Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Profile

Every day, we are exposed to hundreds of toxic chemicals through products like pharmaceuticals, pesticides, packaged foods, household products, and environmental pollution.  As we have become more exposed to chemical-laden products and to toxic chemicals in food, air, and water, we have been confronted with an accelerating rate of chronic illnesses like cancer, heart disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, chemical sensitivity, autism spectrum disorders, ADD/AD(H)D, autoimmune disorders, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. 

Because exposure to environmental pollutants has been linked to many chronic diseases, The Great Plains Laboratory has created GPL-TOX, a toxic non-metal chemical profile that screens for the presence of 172 different toxic chemicals including organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, benzene, xylene, vinyl chloride, pyrethroid insecticides, acrylamide, perchlorate, diphenyl phosphate, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, and more.  This profile also includes Tiglylglycine (TG), a marker for mitochondrial disorders resulting from mutations of mitochondrial DNA.  These mutations can be caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, infections, inflammation, and nutritional deficiencies.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2-,4-D)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.2 µg/g creatinine

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) is a very common herbicide that was a part of Agent Orange, which was used by the U.S. in the Vietnam War. It is most commonly used in agriculture on genetically modified foods, and as a weed killer for lawns. Exposure to 2, 4-D via skin or oral ingestion is associated with neuritis, weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, stupor, seizures, brain damage, and impaired reflexes. 2, 4-D is a known endocrine disruptor, and can block hormone distribution and cause glandular breakdown.

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2-3-4 Methylhippuric Acid (2,-3-,4-MHA)

Optimal range: 0 - 10 µg/g creatinine

2-Methylhippuric Acid (2MHA), 3-Methylhippuric Acid (3MHA), 4-Methylhippuric Acid (4MHA)
These are metabolites of xylenes, solvents found in paints, lacquers, cleaning agents, pesticides, and gasoline. Exposure to xylenes generates methylhippuric acid isomers.

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2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic (HEMA)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.8 µg/g creatinine

HEMA is a metabolite of ethylene oxide, which is used in the production of agrochemicals, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products.

Chronic exposure to ethylene oxide has been determined to be mutagenic to humans.

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2-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (2HIB)

Optimal range: 0 - 200 µg/g creatinine

2-Hydroxyisobutyric acid is formed endogenously as a product of branched-chain amino acid degradation and ketogenesis. This compound is also the major metabolite of gasoline octane enhancers such as MTBE and ETBE.

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3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA)

Optimal range: 0 - 8 ug/g creat

3-HPMA is the main urinary metabolite of acrolein. Acrolein is an environmental pollutant, commonly used as an herbicide and in many different chemical industries. Acrolein is also present in the burning of cigarettes, gasoline, and oil. Certain bacteria produce acrolein, such as Clostridium. Acrolein metabolites are associated with diabetes and insulin resistance.

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3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid (3PBA)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.3 µg/g creatinine

Pyrethrins are widely used as insecticides. Exposure during pregnancy doubles the likelihood of autism. Pyrethrins may affect neurological development, disrupt hormones, induce cancer, and suppress the immune system.

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Diethylphosphate (DEP)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.6 µg/g creatinine

Organophosphates are one of the most toxic groups of substances in the world, primarily found in pesticide formulations. They are inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes, leading to overstimulation of nerve cells, causing sweating, salivation, diarrhea, abnormal behavior, including aggression and depression. Children exposed to organophosphates have more than twice the risk of developing pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), an autism spectrum disorder. Maternal organophosphate exposure has been associated with various adverse outcomes including having shorter pregnancies and children with impaired reflexes.

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Dimethylphosphate (DMP)

Optimal range: 0 - 4 µg/g creatinine

Organophosphates are one of the most toxic groups of substances in the world, primarily found in pesticide formulations. They are inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes, leading to overstimulation of nerve cells, causing sweating, salivation, diarrhea, abnormal behavior, including aggression and depression. Children exposed to organophosphates have more than twice the risk of developing pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), an autism spectrum disorder. Maternal organophosphate exposure has been associated with various adverse outcomes including having shorter pregnancies and children with impaired reflexes.

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Diphenyl phosphate (DPP)

Optimal range: 0 - 1 µg/g creatinine

This is a metabolite of the organophosphate flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), which is used in plastics, electronic equipment, nail polish, and resins. TPHP can cause endocrine disruption. Studies have also linked TPHP to reproductive and developmental problems.

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Glyphosate

Optimal range: 0 - 0.38 ug/g creat

Glyphosate is the world's most widely produced herbicide. It is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used in more than 700 different products for agriculture and forestry to home use.

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Monoethylphthalate (MEP)

Optimal range: 0 - 5 µg/g creatinine

Monoethyl Phthalate (or Monoethylphthalate) (MEP) from diethyl phthalate is the most abundant phthalate metabolite found in urine. Diethyl phthalate is used in plastic products. Elevated values indicate exposure from various possible sources. Elimination of phthalates may be accelerated by sauna treatment.

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N-acetyl phenyl cysteine (NAP)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.2 µg/g creatinine

N-acetyl phenyl cysteine (NAP) is a metabolite of benzene

Benzene is an organic solvent that is widespread in the environment. Benzene is a by-product of all types of industrial processes and combustion, including motor vehicle exhaust and cigarette smoke, and is released by outgassing from synthetic materials. Benzene is an extremely toxic chemical that is mutagenic and carcinogenic. High exposures to benzene cause symptoms of nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lack of coordination, central nervous system depression, and death. It can also cause hematological abnormalities.

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N-acetyl(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine (NACE)

Optimal range: 0 - 5.8 µg/g creatinine

NACE is a metabolite of acrylonitrile, which is used in the production of acrylic fibers, resins, and rubber.

Acrylonitrile is metabolized by the cytochrome P450s and then conjugated to glutathione. Supplementation with glutathione should assist in the detoxification of acrylonitrile.

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N-acetyl(2-hydroxypropyl)cysteine (NAHP)

Optimal range: 0 - 4 µg/g creatinine

N-acetyl(2-hydroxypropyl)cysteine (NAHP) is used in the production of plastics and is used as a fumigant (=gaseous pesticides).

This chemical is a metabolite of propylene oxide. Propylene oxide is used to make polyester resins for textile and construction industries. It is also used in the preparation of lubricants, surfactants, and oil demulsifiers. It has also been used as a food additive, an herbicide, a microbicide, an insecticide, a fungicide, and a miticide. Propylene oxide is a probable human carcinogen.

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N-acetyl(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)cysteine (NADB)

Optimal range: 0 - 4 µg/g creatinine

NADB is a metabolite of 1,3 butadiene, which is evident of exposure to synthetic rubber such as tires. 1,3 butadiene is a known carcinogen and has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Individuals that come into contact with rubber, such as car tires, could absorb 1,3 butadiene through the skin.

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N-acetyl(propyl)cysteine (NAPR)

Optimal range: 0 - 4 µg/g creatinine

NAPR is a metabolite of 1-bromopropane.  Chronic exposure can lead to decreased cognitive function and impairment of the central nervous system.  Acute exposure can lead to headaches.

1-bromopropane is an organic solvent used for metal cleaning, foam gluing, and dry cleaning. Studies have shown that 1-BP is a neurotoxin as well as a reproductive toxin. Research indicates that exposure to 1-BP can cause sensory and motor deficits. Chronic exposure can lead to decreased cognitive function and impairment of the central nervous system. Acute exposure can lead to headaches.

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N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)cysteine (NAE)

Optimal range: 0 - 4 µg/g creatinine

N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)cysteine (NAE) is a metabolite of acrylamide, which is detoxified through a two-step process.

First acrylamide is metabolized by the cytochrome P450s.  

Second it is conjugated to glutathione in order to make it more water soluble.

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Perchlorate (PERC)

Optimal range: 0 - 2 µg/g creatinine

The chemical Perchlorate (PERC) is used in the production of rocket fuel, missiles, fireworks, flares, explosives, fertilizers, and bleach. Studies show that perchlorate is often found in water supplies. Many food sources are also contaminated with percholate. Percholate can disrupt the thyroid’s ability to produce hormones. The EPA has also labeled perchlorate a likely human carcinogen.

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Phenylglyoxylic Acid (PGO)

Optimal range: 0 - 5 µg/g creatinine

Styrene is used in the manufacturing of plastics, in building materials, and is found in car exhaust fumes. Polystyrene and its copolymers are widely used as food-packaging materials. The ability of styrene monomer to leach from polystyrene packaging to food has been reported. Occupational exposure due to inhalation of large amounts of styrene adversely impacts the central nervous system, causes concentration problems, muscle weakness, fatigue, and nausea, and irritates the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and throat.

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Tiglylglycine

Optimal range: 0 - 0.04 µg/g creatinine

Tiglylglycine is a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. Mutations of mitochondria DNA may result from exposure to toxic chemicals, infections, inflammation, and nutritional deficiencies.

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