Optimal Result: 0 - 2 mmol/mol creatinine.

Mandelic acid is the major metabolite of styrene. Styrene (vinylbenzene) is used as an intermediate in plastic synthesis. Values less than 5 mg/L are due to normal metabolism of phenylalanine or tyrosine.

High concentrations of styrene cause:

- central nervous system depression,

- nausea,

- headache,

- fatigue,

- and liver damage.

When exposed to 100 ppm of styrene in air, mandelic acid in urine was found to average 1700 mmol/mol creatinine. Mandelic acid is also a metabolite of ethylbenzene, and some antispasmodic and vasodilator drugs. High values of mandelic acid also occur in phenylketonuria (PKU). Normal values of phenyllactic and phenylpyruvic acids may rule out PKU; a mild or heterozygous form of PKU might be present.

Measuring serum phenylalanine will rule out PKU.

Other causes may be increased dietary phenylalanine or phenylalanine supplements. Normal phenyllactic and phenylpyruvic acids indicate that styrene or drug exposure is more likely than PKU as a cause of these abnormalities. Dopamine metabolism is a target for the neurotoxic effects of some monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their metabolites.

How to reduce exposure to styrene:

Reduce exposure by eliminating plastic and styrofoam containers for cooking, reheating, eating or drinking (especially warm or hot) food or beverages. Replace these containers with glass, paper, or stainless steel whenever possible.

Elimination of styrene can be accelerated by sauna treatment, reduced glutathione supplementation (oral, intravenous, transdermal, precursors such as N-acetyl cysteine [NAC]).

Ascorbic acid deficiency may also be related to this abnormality since ascorbic acid is a cofactor for phenylalanine hydroxylase. Supplementation with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) at 1000 mg/day or more may be beneficial.



What does it mean if your Mandelic (Males Age 13 and Over) result is too high?

- Significant elevation is found in the genetic disorder, phenylketonuria (PKU). A plasma phenylalanine test will rule out PKU.

- Slight elevations by dietary phenylalanine or phenylalanine supplementation, but also due to exposure to styrene, a toxic environmental compound.

10 000+ happy clients
100% satisfaction
★★★★★ customer support

Understand blood, stool, and urine medical results from your labs.

Get 10% off your plan.

Use promocode

Advanced Plan personal plan

  • Yearly subscription
  • Instant interpretation
  • We upload five reports for you
  • Use the free self-upload form
  • 2500+ biomarkers explained
  • Nutrition Recommendations
  • Online support
  • Cancel anytime

Own It For Life premium personal plan

  • No subscription
  • Unlimited access
  • Unlimited storage
  • Instant interpretations
  • We upload ten reports for you
  • Use the free self-upload form
  • 2500+ biomarkers explained
  • Nutrition Recommendations
  • Dedicated support

Pro Plan for health professionals

  • Track multiple clients results
  • No setup fees
  • No hidden costs
  • Cancel anytime
  • Instant interpretations
  • Use the free template forms
  • 2500+ biomarkers explained
  • Additional team member $25
  • Personal training and support

Healthmatters.io software for professional use.

Welcome to Healthmatters Pro.

Save time on interpreting lab results with the largest database of biomarkers online. In-depth research on any test at your fingertips, all stored and tracked in one place.

Learn More

We implement proven measures to keep your data safe.

At HealthMatters, we're committed to maintaining the security and confidentiality of your personal information. We've put industry-leading security standards in place to help protect against the loss, misuse, or alteration of the information under our control. We use procedural, physical, and electronic security methods designed to prevent unauthorized people from getting access to this information. Our internal code of conduct adds additional privacy protection. All data is backed up multiple times a day and encrypted using SSL certificates. See our Privacy Policy for more details.

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). HIPAA compliance for healthcare professionals

Understand Your Lab Result Now

  • Instant interpretation
  • 2500+ biomarkers explained
  • Science-based recommendations
  • Online support
  • Secure and private portal

Get 10% off with promocode: