Genova: Complete Hormones (24hr)

11-Hydroxy-androsterone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 1.3 - 4.1 micromol/24 hr

11-Hydroxy-androsterone is a that is an end product of androgen catabolism.

In the Genova complete hormone test this marker is part of the "Total 17-ketosteroids" group.

Androgens are important hormones in the health of both men and women. Testosterone and DHEA are metabolized into what is collectively known as the 17-ketosteroids (DHEA is formally included as a 17-ketosteroid). Together, these markers provide a comprehensive assessment of androgen sufficiency, as well as evaluating the need for, and monitoring of, androgen hormone therapy.

LEARN MORE

11-Hydroxy-androsterone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 71 - 496 nmol/dL (SG)

11-Hydroxy-androsterone is a 5β-reduced compound that is an end product of androgen catabolism.

In the Genova complete hormone test this marker is part of the "Total 17-ketosteroids" group.

Androgens are important hormones in the health of both men and women. Testosterone and DHEA are metabolized into what is collectively known as the 17-ketosteroids (DHEA is formally included as a 17-ketosteroid). Together, these markers provide a comprehensive assessment of androgen sufficiency, as well as evaluating the need for, and monitoring of, androgen hormone therapy.

LEARN MORE

11-Hydroxy-etiocholanolone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.5 - 2.6 micromol/24 hr

11-Hydroxy-etiocholanolone is a compound that is an end product of androgen catabolism.

In the Genova complete hormone test this marker is part of the "Total 17-ketosteroids" group.

Androgens are important hormones in the health of both men and women. Testosterone and DHEA are metabolized into what is collectively known as the 17-ketosteroids (DHEA is formally included as a 17-ketosteroid). Together, these markers provide a comprehensive assessment of androgen sufficiency, as well as evaluating the need for, and monitoring of, androgen hormone therapy.

LEARN MORE

11-Hydroxy-etiocholanolone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 64 - 363 nmol/dL (SG)

11-Hydroxy-etiocholanolone is a compound that is an end product of androgen catabolism.

In the Genova complete hormone test this marker is part of the "Total 17-ketosteroids" group.

Androgens are important hormones in the health of both men and women. Testosterone and DHEA are metabolized into what is collectively known as the 17-ketosteroids (DHEA is formally included as a 17-ketosteroid). Together, these markers provide a comprehensive assessment of androgen sufficiency, as well as evaluating the need for, and monitoring of, androgen hormone therapy.

LEARN MORE

11-Keto-androsterone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.9 micromol/24 hr

11-Keto-androsterone is a that is an end product of androgen catabolism.

In the Genova complete hormone test this marker is part of the "Total 17-ketosteroids" group.

Androgens are important hormones in the health of both men and women. Testosterone and DHEA are metabolized into what is collectively known as the 17-ketosteroids (DHEA is formally included as a 17-ketosteroid). Together, these markers provide a comprehensive assessment of androgen sufficiency, as well as evaluating the need for, and monitoring of, androgen hormone therapy.

LEARN MORE

11-Keto-androsterone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 37 - 236 nmol/dL (SG)

11-Keto-androsterone is a that is an end product of androgen catabolism.

In the Genova complete hormone test this marker is part of the "Total 17-ketosteroids" group.

Androgens are important hormones in the health of both men and women. Testosterone and DHEA are metabolized into what is collectively known as the 17-ketosteroids (DHEA is formally included as a 17-ketosteroid). Together, these markers provide a comprehensive assessment of androgen sufficiency, as well as evaluating the need for, and monitoring of, androgen hormone therapy.

LEARN MORE

11-Keto-etiocholanolone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.6 micromol/24 hr

11-Keto-etiocholanolone is a compound that is an end product of androgen catabolism.

In the Genova complete hormone test this marker is part of the "Total 17-ketosteroids" group.

Androgens are important hormones in the health of both men and women. Testosterone and DHEA are metabolized into what is collectively known as the 17-ketosteroids (DHEA is formally included as a 17-ketosteroid). Together, these markers provide a comprehensive assessment of androgen sufficiency, as well as evaluating the need for, and monitoring of, androgen hormone therapy.

LEARN MORE

11-Keto-etiocholanolone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 57 - 315 nmol/dL (SG)

11-Keto-etiocholanolone is a 5β-reduced compound that is an end product of androgen catabolism.

In the Genova complete hormone test this marker is part of the "Total 17-ketosteroids" group.

Androgens are important hormones in the health of both men and women. Testosterone and DHEA are metabolized into what is collectively known as the 17-ketosteroids (DHEA is formally included as a 17-ketosteroid). Together, these markers provide a comprehensive assessment of androgen sufficiency, as well as evaluating the need for, and monitoring of, androgen hormone therapy.

LEARN MORE

11b-HSD Index (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Ratio

16a-Hydroxyestrone (16a-OH E1)

Optimal range: 0.5 - 8.9 mcg/g Creat.

16α-Hydroxyestrone (16α-OH-E1), or hydroxyestrone, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3,16α-diol-17-one, is an endogenous steroidal estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone, as well as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of estriol. It is a potent estrogen similarly to estrone, and it has been suggested that the ratio of 16α-hydroxyestrone to 2-OH-E1, the latter being much less estrogenic in comparison and even antiestrogenic in the presence of more potent estrogens like estradiol, may be involved in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Conversely, 16α-hydroxyestrone may help to protect against osteoporosis.

LEARN MORE

16a-Hydroxyestrone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.

17-Hydroxysteroids, Total

Optimal range: 859 - 9018 nmol/dL (SG)

An elevated 17-hydroxysteroids total and/or cortisol total may be caused by stress, strenuous exercise, inflammation, hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, hypothyroidism, or licorice ingestion.

LEARN MORE

17-Hydroxysteroids, Total (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 859 - 9018 micromol/24 hr

An elevated 17-hydroxysteroids total and/or cortisol total may be caused by stress, strenuous exercise, inflammation, hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, hypothyroidism, or licorice ingestion.

LEARN MORE

17-Ketosteroids Total (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 576 - 3142 nmol/dL (SG)

ANDROGENS such as DHEA, testosterone, and androstenedione tend to be extensively metabolized into downstream androgen compounds. As a result, the levels of testosterone along with “Total 17-ketosteroids” (DHEA plus metabolites) should be used to assess androgen status and/or efficacy of androgen replacement.

LEARN MORE

17-Ketosteroids, Total (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 6 - 22.2 micromol/24 hr

2-Hydroxyestrone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.

2-Methoxyestrone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.

2-OH(E1+E2) / 16a-OHE1

Optimal range: 0.3 - 13.7 Ratio

2-OH(E1+E2) / 2-MeO(E1+E2)

Optimal range: 1.6 - 10.7 Ratio

There is evidence that methoxylated estrogens, especially the 2-pathway methoxylated estrogens (E1 and E2), are associated with decreased breast cancer risk; 2-MeOE2, produced from 2-OHE2, has been described to have anti-proliferative, antingiogenic, and pro-apoptotic activity in multiple types of cancer.

LEARN MORE

4-Hydroxyestrone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.

4-Hydroxyestrone+4-Hydroxyestradiol [4-OH(E1+E2)]

Optimal range: 0 - 5.9 mcg/g Creat.

Research focus is shifting toward 4-hydroxyesterone which is thought to have greater estrogenic and genotoxic potential than either 2-hydroxyestrone or 16a-hydroxyestrone.

LEARN MORE

4-Methoxyestrone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.

4-Methoxyestrone+4-Methoxyestradiol [4MeO(E1+E2)]

Optimal range: 0 - 1 mcg/g Creat.

Most recent studies find an increased breast cancer risk associated with the ratio of 4-pathway cetechols to 4-pathway methylated catechols.

LEARN MORE

The Etiocholanolone/Androsterone (E/A) Ratio assesses androgen metabolism by comparing the enzymatic activity of 5β-reductase/5α-reductase.

LEARN MORE

allo-Tetrahydrocortisol, a-THF (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 micromol/24 hr

This marker is part of the "17-Hydroxysteroids" group. Please refer to the "17-Hydroxysteroids, Total" marker.

LEARN MORE

allo-Tetrahydrocortisol, a-THF (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 57 - 370 nmol/dL (SG)

This marker is part of the "17-Hydroxysteroids" group. Please refer to the "17-Hydroxysteroids, Total" marker.

LEARN MORE

Anabolic/Catabolic Balance (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.4 Ratio

This anabolic/catabolic balance – or the balance of ‘growth and healing’ versus ‘wear and tear’ in the body – can be assessed by comparing total 17-hydroxycorticosteroids with total 17-ketosteroids in the urine.

LEARN MORE

Anabolic/Catabolic Balance (FMV)

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.4 Ratio

The Anabolic/Catabolic Balance refers to the balance between "growth and healing" (anabolic) and "wear and tear" (catabolic) activity in the body. Both anabolic and catabolic metabolism are essential to health.

LEARN MORE

Androstanediol (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.25 micromol/24 hr

The measurement of androstanediol, in addition to testosterone, is of interest for the evaluation of androgenic activity.

LEARN MORE

Androstanediol (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 23 nmol/dL (SG)

The measurement of androstanediol, in addition to testosterone, is of interest for the evaluation of androgenic activity.

LEARN MORE

Androsterone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 5.5 micromol/24 hr

Androsterone and Etiocholanolone are DHEA metabolites via Androstenedione and the 5α- and 5β-reductase pathways.

LEARN MORE

Androsterone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 117 - 939 nmol/dL (SG)

Androsterone and Etiocholanolone are DHEA metabolites via Androstenedione and the 5α- and 5β-reductase pathways.

LEARN MORE

Cortisol, Free (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/dL

DHEA (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 0.9 micromol/24 hr

DHEA is a hormone produced by both the adrenal gland and the brain. DHEA leads to the production of androgens and estrogens. DHEA levels in the body begin to decrease after age 30. Levels decrease more quickly in women.

LEARN MORE

DHEA (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 11 - 76.3 nmol/dL (SG)

DHEA is a hormone produced by both the adrenal gland and the brain. DHEA leads to the production of androgens and estrogens. DHEA levels in the body begin to decrease after age 30. Levels decrease more quickly in women.

LEARN MORE

E/A: 5b/5a Ratio (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.8 - 2.6 Ratio

The Etiocholanolone/Androsterone (E/A) Ratio assesses androgen metabolism by comparing the enzymatic activity of 5b-reductase/5a-reductase. Etiocholanolone is produced via the 5b-reductase pathway and androsterone is produced via the 5a-reductase pathway.

LEARN MORE

E/A: 5b/5a Ratio (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0.34 - 1.76 Ratio

The Etiocholanolone/Androsterone (E/A) Ratio assesses androgen metabolism by comparing the enzymatic activity of 5β-reductase/5α-reductase.

LEARN MORE

Estradiol (E2) (24hr)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 11.2 mcg/g Creat.

The most physiologically active estrogen. Binds to both to ER and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol, made in the ovary, rapidly converts to estrone. Poor symptom control with estrogen replacement may suggest the need for improving absorption or increasing estradiol.

LEARN MORE

Estradiol (E2) - Premenopause (luteal)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 11.2 mcg/g Creat.

The most physiologically active estrogen. Binds to both to ER and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol, made in the ovary, rapidly converts to estrone. Poor symptom control with estrogen replacement may suggest the need for improving absorption or increasing estradiol.

LEARN MORE

Estradiol (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.

Estriol (E3) (24hr)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 19.9 mcg/g Creat.

Estriol (E3) is considered to be the mildest and briefest-acting of the three estrogens.

Estrogens play a critical role in female sexual development, menstrual function, protein synthesis, cardiovascular function, bone formation and remodeling, cognitive function, emotional balance and other important health factors.

LEARN MORE

Estriol (E3) - Premenopause (luteal)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 19.9 mcg/g Creat.

Estriol (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.

Estrone (E1) (24hr)

Optimal range: 2 - 26.2 mcg/g Creat.

Estrone is the predominant estrogen in post-menopausal women and inter-converts with estradiol. This conversion is dependant on the bidirectional activity of 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which also converts testosterone to androstenedione (an intermediate of androsterone, etiocholanolone, and estrone).

LEARN MORE

Estrone (E1) - Premenopause (luteal)

Optimal range: 2 - 26.2 mcg/g Creat.

Estrone is the predominant estrogen in post-menopausal women and inter-converts with estradiol. This conversion is dependant on the bidirectional activity of 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which also converts testosterone to androstenedione (an intermediate of androsterone, etiocholanolone, and estrone).

LEARN MORE

Estrone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.

Etiocholanolone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 1.2 - 6.1 micromol/24 hr

Etiocholanolone is an androstenedione and testosterone metabolite that is excreted in the urine. It is produced from androstenedione and the 5-alpha and 5-beta-reductase metabolic pathways. It is helpful in evaluating adrenal and androgen function.

LEARN MORE

Etiocholanolone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 121 - 1209 nmol/dL (SG)

Etiocholanolone is an androstenedione and testosterone metabolite that is excreted in the urine. It is produced from androstenedione and the 5-alpha and 5-beta-reductase metabolic pathways. It is helpful in evaluating adrenal and androgen function.

LEARN MORE

Pregnanediol (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.3 - 4.2 micromol/24 hr

Progesterone rapidly metabolizes by the time it reaches the urine, and its direct metabolite, pregnanediol, is a reflection of circulating progesterone concentrations.

LEARN MORE

Pregnanediol (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 13 - 370 nmol/dL (SG)

Progesterone rapidly metabolizes by the time it reaches the urine, and its direct metabolite, pregnanediol, is a reflection of circulating progesterone concentrations.

LEARN MORE

Pregnanetriol (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.6 - 2.5 micromol/24 hr

Progesterone is metabolized into numerous downstream compounds, but most immediately into pregnanediol and pregnanetriol. Urine levels of these metabolites tend to correlate with levels of serum progesterone, thus may be used to assess status of the hormone.

LEARN MORE

Pregnanetriol (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 46 - 269 nmol/dL (SG)

Progesterone is metabolized into numerous downstream compounds, but most immediately into pregnanediol and pregnanetriol. Urine levels of these metabolites tend to correlate with levels of serum progesterone, thus may be used to assess status of the hormone.

LEARN MORE

Testosterone (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0.16 - 0.65 micromol/24 hr

Testosterone (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 10 - 48 nmol/dL (SG)

Testosterone is the major androgen in the body. It is converted to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alphareductase, and to estradiol by aromatase.

LEARN MORE

Tetrahydrocortisol, THF (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 micromol/24 hr

This marker is part of the "17-Hydroxysteroids" group. Please refer to the "17-Hydroxysteroids, Total" marker.

LEARN MORE

Tetrahydrocortisol, THF (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 142 - 595 nmol/dL (SG)

This marker is part of the "17-Hydroxysteroids" group. Please refer to the "17-Hydroxysteroids, Total" marker.

LEARN MORE

Tetrahydrocortisone, THE (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 micromol/24 hr

This marker is part of the "17-Hydroxysteroids" group. Please refer to the "17-Hydroxysteroids, Total" marker.

LEARN MORE

Tetrahydrocortisone, THE (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 522 - 6529 nmol/dL (SG)

This marker is part of the "17-Hydroxysteroids" group. Please refer to the "17-Hydroxysteroids, Total" marker.

LEARN MORE

Tetrahydrodeoxycortisol (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 9.4 nmol/dL (SG)

This marker is part of the "17-Hydroxysteroids" group. Please refer to the "17-Hydroxysteroids, Total" marker.

LEARN MORE

Tetrahydrodeoxycortisol, THS (24hr urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 micromol/24 hr

This marker is part of the "17-Hydroxysteroids" group. Please refer to the "17-Hydroxysteroids, Total" marker.

LEARN MORE

Triiodothyronine, T3 (FMV urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mcg/g Creat.
;