Genova: Complete Hormones (24hr)

11-Hydroxy-androsterone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 1.3 - 4.1 micromol/24 hr

11-Hydroxy-etiocholanolone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.5 - 2.6 micromol/24 hr

11-Keto-androsterone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.9 micromol/24 hr

11-Keto-etiocholanolone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.6 micromol/24 hr

17-Hydroxysteroids, Total (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 micromol/24 hr

17-Ketosteroids, Total (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 6 - 22.2 micromol/24 hr

There is evidence that methoxylated estrogens, especially the 2-pathway methoxylated estrogens (E1 and E2), are associated with decreased breast cancer risk; 2-MeOE2, produced from 2-OHE2, has been described to have anti-proliferative, antingiogenic, and pro-apoptotic activity in multiple types of cancer.


Research focus is shifting toward 4-hydroxyesterone which is thought to have greater estrogenic and genotoxic potential than either 2-hydroxyestrone or 16a-hydroxyestrone.


Most recent studies find an increased breast cancer risk associated with the ratio of 4-pathway cetechols to 4-pathway methylated catechols.


Androstanediol (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.25 micromol/24 hr

Androsterone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 5.5 micromol/24 hr

Androsterone and Etiocholanolone are DHEA metabolites via Androstenedione and the 5α- and 5β-reductase pathways.


DHEA (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 0.9 micromol/24 hr

DHEA is a hormone produced by both the adrenal gland and the brain. DHEA leads to the production of androgens and estrogens. DHEA levels in the body begin to decrease after age 30. Levels decrease more quickly in women.


E/A: 5b/5a Ratio (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.8 - 2.6 Ratio

The Etiocholanolone/Androsterone (E/A) Ratio assesses androgen metabolism by comparing the enzymatic activity of 5b-reductase/5a-reductase. Etiocholanolone is produced via the 5b-reductase pathway and androsterone is produced via the 5a-reductase pathway.


Estradiol (E2) - Premenopause (luteal)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 11.2 mcg/g Creat.

The most physiologically active estrogen. Binds to both to ER and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol, made in the ovary, rapidly converts to estrone. Poor symptom control with estrogen replacement may suggest the need for improving absorption or increasing estradiol.


Estriol (E3) - Premenopause (luteal)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 19.9 mcg/g Creat.

Estrone (E1) - Premenopause (luteal)

Optimal range: 2 - 26.2 mcg/g Creat.

Etiocholanolone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 1.2 - 6.1 micromol/24 hr

Etiocholanolone is an androstenedione and testosterone metabolite that is excreted in the urine. It is produced from androstenedione and the 5-alpha and 5-beta-reductase metabolic pathways. It is helpful in evaluating adrenal and androgen function.


Pregnanediol (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.3 - 4.2 micromol/24 hr

Progesterone rapidly metabolizes by the time it reaches the urine, and its direct metabolite, pregnanediol, is a reflection of circulating progesterone concentrations.


Pregnanetriol (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 2.5 micromol/24 hr

Testosterone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.16 - 0.65 micromol/24 hr

Tetrahydrocortisol, THF (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 micromol/24 hr

Tetrahydrocortisone, THE (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 micromol/24 hr