Gut Zoomer, Vibrant Wellness

The gut microbiome resides in your large intestine and is host to more than 1000 species of bacteria that perform certain important functions from shaping the immune system to influencing metabolism of nutrients to fortifying the intestinal mucosal barrier (gut barrier).

It is important to know the abundances of the bacteria that symbiotically live in the human gastrointestinal tract because imbalances in the gut microbiome may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms, skin conditions, autoimmune disorders, immune system imbalances, and multiple inflammatory disorders.

Vibrant uses a proprietary microarray hybridization technology platform, using the whole-genome data to simultaneously detect over 300 microorganisms with 99% specificity and 98% sensitivity, unheard-of levels of accuracy in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms.

Acetate

Optimal range: 60.2 - 72.7 %

Acetic Acid can inhibit the accumulation of body fat and hepatic lipids without altering food consumption. It suppresses body fat accumulation by upregulating genes necessary for fatty-acid oxidation and mitochondrial processing. It has been found to have an inhibitory effect on the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in the liver. It has also been suggested as a promising compound for improving obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

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Beta defensin 2

Optimal range: 0 - 34.9 ng/mL

Beta defensin 2 is an antibiotic peptide locally regulated by inflammation in humans. It is produced by a number of epithelial cells and exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria and Candida, but not Gram-positive bacteria. It has been speculated that beta-defensin 2 may contribute to the infrequency of Gram-negative infections on skin and lung tissue.

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Butyrate

Optimal range: 5.1 - 12.4 %

N-Butyrate is one of the short-chain fatty acids produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in the colon. It becomes a food supply capable of providing up to 30% of the energy needed by colon cells. N-butyrate improves colon health.

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Calprotectin

Optimal range: 0 - 50 mcg/g

Calprotectin is a marker of inflammation in the gut. Although it is not diagnostic of inflammatory bowel disease, calprotectin can indicate the possibility of Crohn’s disease, chronic ulcerative colitis, and/or the overuse of NSAID medication.

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Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.25 %

Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), also known as chenodiol, usually conjugates with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.

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Cholic acid (CA)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.36 %

Cholic acid (CA), Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), Deoxycholic acid (DCA), Lithocholic acid (LCA) are the major bile acids related to gut microbiome.

Bile Acids are natural products of cholesterol synthesis that aid in the emulsification and absorption of dietary fats in the small intestine. Elevated total fecal bile acid is indicative of a diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption. Quantification of fecal bile acids aids in diagnosis for IBS and identification of patients with chronic diarrhea who may benefit from bile acid sequestrant therapy. There is a connection between the liver health, fecal bile acid concentrations, and gut microbiota composition. Bile acids have both direct antimicrobial effects on gut microbes and indirect effects through FXR-induced antimicrobial peptides.

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Deoxycholic acid (DCA)

Optimal range: 24.25 - 75.84 %

Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a bile acid which emulsifies and solubilizes dietary fats in the intestine, and when injected subcutaneously, it disrupts cell membranes in adipocytes and destroys fat cells in that tissue.

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Fecal Eosinophil Protein X

Optimal range: 0 - 4.8 mcg/g

Eosinophil Protein X (EPX) is a water-soluble protein that is found in eosinophils.

EPX levels in stool are a marker of eosinophil activity in the gastrointestinal system. Fecal EPX abnormality is suggestive of food allergy, eosinophil-driven inflammation (caused by parasites). The test has been shown to have higher specificity and positive predictive value for detecting disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease compared to fecal calprotectin.

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Fecal lactoferrin

Optimal range: 0 - 6.4 mcg/mL

Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein released by a type of white blood cell called neutrophil.

Fecal lactoferrin levels are helpful in monitoring disease activity and efficacy of treatment for IBD.

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LCA/DCA ratio

Optimal range: 0.32 - 3.38 Ratio

LCA and DCA are secondary bile acids. These secondary bile acids are associated with disease. An LCA:DCA ratio greater than 1 is associated with increased risk of gallstones, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. 

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Lithocholic acid (LCA)

Optimal range: 24.16 - 75.75 %

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.

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Long chain fatty acids

Optimal range: 0.9 - 28.1 mg/g

Long chain fatty acids are a fecal fat. Fecal fats also include triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids. They are derived predominately from the dietary ingestion of fat, and provide important clues about digestion and absorption.

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Lysozyme

Optimal range: 0 - 575 ng/mL

Lysozyme is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of specific glycosidic bonds in mucopolysaccharides that constitute the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. Lysozyme is an antibacterial defense present in the G.I. tract and is secreted by granulocytes, macrophages, Paneth cells, and Brunner's Glands as well as normal colonic crypt cells. The main source for fecal lysozyme is the intestinal granulocytes.

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Meat Fiber

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Presence of meat fibers is indicative of improper chewing or digestive insufficiency.

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MMP 9

Optimal range: 0 - 0.2 ng/mL

MMP-9 is an important marker of intestinal inflammation. It has been shown to be significantly increased in the stool of UC patients compared with healthy controls and patients with IBS, and was found to correlate with the clinical and endoscopic activity of UC.

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Pancreatic elastase 1

Optimal range: 200 - 1000 mcg/g

Pancreatic Elastase is an enzyme produced by exocrine tissue in the pancreas. Fecal pancreatic elastase is a non-invasive marker of exocrine pancreatic function. In the digestive tract, elastase is not broken down by other enzymes and is eventually eliminated from the body in the stool. Elastase can be detected and measured in the stool when a person's pancreas is functioning normally. The level in the stool is decreased when the exocrine tissues of the pancreas are not producing sufficient elastase and other digestive enzymes.

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Propionate

Optimal range: 15.4 - 30.3 %

Propionate is among the most common short-chain fatty acids produced in the human gut in response to indigestible carbohydrates (fiber) in the diet.

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S100A12

Optimal range: 0 - 4.8 mcg/g

Fecal S100A12 is a novel noninvasive marker that distinguishes children with active IBD from healthy control subjects. Anti-inflammatory diet along with supplements such as fish oils, and N-acetyl glucosamine should be considered.

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Total Cholestrol subfraction

Optimal range: 0.5 - 5.3 mg/g

Elevated levels of Cholesterol in the stool may indicate inadequate absorption.

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Total Fecal Fat

Optimal range: 2.9 - 37.5 mg/g

The Fecal Fat test helps your doctor identify if you have pancreatic or intestinal disorders. It can also show that enzymes, which are prescribed are working in the case of known malabsorption disorders.

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Total Fecal Triglycerides

Optimal range: 0.3 - 2.5 mg/g

Since most of the dietary fat is composed of triglycerides, excess fecal triglyceride levels indicate incomplete fat hydrolysis (maldigestion). This is possibly due to inadequate pancreatic secretion or activation of pancreatic lipase, which can cause excessive, unhydrolyzed triglycerides to be excreted in the feces.

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Total Phospholipid subfraction

Optimal range: 0.3 - 6.4 mg/g

About one-third of the total fats in blood serum is composed of phospholipids, a fat containing phosphorus. A big proportion of these phospholipids is lecithin, which contains choline phosphate plus glycerol combined together on one part of the molecule. 

There’s an enzyme called lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) that is responsible for transesterifying free cholesterol with fats derived from lecithin. The LCAT is important for lipoprotein particle remodeling; for example, converting HDL, LDL, and VLDL to other lipoprotein particles. 

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Total Short chain fatty acids

Optimal range: 45.4 - 210.1 micromol/g

Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are the products of fermentation of insoluble fiber from diet (e.g., cellulose, resistant starch) by the bacteria in the gut. These fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in regulating metabolism in the gut and are closely associated with gastrointestinal diseases. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid are the most abundant, representing 90-95% of the SCFA present in the colon. A total of 13 SCFAs are quantified in stool to assist assessment of the gut health and inflammation.

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Valerate

Optimal range: 0.8 - 3.5 %

Valerate is a Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA). It is derived from bacterial fermentation of protein in the distal colon.

SCFAs are the end product of the bacterial fermentation process of dietary fiber by beneficial flora in the gut and play an important role in the health of the GI as well as protecting against intestinal dysbiosis.

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Vegetable fiber

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Presence of vegetable fibers is indicative of improper chewing or digestive insufficiency.

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