Organic Acids Test (OAT) - Nutritional and Metabolic Profile

Urine

Performed by: Mosaic Diagnostics

Biomarkers included in this panel:

2-Hydroxybutyric

What is 2-Hydroxybutyric acid? 2-Hydroxybutyric acid (aka α-Hydroxybutyrate) is a by-product of glutathione production. Levels of 2-Hydroxybutyric acid in the urine may reflect levels of glutathione production. What is Glutathione? Glu

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2-Hydroxybutyric (Males Age 13 and Over)

What is 2-Hydroxybutyric acid? 2-Hydroxybutyric acid (aka α-Hydroxybutyrate) is a by-product of glutathione production. Levels of 2-Hydroxybutyric acid in the urine may reflect levels of glutathione production. What is Glutathione? Glu

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2-Hydroxybutyric (Males Under Age 13)

What is 2-Hydroxybutyric acid? 2-Hydroxybutyric acid (aka α-Hydroxybutyrate) is a by-product of glutathione production. Levels of 2-Hydroxybutyric acid in the urine may reflect levels of glutathione production. What is Glutathione? Glu

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2-Hydroxyhippuric

2-Hydroxyhippuric acid is a conjugate of hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid) and glycine.

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2-Hydroxyhippuric (Females Under Age 13)

2-Hydroxyhippuric acid is a conjugate of hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid) and glycine.

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2-Hydroxyhippuric (Males Age 13 and Over)

2-Hydroxyhippuric acid is a conjugate of hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid) and glycine.

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2-Hydroxyhippuric (Males Under Age 13)

2-Hydroxyhippuric acid is a conjugate of hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid) and glycine.

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2-Hydroxyisocaproic

2-Hydroxyisocaproic acid (aka Leucic acid / α-hydroxyisocaproic acid / HICA) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine.

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2-Hydroxyisocaproic (Males Age 13 and Over)

2-Hydroxyisocaproic acid (aka Leucic acid / α-hydroxyisocaproic acid / HICA) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine.

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2-Hydroxyisocaproic (Males Under Age 13)

2-Hydroxyisovaleric

2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid (aka 2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid) is a branched-chain amino acid metabolite.

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2-Hydroxyisovaleric (Males Age 13 and Over)

2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid (aka 2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid) is a branched-chain amino acid metabolite.

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2-Hydroxyisovaleric (Males Under Age 13)

2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid (aka 2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid) is a branched-chain amino acid metabolite.

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2-Hydroxyphenylacetic

The metabolite of phenylalanine via phenyl pyruvate.

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2-Hydroxyphenylacetic (Males Age 13 and Over)

The metabolite of phenylalanine via phenyl pyruvate.

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2-Hydroxyphenylacetic (Males Under Age 13)

The metabolite of phenylalanine via phenyl pyruvate.

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2-Oxo-4-methiolbutyric

2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid, also known as 4-(methylsulfanyl)-2-oxobutanoate or 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thia fatty acids. Thia substituted fatty acids are saturated 

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2-Oxo-4-methiolbutyric (Males Age 13 and Over)

2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid, also known as 4-(methylsulfanyl)-2-oxobutanoate or 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thia fatty acids. Thia substituted fatty acids are saturated 

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2-Oxo-4-methiolbutyric (Males Under Age 13)

2-Oxoglutaric

2-Oxoglutaric acid is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids. It is formed in the Krebs cycle, the energy-producing process that occurs in most body cells.

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2-Oxoglutaric (Males Age 13 and Over)

2-Oxoglutaric acid is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids. It is formed in the Krebs cycle, the energy-producing process that occurs in most body cells.

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2-Oxoglutaric (Males Under Age 13)

2-Oxoisocaproic

2-Oxoisocaproic acid (also known as Ketoleucine) is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids. 2-Oxoisocaproic acid is both a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin.

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2-Oxoisocaproic (Males Age 13 and Over)

2-Oxoisocaproic acid (also known as Ketoleucine) is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids. 2-Oxoisocaproic acid is both a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin.

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2-Oxoisocaproic (Males Under Age 13)

2-Oxoisovaleric

2-Oxoisovaleric acid is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids (=BCAA). 2-Oxoisovaleric acid is a neurotoxin, an acidogen, and a metabotoxin. 

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2-Oxoisovaleric (Males Age 13 and Over)

2-Oxoisovaleric acid is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids (=BCAA). 2-Oxoisovaleric acid is a neurotoxin, an acidogen, and a metabotoxin. 

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2-Oxoisovaleric (Males Under Age 13)

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric (HMG)

- A precursor in the production of cholesterol in both humans and yeast. - Elevated levels may also indicate decreased CoQ10 synthesis. - Moderate increases are probably due to yeast overgrowth of the GI tract and might also implicate yeast ove

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3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric (Males Age 13 and Over)

- A precursor in the production of cholesterol in both humans and yeast. - Elevated levels may also indicate decreased CoQ10 synthesis. - Moderate increases are probably due to yeast overgrowth of the GI tract and might also implicate yeast ove

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3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric (Males Under Age 13)

3-Hydroxybutyric

3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a typical partial-degradation product of branched-chain amino acids (primarily valine) released from muscle for hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis. This acid is metabolized by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. The enzyme f

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3-Hydroxybutyric (Males Age 13 and Over)

3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a typical partial-degradation product of branched-chain amino acids (primarily valine) released from muscle for hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis. This acid is metabolized by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. The enzyme f

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3-Hydroxybutyric (Males Under Age 13)

3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a typical partial-degradation product of branched-chain amino acids (primarily valine) released from muscle for hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis. This acid is metabolized by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. The enzyme f

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3-Hydroxyglutaric

3-Hydroxyglutaric is a marker for glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

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3-Hydroxyglutaric (Males Age 13 and Over)

3-Hydroxyglutaric is a marker for glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

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3-Hydroxyglutaric (Males Under Age 13)

3-Indoleacetic

3-Indoleacetic is a Tryptophan byproduct of Clostria: C. stricklandii, C. litusburense, C. subterminale, and C. putrefaciens.

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3-Indoleacetic (Males Age 13 and Over)

3-Indoleacetic is a Tryptophan byproduct of Clostria: C. stricklandii, C. litusburense, C. subterminale, and C. putrefaciens.

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3-Indoleacetic (Males Under Age 13)

3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric

3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids.  Moderate increase may result from lactic acidosis, episodic ketosis, or thiamine/lipoic acid deficiency. Significan

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3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric (Males Age 13 and Over)

3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids.  Moderate increase may result from lactic acidosis, episodic ketosis, or thiamine/lipoic acid deficiency. Significan

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3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric (Males Under Age 13)

3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids.  Moderate increase may result from lactic acidosis, episodic ketosis, or thiamine/lipoic acid deficiency. Significan

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3-Methylglutaconic

The marker, 3-methylglutaconic acid in high values indicates a reduced ability to metabolize the amino acid, leucine. This abnormality is found in the genetic disease, methylglutaconic aciduria and in mitochondrial disorders.

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3-Methylglutaconic (Males Age 13 and Over)

The marker, 3-methylglutaconic acid in high values indicates a reduced ability to metabolize the amino acid, leucine. This abnormality is found in the genetic disease, methylglutaconic aciduria and in mitochondrial disorders.

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3-Methylglutaconic (Males Under Age 13)

3-Methylglutaric

3-methylglutaric acid is an organic acid classically associated with two distinct leucine pathway enzyme deficiencies.

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3-Methylglutaric (Females Under Age 13)

3-methylglutaric acid is an organic acid classically associated with two distinct leucine pathway enzyme deficiencies.

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3-Methylglutaric (Males Age 13 and Over)

3-methylglutaric acid is an organic acid classically associated with two distinct leucine pathway enzyme deficiencies.

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3-Methylglutaric (Males Under Age 13)

3-methylglutaric acid is an organic acid classically associated with two distinct leucine pathway enzyme deficiencies.

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3-Oxoglutaric

3-Oxoglutaric indicates yeast overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. 

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3-Oxoglutaric (Males Age 13 and Over)

3-Oxoglutaric indicates yeast overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. 

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3-Oxoglutaric (Males Under Age 13)

3-Oxoglutaric indicates yeast overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. 

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4-Cresol

4-Cresol has been used as a specific marker for Clostridium difficile.

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4-Cresol (Males Age 13 and Over)

4-Cresol has been used as a specific marker for Clostridium difficile.

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4-Cresol (Males Under Age 13)

4-Hydroxybenzoic

4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid is a marker for intestinal dysbiosis.

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4-Hydroxybenzoic (Males Age 13 and Over)

4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid is a marker for intestinal dysbiosis.

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4-Hydroxybenzoic (Males Under Age 13)

4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid is a marker for intestinal dysbiosis.

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4-Hydroxybutyric

A moderate urinary increase in 4-hydroxybutyric acid may be due to intake of dietary supplements containing 4-hydroxybutyric acid, also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Very high levels may indicate the genetic disorder 3-methylglutaconic aciduria

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4-Hydroxybutyric (Females Under Age 13)

A moderate urinary increase in 4-hydroxybutyric acid may be due to intake of dietary supplements containing 4-hydroxybutyric acid, also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Very high levels may indicate the genetic disorder 3-methylglutaconic aciduria

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4-Hydroxybutyric (Males Age 13 and Over)

A moderate urinary increase in 4-hydroxybutyric acid may be due to intake of dietary supplements containing 4-hydroxybutyric acid, also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Very high levels may indicate the genetic disorder 3-methylglutaconic aciduria

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4-Hydroxybutyric (Males Under Age 13)

A moderate urinary increase in 4-hydroxybutyric acid may be due to intake of dietary supplements containing 4-hydroxybutyric acid, also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Very high levels may indicate the genetic disorder 3-methylglutaconic aciduria

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4-Hydroxyhippuric

4-Hydroxyhippuric is a glycine conjugate of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the paraben metabolite.

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4-Hydroxyhippuric (Males Age 13 and Over)

4-Hydroxyhippuric is a glycine conjugate of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the paraben metabolite.

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4-Hydroxyhippuric (Males Under Age 13)

4-Hydroxyphenylacetic

A tyrosine metabolic product of GI bacteria.

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4-Hydroxyphenylacetic (Females Under Age 13)

A tyrosine metabolic product of GI bacteria.

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4-Hydroxyphenylacetic (Males Age 13 and Over)

A tyrosine metabolic product of GI bacteria.

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4-Hydroxyphenylacetic (Males Under Age 13)

A tyrosine metabolic product of GI bacteria.

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4-Hydroxyphenyllactic

4-hydroxyphenyllactate is present in relatively higher concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and urine of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and tyrosinemia.

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4-Hydroxyphenyllactic (Males Age 13 and Over)

4-hydroxyphenyllactate is present in relatively higher concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and urine of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and tyrosinemia.

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4-Hydroxyphenyllactic (Males Under Age 13)

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA)

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels

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5-Hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) (Males Age 13 and Over)

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels

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5-Hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) (Males Under Age 13)

5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furoic

A metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract.

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5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furoic (Males Age 13 and Over)

A metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract.

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5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furoic (Males Under Age 13)

A metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract. Prescription or natural antifungals, along with high-potency, multi-strain probiotics, may reduce overgrowth levels.

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Acetoacetic

Acetoacetic acid (=acetoacetate) is a ketone body and a weak Beta-keto acid produced from acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes.

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Acetoacetic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Acetoacetic acid (=acetoacetate) is a ketone body and a weak Beta-keto acid produced from acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes.

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Acetoacetic (Males Under Age 13)

Acetoacetic acid (=acetoacetate) is a ketone body and a weak Beta-keto acid produced from acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes.

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Aconitic

Elevated in mitochrondrial disorders. Aconitase metabolizes citric and aconitic acids, and is dependent on glutathione.

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Aconitic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Elevated in mitochrondrial disorders. Aconitase metabolizes citric and aconitic acids, and is dependent on glutathione.

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Aconitic (Males Under Age 13)

Elevated in mitochrondrial disorders. Aconitase metabolizes citric and aconitic acids, and is dependent on glutathione.

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Adipic

Adipic Acid, together with Suberate and Ethylmalonate are all functional markers for deficiency of carnitine.

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Adipic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Adipic Acid, together with Suberate and Ethylmalonate are all functional markers for deficiency of carnitine.

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Adipic (Males Under Age 13)

Adipic Acid, together with Suberate and Ethylmalonate are all functional markers for deficiency of carnitine.

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Arabinose

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in certain foods.

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Arabinose (Females Under Age 13)

Produced by action of Candida hyaluronidase on the intercellular cement, hyaluronic acid. Oxidation of the hyaluronic acid breakdown by white blood cell hypochlorite produces tartaric acid and arabinose. Antifungal treatment and high-potency, multi-s

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Arabinose (Males Age 13 and Over)

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in certain foods.

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Arabinose (Males Under Age 13)

Produced by action of Candida hyaluronidase on the intercellular cement, hyaluronic acid. Oxidation of the hyaluronic acid breakdown by white blood cell hypochlorite produces tartaric acid and arabinose. Antifungal treatment and high-potency, multi-s

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Ascorbic

Ascorbic Acid is a natural water-soluble vitamin (Vitamin C). Ascorbic acid is a potent reducing and antioxidant agent that functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen in fibro

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Ascorbic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Ascorbic Acid is a natural water-soluble vitamin (Vitamin C). Ascorbic acid is a potent reducing and antioxidant agent that functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen in fibro

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Ascorbic (Males Under Age 13)

Ascorbic Acid is a natural water-soluble vitamin (Vitamin C). Ascorbic acid is a potent reducing and antioxidant agent that functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen in fibro

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Carboxycitric

Carboxycitric is a metabolite of yeast/fungi and general indicator of gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Elevated yeast/fungal metabolites indicate overgrowth in the GI tract.

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Carboxycitric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Carboxycitric is a metabolite of yeast/fungi and general indicator of gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Elevated yeast/fungal metabolites indicate overgrowth in the GI tract.

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Carboxycitric (Males Under Age 13)

Citramalic

Metabolite of yeast or anaerobic bacteria, including Clostridia.

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Citramalic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Metabolite of yeast or anaerobic bacteria, including Clostridia.

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Citramalic (Males Under Age 13)

Citric

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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Citric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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Citric (Males Under Age 13)

DHPPA (Beneficial Bacteria)

Produced when Clostridia acts upon unabsorbed tryptophan, tyrosine or phenylalanine.

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DHPPA (Beneficial Bacteria) (Males Age 13 and Over)

Produced when Clostridia acts upon unabsorbed tryptophan, tyrosine or phenylalanine.

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DHPPA (Beneficial Bacteria) (Males Under Age 13)

Dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC)

HVA and DOPAC are the major metabolites of dopamine.

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Dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC) (Females Under Age 13)

HVA and DOPAC are the major metabolites of dopamine.

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Dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC) (Males Age 13 and Over)

HVA and DOPAC are the major metabolites of dopamine.

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Dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC) (Males Under Age 13)

HVA and DOPAC are the major metabolites of dopamine.

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Ethylmalonic

Ethylmalonate, together with Adipate and Suberate, gives information about your ability to process fatty acids.

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Ethylmalonic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Ethylmalonic (Males Under Age 13)

Fumaric

Fumarate (together with Succinate and Malate) is used in the body’s metabolic pathway that generates cellular energy – the Citric Acid Cycle.

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Fumaric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Fumarate (together with Succinate and Malate) is used in the body’s metabolic pathway that generates cellular energy – the Citric Acid Cycle.

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Fumaric (Males Under Age 13)

Furan-2,5-dicarboxylic

Furan 2,5-dicarboxylic is a byproduct of Aspergillus and other fungal species.

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Furan-2,5-dicarboxylic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Furan 2,5-dicarboxylic is a byproduct of Aspergillus and other fungal species.

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Furan-2,5-dicarboxylic (Males Under Age 13)

Furancarbonylglycine

Furancarbonylglycine is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract.

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Furancarbonylglycine (Females Under Age 13)

A metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract. Prescription or natural antifungals, along with high-potency, multi-strain probiotics, may reduce overgrowth.

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Furancarbonylglycine (Males Age 13 and Over)

Furancarbonylglycine is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract.

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Furancarbonylglycine (Males Under Age 13)

A metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract. Prescription or natural antifungals, along with high-potency, multi-strain probiotics, may reduce overgrowth.

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Glutaric

Glutaric acid is made from lysine & tryptophan via alphaketo-adipic acid. - Elevated in the genetic diseases glutaric academia types I and II. - Moderate increases may be due to deficiencies in riboflavin and coenzyme Q10, or celiac disease.

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Glutaric (Females Under Age 13)

Glutaric acid is made from lysine & tryptophan via alphaketo-adipic acid. - Elevated in the genetic diseases glutaric academia types I and II. - Moderate increases may be due to deficiencies in riboflavin and coenzyme Q10, or celiac disease.

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Glutaric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Glutaric acid is made from lysine & tryptophan via alphaketo-adipic acid. - Elevated in the genetic diseases glutaric academia types I and II. - Moderate increases may be due to deficiencies in riboflavin and coenzyme Q10, or celiac disease.

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Glutaric (Males Under Age 13)

Glutaric acid is made from lysine & tryptophan via alphaketo-adipic acid. - Elevated in the genetic diseases glutaric academia types I and II. - Moderate increases may be due to deficiencies in riboflavin and coenzyme Q10, or celiac disease.

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Glyceric

Normal values rule out genetic causes of significantly elevated urinary oxalic acid.

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Glyceric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Normal values rule out genetic causes of significantly elevated urinary oxalic acid.

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Glyceric (Males Under Age 13)

Normal values rule out genetic causes of significantly elevated urinary oxalic acid.

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Glycolic

Indicator of genetic disease of oxalate metabolism called Hyperoxaluria type I due to a deficiency in the enzyme activity of alanine glyoxylate amino transferase (AGT).

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Glycolic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Indicator of genetic disease of oxalate metabolism called Hyperoxaluria type I due to a deficiency in the enzyme activity of alanine glyoxylate amino transferase (AGT).

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Glycolic (Males Under Age 13)

Hippuric

Hippuric acid is a conjugate (=a compound formed by the joining of two or more compounds) of glycine and benzoic acid formed in the liver. Most hippuric acid in urine is derived from microbial breakdown of chlorogenic acid to benzoic aci

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Hippuric (Females Under Age 13)

Hippuric acid is a conjugate (=a compound formed by the joining of two or more compounds) of glycine and benzoic acid formed in the liver. Most hippuric acid in urine is derived from microbial breakdown of chlorogenic acid to benzoic aci

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Hippuric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Hippuric acid is a conjugate (=a compound formed by the joining of two or more compounds) of glycine and benzoic acid formed in the liver. Most hippuric acid in urine is derived from microbial breakdown of chlorogenic acid to benzoic aci

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Hippuric (Males Under Age 13)

Homogentisic

Homogentisic acid is a breakdown product of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic Acid (4-HPPA).  Elevated in the genetic disease homogentisic aciduria (alkaptonuria).

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Homogentisic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Homogentisic acid is a breakdown product of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic Acid (4-HPPA).  Elevated in the genetic disease homogentisic aciduria (alkaptonuria).

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Homogentisic (Males Under Age 13)

Homovanillic (HVA)

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite. Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Homovanillic (HVA) (Males Age 13 and Over)

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite. Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Homovanillic (HVA) (Males Under Age 13)

HPHPA

HPHPA is a clostridia metabolite and dysbiosis marker and stands for 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid.

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HPHPA (Males Age 13 and Over)

HPHPA is a clostridia metabolite and dysbiosis marker and stands for 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid.

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HPHPA (Males Under Age 13)

HVA / VMA Ratio

The Organic Acids Test measures levels of HVA (homovanillic acid) and VMA (vanillylmandelic acid), the metabolites of the neurotransmitters, dopamine and epinephrine/norepinephrine. It also measures the ratio of the two metabolites.

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HVA / VMA Ratio (Males Age 13 and Over)

The Organic Acids Test measures levels of HVA (homovanillic acid) and VMA (vanillylmandelic acid), the metabolites of the neurotransmitters, dopamine and epinephrine/norepinephrine. It also measures the ratio of the two metabolites.

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HVA / VMA Ratio (Males Under Age 13)

HVA/ DOPAC Ratio

HVA and DOPAC are the major metabolites of dopamine. HVA stands for Homovanillic acid and DOPAC stands for Dihydroxyphenylacetic.

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HVA/ DOPAC Ratio (Males Age 13 and Over)

HVA and DOPAC are the major metabolites of dopamine. HVA stands for Homovanillic acid and DOPAC stands for Dihydroxyphenylacetic.

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HVA/ DOPAC Ratio (Males Under Age 13)

Kynurenic

Kynurenic Acid is product of the metabolism of L-Tryptophan and appears in urine in Vitamin B6 deficiencies. Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein.

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Kynurenic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Kynurenic Acid is product of the metabolism of L-Tryptophan and appears in urine in Vitamin B6 deficiencies. Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein.

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Kynurenic (Males Under Age 13)

Lactic

Formed from pyruvate in anaerobic or oxygen-starved (hypoxic) conditions to allow for ongoing production of ATP.

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Lactic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Formed from pyruvate in anaerobic or oxygen-starved (hypoxic) conditions to allow for ongoing production of ATP.

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Lactic (Males Under Age 13)

Formed from pyruvate in anaerobic or oxygen-starved (hypoxic) conditions to allow for ongoing production of ATP.

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Malic

Malic Acid is involved in the citric acid cycle (aka. Krebs cycle). The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that occur in the mitochondrion to generate chemical energy that fuels the metabolism.

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Malic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Malic Acid is involved in the citric acid cycle (aka. Krebs cycle). The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that occur in the mitochondrion to generate chemical energy that fuels the metabolism.

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Malic (Males Under Age 13)

Malic Acid is involved in the citric acid cycle (aka. Krebs cycle). The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that occur in the mitochondrion to generate chemical energy that fuels the metabolism.

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Malonic

Malonic acid is found to be associated with malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, which is an inborn error of metabolism. The name “Malonic” originates from Latin malum, meaning apple. Malonic acid is the archetypal example of a competiti

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Malonic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Malonic acid is found to be associated with malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, which is an inborn error of metabolism. The name “Malonic” originates from Latin malum, meaning apple. Malonic acid is the archetypal example of a competiti

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Malonic (Males Under Age 13)

Mandelic

Mandelic acid is the major metabolite of styrene. Styrene (vinylbenzene) is used as an intermediate in plastic synthesis. Values less than 5 mg/L are due to normal metabolism of phenylalanine or tyrosine.

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Mandelic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Mandelic acid is the major metabolite of styrene. Styrene (vinylbenzene) is used as an intermediate in plastic synthesis. Values less than 5 mg/L are due to normal metabolism of phenylalanine or tyrosine.

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Mandelic (Males Under Age 13)

Methylcitric

Methylcitric is an organic acids that reflects decreased activity of the biotin-dependent enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase.

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Methylcitric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Methylcitric is an organic acids that reflects decreased activity of the biotin-dependent enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase.

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Methylcitric (Males Under Age 13)

Methylmalonic

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a substance produced in very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production.

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Methylmalonic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a substance produced in very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production.

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Methylmalonic (Males Under Age 13)

Methylsuccinic

Methylsuccinic acid is a normal metabolite found in human fluids and is an intermediate metabolite in the breakdown of fatty acids.

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Methylsuccinic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Methylsuccinic acid is a normal metabolite found in human fluids and is an intermediate metabolite in the breakdown of fatty acids.

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Methylsuccinic (Males Under Age 13)

Methylsuccinic acid is a normal metabolite found in human fluids and is an intermediate metabolite in the breakdown of fatty acids.

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N-Acetylaspartic

Elevated N-acetylaspartic acid is due to the genetic disorder Carnavan’s disease, a potentially fatal disease causing spongy degeneration of the brain.  What is Carnavan’s disease? Canavan disease is a rare inherited disorder t

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N-Acetylaspartic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Elevated N-acetylaspartic acid is due to the genetic disorder Carnavan’s disease, a potentially fatal disease causing spongy degeneration of the brain.  What is Carnavan’s disease? Canavan disease is a rare inherited disorder t

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N-Acetylaspartic (Males Under Age 13)

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a powerful antioxidant that increases the glutathione reserves in the body.  Together with glutathione, N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) directly binds to toxic metabolites. Although N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) may be benefici

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N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) (Males Age 13 and Over)

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a powerful antioxidant that increases the glutathione reserves in the body.  Together with glutathione, N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) directly binds to toxic metabolites. Although N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) may be benefici

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N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) (Males Under Age 13)

Orotic

Orotic Acid is a sensitive marker of your liver’s capacity to convert toxic ammonia to non-toxic urea that you can excrete. That capacity can be increased by additional arginine. Ammonia toxicity can also be reduced by

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Orotic (Females Under Age 13)

Orotic Acid is a sensitive marker of your liver’s capacity to convert toxic ammonia to non-toxic urea that you can excrete. That capacity can be increased by additional arginine. Ammonia toxicity can also be reduced by

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Orotic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Orotic Acid is a sensitive marker of your liver’s capacity to convert toxic ammonia to non-toxic urea that you can excrete. That capacity can be increased by additional arginine. Ammonia toxicity can also be reduced by

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Orotic (Males Under Age 13)

Oxalic

Oxalic acid may be associated with dysbiosis from Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida, or high dose vitamin C. If yeast or fungal markers are elevated, antifungal therapy may reduces oxalates. Also associated with anti-freeze (ethylene glycol) poisonin

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Oxalic (Females Under Age 13)

Oxalic acid may be associated with dysbiosis from Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida, or high dose vitamin C. If yeast or fungal markers are elevated, antifungal therapy may reduces oxalates. Also associated with anti-freeze (ethylene glycol) poisonin

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Oxalic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Oxalic acid may be associated with dysbiosis from Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida, or high dose vitamin C. If yeast or fungal markers are elevated, antifungal therapy may reduces oxalates. Also associated with anti-freeze (ethylene glycol) poisonin

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Oxalic (Males Under Age 13)

Oxalic acid may be associated with dysbiosis from Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida, or high dose vitamin C. If yeast or fungal markers are elevated, antifungal therapy may reduces oxalates. Also associated with anti-freeze (ethylene glycol) poisonin

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Pantothenic (B5)

Pantothenic acid is an essential B vitamin (=Vitamin B5) that is converted to coenzyme A (unrelated to vitamin A). Coenzyme A is needed for the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and acetyl choline and is also needed for the Krebs cycle and fatty

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Pantothenic (B5) (Males Age 13 and Over)

Pantothenic acid is an essential B vitamin (=Vitamin B5) that is converted to coenzyme A (unrelated to vitamin A). Coenzyme A is needed for the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and acetyl choline and is also needed for the Krebs cycle and fatty

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Pantothenic (B5) (Males Under Age 13)

Pantothenic acid is an essential B vitamin (=Vitamin B5) that is converted to coenzyme A (unrelated to vitamin A). Coenzyme A is needed for the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and acetyl choline and is also needed for the Krebs cycle and fatty

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Phenyllactic

Phenyllactic acid is a metabolite of phenylalanine.

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Phenyllactic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Phenyllactic acid is a metabolite of phenylalanine.

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Phenyllactic (Males Under Age 13)

Phenylpyruvic

Phenylpyruvic acid is a keto-acid that is an intermediate or catabolic byproduct of phenylalanine metabolism. It has a slight honey-like odor. 

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Phenylpyruvic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Phenylpyruvic acid is a keto-acid that is an intermediate or catabolic byproduct of phenylalanine metabolism. It has a slight honey-like odor. 

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Phenylpyruvic (Males Under Age 13)

Phosphoric

Phosphoric acid is a marker of vitamin D and calcium. This marker indicates whether vitamin D receptors are activated. If phosphoric acid is low, then the person is likely vitamin D and/or calcium deficient. Low levels can be due to low phosphat

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Phosphoric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Phosphoric acid is a marker of vitamin D and calcium. This marker indicates whether vitamin D receptors are activated. If phosphoric acid is low, then the person is likely vitamin D and/or calcium deficient. Low levels can be due to low phosphat

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Phosphoric (Males Under Age 13)

Pyridoxic (B6)

A major metabolite of vitamin B6. High pyridoxic acid indicates high recent intake of vitamin B6. Because some individuals may require very high doses of vitamin B6, high values do not necessarily indicate the need to reduce vitamin B6 intake. Low va

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Pyridoxic (B6) (Males Age 13 and Over)

The main urinary metabolite of pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and is a measure of recent dietary intake. Low values of pyridoxic acid in the urine indicate low recent intake while high values indicate high recent dietary intake.

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Pyridoxic (B6) (Males Under Age 13)

Pyroglutamic

Pyroglutamate (or Pyroglutamic acid) is an intermediate in the glutathione metabolism and a marker of glutathione deficiency.

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Pyroglutamic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Pyroglutamate (or Pyroglutamic acid) is an intermediate in the glutathione metabolism and a marker of glutathione deficiency.

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Pyroglutamic (Males Under Age 13)

Pyruvic

Pyruvic Acid feeds into the citric acid cycle & converts into acetyl CoA. Pyruvate is formed from carbohydrate via glucose or glycogen & secondarily from fats (glycerol) & glycogenic amino acids.

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Pyruvic (Females Under Age 13)

Pyruvic Acid feeds into the citric acid cycle & converts into acetyl CoA. Pyruvate is formed from carbohydrate via glucose or glycogen & secondarily from fats (glycerol) & glycogenic amino acids.

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Pyruvic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Pyruvic Acid feeds into the citric acid cycle & converts into acetyl CoA. Pyruvate is formed from carbohydrate via glucose or glycogen & secondarily from fats (glycerol) & glycogenic amino acids.

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Pyruvic (Males Under Age 13)

Quinolinic

Quinolinic acid is a neurotoxic substance produced by our own bodies and a metabolite of tryptophan.

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Quinolinic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Quinolinic acid is a neurotoxic substance produced by our own bodies and a metabolite of tryptophan.

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Quinolinic (Males Under Age 13)

Quinolinic / 5-HIAA Ratio

A high ratio of quinolinic acid to the tryptophan metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, indicates excessive inflammation due to recurrent infections, excessive tryptophan intake, immune overstimulation, excessive adrenal production of cortisol, or

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Sebacic

Increased urinary products of the omega fatty acid metabolism pathway may be due to carnitine deficiency, fasting, or increased intake of triglycerides from coconut oil, or some infant formulas.

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Sebacic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Increased urinary products of the omega fatty acid metabolism pathway may be due to carnitine deficiency, fasting, or increased intake of triglycerides from coconut oil, or some infant formulas.

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Sebacic (Males Under Age 13)

Suberic

Suberic Acid, Adipate, and Ethylmalonate elevations can indicate that you may need additional carnitine and/or vitamin B2 to assist your cells in converting fats into energy efficiently.

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Suberic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Suberic Acid, Adipate, and Ethylmalonate elevations can indicate that you may need additional carnitine and/or vitamin B2 to assist your cells in converting fats into energy efficiently.

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Suberic (Males Under Age 13)

Suberic Acid, Adipate, and Ethylmalonate elevations can indicate that you may need additional carnitine and/or vitamin B2 to assist your cells in converting fats into energy efficiently.

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Succinic

Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body.

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Succinic (Females Under Age 13)

Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body.

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Succinic (Males Age 13 and Over)

Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body.

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Succinic (Males Under Age 13)

Tartaric

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in some foods.

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Tartaric (Males Age 13 and Over)

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in some foods.

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Tartaric (Males Under Age 13)

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in some foods.

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Thymine

A pyrimidine (DNA building block) that is elevated in the genetic disease dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. In this genetic disease, the pyrimidine uracil is also elevated. - Thymine is one of the five bases used to build nucleic acids.

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Thymine (Males Age 13 and Over)

A pyrimidine (DNA building block) that is elevated in the genetic disease dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. In this genetic disease, the pyrimidine uracil is also elevated. - Thymine is one of the five bases used to build nucleic acids.

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Thymine (Males Under Age 13)

Tricarballylic

A chemical byproduct released from fumonisins during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Fumonisins are fungal toxins produced primarily by F. verticillioides. Elevated levels can be caused by the intake of corn or corn-based food contaminate

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Tricarballylic (Females Under Age 13)

A chemical byproduct released from fumonisins during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Fumonisins are fungal toxins produced primarily by F. verticillioides. Elevated levels can be caused by the intake of corn or corn-based food contaminate

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Tricarballylic (Males Age 13 and Over)

A chemical byproduct released from fumonisins during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Fumonisins are fungal toxins produced primarily by F. verticillioides. Elevated levels can be caused by the intake of corn or corn-based food contaminate

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Tricarballylic (Males Under Age 13)

A chemical byproduct released from fumonisins during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Fumonisins are fungal toxins produced primarily by F. verticillioides. Elevated levels can be caused by the intake of corn or corn-based food contaminate

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Uracil

The pyrimidine metabolites are markers of folate metabolism. The two markers are uracil and thymine. Folate acts as a methyl donor in converting uracil to thymine. Elevated values of uracil suggest folic acid deficiency. Folate is needed to conver

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Uracil (Males Age 13 and Over)

The pyrimidine metabolites are markers of folate metabolism. The two markers are uracil and thymine. Folate acts as a methyl donor in converting uracil to thymine. Elevated values of uracil suggest folic acid deficiency. Folate is needed to conver

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Uracil (Males Under Age 13)

Vanillylmandelic (VMA)

Metabolite of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Often elevated due to stress induced catecholamine output or lead toxicity.

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Vanillylmandelic (VMA) (Males Age 13 and Over)

Metabolite of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Often elevated due to stress induced catecholamine output or lead toxicity.

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Vanillylmandelic (VMA) (Males Under Age 13)