Cytokine Panel 13, Serum

Primarily for research and to support attempts to understand the pathogenesis of immune, infectious, allergic, or inflammatory disorders.

Interferon Gamma, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 4.2 pg/mL

IFN-γ is a helper T-cell 1 (Th1)-derived cytokine and plays a critical role for both innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections and tumor control.

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Interleukin 1 Beta, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 6.5 pg/mL

Interleukin-1-beta, one form of interleukin-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections. It also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. The other form of interleukin-1, interleukin-1-alpha, acts the same as interleukin-1-beta.

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Interleukin 10, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 2.8 pg/mL

Interleukin-10 is an important suppressor of immune responses. 

In vitro studies indicate that Interleukin-10 directly inhibits IL-2 and IL-5 production by TH1 and TH2 cells. Interleukin-10 acts as an immunosuppressor of antigen presenting cells (APC). Interleukin-10 suppresses epidermal Langerhans cell APC function, monocyte chemokines expression, and the bactericidal responses of macrophages. A number of studies suggest that IL-10 plays a role in controlling inflammation, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis.

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Interleukin 12, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 1.9 pg/mL

This family of cytokines plays crucial roles in shaping immune responses during antigen presentation and influence cell-fate decisions of differentiating naïve T cells. They also play essential roles in regulating functions of a variety of effector cells, making IL-12 family cytokines important therapeutic targets or agents in a number of inflammatory diseases, such as the CNS autoimmune diseases, uveitis and multiple sclerosis.

One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. Interleukin-12 is made mainly by B lymphocytes and macrophages. It causes other immune cells to make cytokines and increases the growth of T lymphocytes. It may also block the growth of new blood vessels. Interleukin-12 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. Interleukin-12 is a type of cytokine. Also called IL-12.

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Interleukin 13, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 2.3 pg/mL

Interleukin 13 is a mediator of allergic inflammation and different diseases including asthma.

IL-13 is implicated in numerous processes, including a) recruitment of eosinophils and M2 macrophages to the lung, b) induction of mucus secretion into the airways and goblet cell metaplasia, c) proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and d) fibrosis via fibroblast activation and subsequent collagen deposition. 

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Interleukin 17, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 1.4 pg/mL

IL-17A, commonly referred to as IL-17, is involved in normal physiological processes and is also a leading pathogenic cytokine in a wide range of pathologic conditions, including cancer and autoimmune disorders, due to its strong proinflammatory effects. Besides IL-17A, there are five other members structurally related to IL-17A in the IL-17 family, which are IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E (IL-25), and IL-17F.

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Interleukin 2 Receptor, Soluble, Serum

Optimal range: 175.3 - 858.2 pg/mL

Soluble Interleukin 2 receptor concentration reflects the immune activation in autoimmune diseases, neoplasms (notably lymphoproliferations), and infections.

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Interleukin 2, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 2.1 pg/mL

Interleukin 2 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen- activated T lymphocytes.

Interleukin 2 plays a role in promoting the clonal expansion of antigen-specific cytotoxic and suppressor T cells. In vitro studies suggest that Interleukin 2 may also be produced by dendritic cells and certain lymphoma cell lines. 

In addition, Interleukin 2 has been shown to mediate multiple immune responses on a variety of cell types.

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Interleukin 4, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 2.2 pg/mL

Interleukin 4 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, NK-T cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils. 

Interleukin 4 has multiple immune response modulation functions on a variety of cell types. It is an important regulator of isotype switching, inducing IgE production in B lymphocytes. It is an important modulator of the differentiation of precursor T helper cells to the TH2 subset that mediates humoral immunity and modulates antibody production. In addition, Interleukin 4 has also been shown to have antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro.

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Interleukin 5, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 2.1 pg/mL

Interleukin 5 plays a critical role in the host immune response to helminthic infections and has been implicated in the pathology of certain allergic diseases, asthma, and vasculitis. 

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Interleukin 6, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 2 pg/mL

Interleukin-6 is involved in inflammation and infection responses and also in the regulation of metabolicregenerative, and neural processes.

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Interleukin 8, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 3 pg/mL

Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a promising marker for many clinical conditions and currently being applied by various subspecialties of medicine either for the purpose of rapid diagnosis or as a predictor of prognosis. Nevertheless, IL-8 level increased as a result of many inflammatory conditions, so careful interpretation of IL-8 level is required to make correlation with desired clinical condition's diagnosis or prognosis.

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Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 7.2 pg/mL

Results are used to understand the pathophysiology of immune, infectious, or inflammatory disorders, or may be used for research purposes.

Tumor necrosis factor-α (cachectin) and tumor necrosis factor-β (lymphotoxin) are two closely related proteins that share sequence homology of 34% in their amino acid sequence. Both mediators act on their target cells via the same receptors and, therefore, show similar, but not identical, biological effects. Under denaturing conditions TNF-α is a 17-kilodalton, nonglycosylated protein. The biologically active form of TNF-α is a trimer. Besides this soluble form of TNF-α, a 28-kilodalton membrane-bound form occurs on cell surfaces of TNF-producing cells, which may serve as a pool for soluble TNF-α and can be proteolytically cleaved from the cell surface.

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