Gut Zoomer, Vibrant Wellness
The gut microbiome resides in your large intestine and is host to more than 1000 species of bacteria that perform certain important functions from shaping the immune system to influencing metabolism of nutrients to fortifying the intestinal mucosal barrier (gut barrier).
It is important to know the abundances of the bacteria that symbiotically live in the human gastrointestinal tract because imbalances in the gut microbiome may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms, skin conditions, autoimmune disorders, immune system imbalances, and multiple inflammatory disorders.
Vibrant uses a proprietary microarray hybridization technology platform, using the whole-genome data to simultaneously detect over 300 microorganisms with 99% specificity and 98% sensitivity, unheard-of levels of accuracy in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms.
AcetateOptimal range: 60.2 - 72.7 %
Acetic Acid can inhibit the accumulation of body fat and hepatic lipids without altering food consumption. It suppresses body fat accumulation by upregulating genes necessary for fatty-acid oxidation and mitochondrial processing. It has been found to have an inhibitory effect on the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in the liver. It has also been suggested as a promising compound for improving obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.LEARN MORE
Akkermansia muciniphilaOptimal range: 10 - 5000 Units
Akkermansia muciniphila may represent 3–5% of the microbial composition in the healthy human intestinal tract, and have a crucial role in the regulation of the gut barrier and other homeostatic and metabolic functions.LEARN MORE
Beta defensin 2Optimal range: 0 - 34.9 ng/mL
Beta defensin 2 is an antibiotic peptide locally regulated by inflammation in humans. It is produced by a number of epithelial cells and exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria and Candida, but not Gram-positive bacteria. It has been speculated that beta-defensin 2 may contribute to the infrequency of Gram-negative infections on skin and lung tissue.LEARN MORE
BifidobacteriumOptimal range: 10 - 1000 Units
A common component of the microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract and in particular are amongst the first bacterial colonizers of the intestine.LEARN MORE
ButyrateOptimal range: 5.1 - 12.4 %
N-Butyrate is one of the short-chain fatty acids produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in the colon. It becomes a food supply capable of providing up to 30% of the energy needed by colon cells. N-butyrate improves colon health.LEARN MORE
ButyrivibrioOptimal range: 0 - 0 Units
‘Butyrivibrio‘ is a genus of bacteria in Class Clostridia.LEARN MORE
CalprotectinOptimal range: 0 - 50 mcg/g
Calprotectin is a marker of inflammation in the gut. Although it is not diagnostic of inflammatory bowel disease, calprotectin can indicate the possibility of Crohn’s disease, chronic ulcerative colitis, and/or the overuse of NSAID medication.LEARN MORE
Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA)Optimal range: 0 - 1.25 %
Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), also known as chenodiol, usually conjugates with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.LEARN MORE
Cholic acid (CA)Optimal range: 0 - 0.36 %
Cholic acid (CA), Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), Deoxycholic acid (DCA), Lithocholic acid (LCA) are the major bile acids related to gut microbiome.
Bile Acids are natural products of cholesterol synthesis that aid in the emulsification and absorption of dietary fats in the small intestine. Elevated total fecal bile acid is indicative of a diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption. Quantification of fecal bile acids aids in diagnosis for IBS and identification of patients with chronic diarrhea who may benefit from bile acid sequestrant therapy. There is a connection between the liver health, fecal bile acid concentrations, and gut microbiota composition. Bile acids have both direct antimicrobial effects on gut microbes and indirect effects through FXR-induced antimicrobial peptides.LEARN MORE
Deoxycholic acid (DCA)Optimal range: 24.25 - 75.84 %
Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a bile acid which emulsifies and solubilizes dietary fats in the intestine, and when injected subcutaneously, it disrupts cell membranes in adipocytes and destroys fat cells in that tissue.LEARN MORE
EnterobacteriaceaeOptimal range: 0 - 20 Units
Enterobacteriaceae plays a pivotal role in gut dysbiosis associated with IBD pathogenesis and progression.LEARN MORE
EubacteriumOptimal range: 10 - 1000 Units
Eubacterium spp. are of only minor clinical importance. They are normal flora of the intestinal tract and cause infection under opportunistic conditions.LEARN MORE
Eubacterium rectaleOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Eubacterium rectale (E. rectale), which accounts for up to 13% of the gut microbiota in total feces in the human colon and thus, is one of the most prevalent bacterial species, is a major contributor to the production of butyrate. People with Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ulcerative colitis have significantly reduced amounts of Eubacterium rectale, and these people have lower butyrate concentrations in their feces than healthy individuals.LEARN MORE
Faecalibacterium prausnitziiOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most important bacteria in the human gut flora and makes up to 5-10% of the total number of bacteria detected in stool samples from healthy humans. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has a crucial role in maintaining gut physiology and host wellbeing.LEARN MORE
Fecal Anti GliadinOptimal range: 0 - 148 U/L
Antigliadin antibodies (AGAs) are antibodies of the IgA and IgG classes found in the serum of celiac disease patients. These antibodies mainly target gliadin-derived peptides, which are the main proteins of gluten. AGAs are not specific for celiac disease as they are also found in patients with other gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, gastroenteritis, and IBD.LEARN MORE
Fecal Eosinophil Protein XOptimal range: 0 - 4.8 mcg/g
Eosinophil Protein X (EPX) is a water-soluble protein that is found in eosinophils.
EPX levels in stool are a marker of eosinophil activity in the gastrointestinal system. Fecal EPX abnormality is suggestive of food allergy, eosinophil-driven inflammation (caused by parasites). The test has been shown to have higher specificity and positive predictive value for detecting disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease compared to fecal calprotectin.LEARN MORE
Fecal lactoferrinOptimal range: 0 - 6.4 mcg/mL
Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein released by a type of white blood cell called neutrophil.
Fecal lactoferrin levels are helpful in monitoring disease activity and efficacy of treatment for IBD.LEARN MORE
Fecal Occult BloodOptimal range: 0 - 10 mcg/g
Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) checks stool samples for hidden (occult) blood loss from the mouth to the colon.LEARN MORE
Fecal pHOptimal range: 6.1 - 7.8 pH
A fecal pH test is one where a specimen of feces is tested for acidity in order to diagnose a medical condition.
- Human feces is normally acidic.
- The average pH for a healthy person is a pH of 6.6.
Fecal pH is dependent in part on fermentation of sugars. Colonic fermentation of normal amounts of carbohydrate sugars and production of fatty acids accounts for the normally slightly acidic pH.LEARN MORE
Fecal ZonulinOptimal range: 25.1 - 160.8 ng/mL
Elevated fecal levels of zonulin have been associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and healthy cigarette smokers. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers.LEARN MORE
LactobacillusOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”, and in fact may contribute to good health, often being included in probiotic supplements. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a byproduct of glucose metabolism.LEARN MORE
Lactobacillus acidophilusOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
L. acidophilus is a probiotic bacteria that naturally occurs in the human gut and other parts of the body. This bacteria helps the digestive system break down sugars, such as lactose, into lactic acid.LEARN MORE
Lactobacillus bulgaricusOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Lactobacillus d. bulgaricus (L. d. bulgaricus) is a beneficial bacteria found in the digestive tract. Intestinal bacteria is referred to as gut flora or microbes. This strain of bacteria may also be found in foods or supplements. When it’s consumed, it’s referred to as probiotics.LEARN MORE
Lactobacillus plantarumOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Lactobacillus Plantarum have been shown to:
- Alleviate the symptoms of IBS
- Help treat Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.
- Accelerate the healing of intestines after illness.
- Mitigate allergic reactions to foods such as soy flour.
There is also evidence that Lactobacillus Plantarum may help in the treatment and prevention of depression and dementia.LEARN MORE
Lactobacillus reuteriOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Numerous clinical studies suggested that L. reuteri may be helpful in modulating gut microbiota, eliminating infections, and attenuating the gastrointestinal symptoms of enteric colitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (also related to the treatment of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection), irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic constipation. In both children and in adults, L. reuteri shortens the duration of acute infectious diarrhea and improves abdominal pain in patients with colitis or inflammatory bowel disease. It can ameliorate dyspepsia and symptoms of gastritis in patients with HP infection. Moreover, it improves gut motility and chronic constipation.LEARN MORE
Lactobacillus rhamnosusOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic with good survival capacity in the human gut, has well-documented adhesion properties and health effects.LEARN MORE
LCA/DCA ratioOptimal range: 0.32 - 3.38 Ratio
LCA and DCA are secondary bile acids. These secondary bile acids are associated with disease. An LCA:DCA ratio greater than 1 is associated with increased risk of gallstones, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer.LEARN MORE
Lithocholic acid (LCA)Optimal range: 24.16 - 75.75 %
Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.LEARN MORE
Long chain fatty acidsOptimal range: 0.9 - 28.1 mg/g
Long chain fatty acids are a fecal fat. Fecal fats also include triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids. They are derived predominately from the dietary ingestion of fat, and provide important clues about digestion and absorption.LEARN MORE
LysozymeOptimal range: 0 - 575 ng/mL
Lysozyme is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of specific glycosidic bonds in mucopolysaccharides that constitute the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. Lysozyme is an antibacterial defense present in the G.I. tract and is secreted by granulocytes, macrophages, Paneth cells, and Brunner's Glands as well as normal colonic crypt cells. The main source for fecal lysozyme is the intestinal granulocytes.LEARN MORE
Meat FiberOptimal range: 0 - 0 %
Presence of meat fibers is indicative of improper chewing or digestive insufficiency.LEARN MORE
MMP 9Optimal range: 0 - 0.2 ng/mL
MMP-9 is an important marker of intestinal inflammation. It has been shown to be significantly increased in the stool of UC patients compared with healthy controls and patients with IBS, and was found to correlate with the clinical and endoscopic activity of UC.LEARN MORE
Pancreatic elastase 1Optimal range: 200 - 1000 mcg/g
Pancreatic Elastase is an enzyme produced by exocrine tissue in the pancreas. Fecal pancreatic elastase is a non-invasive marker of exocrine pancreatic function. In the digestive tract, elastase is not broken down by other enzymes and is eventually eliminated from the body in the stool. Elastase can be detected and measured in the stool when a person's pancreas is functioning normally. The level in the stool is decreased when the exocrine tissues of the pancreas are not producing sufficient elastase and other digestive enzymes.LEARN MORE
PropionateOptimal range: 15.4 - 30.3 %
Propionate is among the most common short-chain fatty acids produced in the human gut in response to indigestible carbohydrates (fiber) in the diet.LEARN MORE
PropionibacteriumOptimal range: 10 - 1000 Units
Propionibacterium is a genus capable of producing SCFAs, predominantly acetate and propionic acid.
The genus Propionibacterium consists of two principal groups, cutaneous and classical or dairy. Cutaneous species are predominant members of the microbial population of human skin and have also been isolated from the feces of humans and other vertebrate animals. They are often considered opportunistic organisms and have been occasionally associated with infections in humans.LEARN MORE
RoseburiaOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Roseburia is a genus (=group) of 5 species of bacteria named in the 1980s after American microbiologist Theodor Rosebury. Bacteria in this genus are notable for breaking down sugar, and producing a short-chain fatty acid called butyrate which is important as a food for the cells lining the colon.LEARN MORE
S100A12Optimal range: 0 - 4.8 mcg/g
Fecal S100A12 is a novel noninvasive marker that distinguishes children with active IBD from healthy control subjects. Anti-inflammatory diet along with supplements such as fish oils, and N-acetyl glucosamine should be considered.LEARN MORE
sIgAOptimal range: 426 - 1450 mcg/g
SIGA (Secretory IgA) is the primary antibody that is protecting us from pathogens and toxins from penetrating mucosal surfaces. Its role is crucial in protecting the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. The antibody blocks the access to the epithelial receptors and traps pathogens and toxins in the mucus which are then excreated by peristaltic movements.LEARN MORE
Streptococcus speciesOptimal range: 0 - 20 Units
Streptococcus is a member of Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) that belonged to Firmicutes phylum. Many strains of Streptococcus are non-pathogenic and occur as commensal flora on the skin, the oral cavity, nasopharynx, upper respiratory tract, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tracts.LEARN MORE
Streptococcus thermophilusOptimal range: 10 - 100 Units
Streptococcus thermophilus belongs to a group of bacteria called lactic acid bacteria.
Lactic acid bacteria are found in fermented foods such as yogurt and cheese. Streptococcus thermophilus are used as so-called "probiotics," the opposite of antibiotics. "Friendly" bacteria such as Streptococcus thermophilus can help us break down food, absorb nutrients, and fight off "unfriendly" organisms that might cause diseases such as diarrhea.LEARN MORE
Total Cholestrol subfractionOptimal range: 0.5 - 5.3 mg/g
Elevated levels of Cholesterol in the stool may indicate inadequate absorption.LEARN MORE
Total Fecal FatOptimal range: 2.9 - 37.5 mg/g
The Fecal Fat test helps your doctor identify if you have pancreatic or intestinal disorders. It can also show that enzymes, which are prescribed are working in the case of known malabsorption disorders.LEARN MORE
Total Fecal TriglyceridesOptimal range: 0.3 - 2.5 mg/g
Since most of the dietary fat is composed of triglycerides, excess fecal triglyceride levels indicate incomplete fat hydrolysis (maldigestion). This is possibly due to inadequate pancreatic secretion or activation of pancreatic lipase, which can cause excessive, unhydrolyzed triglycerides to be excreted in the feces.LEARN MORE
Total Phospholipid subfractionOptimal range: 0.3 - 6.4 mg/g
About one-third of the total fats in blood serum is composed of phospholipids, a fat containing phosphorus. A big proportion of these phospholipids is lecithin, which contains choline phosphate plus glycerol combined together on one part of the molecule.
There’s an enzyme called lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) that is responsible for transesterifying free cholesterol with fats derived from lecithin. The LCAT is important for lipoprotein particle remodeling; for example, converting HDL, LDL, and VLDL to other lipoprotein particles.LEARN MORE
Total Short chain fatty acidsOptimal range: 45.4 - 210.1 micromol/g
Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are the products of fermentation of insoluble fiber from diet (e.g., cellulose, resistant starch) by the bacteria in the gut. These fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in regulating metabolism in the gut and are closely associated with gastrointestinal diseases. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid are the most abundant, representing 90-95% of the SCFA present in the colon. A total of 13 SCFAs are quantified in stool to assist assessment of the gut health and inflammation.LEARN MORE
ValerateOptimal range: 0.8 - 3.5 %
Valerate is a Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA). It is derived from bacterial fermentation of protein in the distal colon.
SCFAs are the end product of the bacterial fermentation process of dietary fiber by beneficial flora in the gut and play an important role in the health of the GI as well as protecting against intestinal dysbiosis.LEARN MORE
Vegetable fiberOptimal range: 0 - 0 %
Presence of vegetable fibers is indicative of improper chewing or digestive insufficiency.LEARN MORE
ß-glucuronidaseOptimal range: 0 - 2300 U/mL
Beta-glucuronidase is an enzyme induced by anaerobic bacteria. Many toxins, hormones, and drugs are excreted from the body after conjugation to a glucuronide molecule. Beta-glucuronidase can uncouple these conjugates, freeing these potential carcinogens in the bowel and increase cancer risk.LEARN MORE