creatinine

Metabolite of phenylalanine via phenyl pyruvate.

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2-Oxoglutaric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 35 mmol/mol creatinine

2-Oxoglutaric acid is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids. It is formed in the Krebs cycle, the energy-producing process that occurs in most body cells.

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3-Hydroxyglutaric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 6.2 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Hydroxyglutaric is a marker for glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

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3-Indoleacetic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 11 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Indoleacetic is a Tryptophan byproduct of Clostria: C. stricklandii, C. litusburense, C. subterminale, and C. putrefaciens.

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3-Methylglutaconic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 4.5 mmol/mol creatinine

The marker, 3-methylglutaconic acid in high values indicates a reduced ability to metabolize the amino acid, leucine. This abnormality is found in the genetic disease, methylglutaconic aciduria and in mitochondrial disorders.

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3-Methylglutaric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.76 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Oxoglutaric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.33 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Oxoglutaric indicates yeast overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. 

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4-Cresol (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 75 mmol/mol creatinine

4-Cresol has been used as a specific marker for Clostridium difficile.

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4-Hydroxybenzoic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.3 mmol/mol creatinine

4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid is a marker for intestinal dysbiosis.

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4-Hydroxyhippuric (female)

Optimal range: 0.79 - 17 mmol/mol creatinine

4-Hydroxyhippuric is a glycine conjugate of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the paraben metabolite.

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4-Hydroxyphenylacetic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 19 mmol/mol creatinine

A tyrosine metabolic product of GI bacteria.

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5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furoic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 14 mmol/mol creatinine

A metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract.

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Aconitic (female)

Optimal range: 6.8 - 28 mmol/mol creatinine

Elevated in mitochrondrial disorders. Aconitase metabolizes citric and aconitic acids, and is dependent on glutathione.

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Arabinose (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 29 mmol/mol creatinine

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in certain foods.

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Carboxycitric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 29 mmol/mol creatinine

Carboxycitric is a metabolite of yeast/fungi and general indicator of gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Elevated yeast/fungal metabolites indicate overgrowth in the GI tract.

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Citramalic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 3.6 mmol/mol creatinine

Metabolite of yeast or anaerobic bacteria, including Clostridia.

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Citric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 507 mmol/mol creatinine

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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DHPPA (Beneficial Bacteria) (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.38 mmol/mol creatinine

Produced when Clostridia acts upon unabsorbed tryptophan, tyrosine or phenylalanine.

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Fumaric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.94 mmol/mol creatinine

Fumarate (together with Succinate and Malate) is used in the body’s metabolic pathway that generates cellular energy – the Citric Acid Cycle.

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Furan-2,5-dicarboxylic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 16 mmol/mol creatinine

Furan 2,5-dicarboxylic is a byproduct of Aspergillus and other fungal species.

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Furancarbonylglycine (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.9 mmol/mol creatinine

Furancarbonylglycine is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract.

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Glyceric (female)

Optimal range: 0.77 - 7 mmol/mol creatinine

Normal values rule out genetic causes of significantly elevated urinary oxalic acid.

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Glycolic (female)

Optimal range: 16 - 117 mmol/mol creatinine

Indicator of genetic disease of oxalate metabolism called Hyperoxaluria type I due to a deficiency in the enzyme activity of alanine glyoxylate amino transferase (AGT).

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Hippuric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 613 mmol/mol creatinine

Hippuric acid is a conjugate (=a compound formed by the joining of two or more compounds) of glycine and benzoic acid formed in the liver.

Most hippuric acid in urine is derived from microbial breakdown of chlorogenic acid to benzoic acid.

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Homovanillic (HVA)

Optimal range: 0.8 - 3.6 mmol/mol creatinine

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite.

Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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HPHPA (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 208 mmol/g creatinine

HPHPA is a clostridia metabolite and dysbiosis marker and stands for 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid.

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Lactic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 48 mmol/mol creatinine

Formed from pyruvate in anaerobic or oxygen-starved (hypoxic) conditions to allow for ongoing production of ATP.

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Malic (female)

Optimal range: 0.06 - 1.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Malic Acid is involved in the citric acid cycle (aka. Krebs cycle). The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that occur in the mitochondrion to generate chemical energy that fuels the metabolism.

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Oxalic (female)

Optimal range: 6.8 - 101 mmol/mol creatinine

Oxalic acid may be associated with dysbiosis from Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida, or high dose vitamin C. If yeast or fungal markers are elevated, antifungal therapy may reduces oxalates. Also associated with anti-freeze (ethylene glycol) poisoning.

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Pyruvic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 9.1 mmol/mol creatinine

Pyruvic Acid feeds into the citric acid cycle & converts into acetyl CoA. Pyruvate is formed from carbohydrate via glucose or glycogen & secondarily from fats (glycerol) & glycogenic amino acids.

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Succinic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 9.3 mmol/mol creatinine

Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body.

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Tartaric (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 4.5 mmol/mol creatinine

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in some foods.

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Tricarballylic (female)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.44 mmol/mol creatinine

Marker for exposure to certain fungal contamination in foods.

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