Neutrophil Cytoplasmic AntibodiesSerum
Performed by: UCSF Clinical Laboratories
The Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) panel is a critical diagnostic tool in the field of immunology, particularly for identifying a group of autoimmune diseases known as ANCA-associated vasculitides. These diseases, including Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA), and Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA), are characterized by inflammation and damage to blood vessels throughout the body. The ANCA panel primarily tests for two types of antibodies: Anti-Proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) and Anti-Myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA), which target enzymes found in neutrophils, a type of white blood cell.
The presence and pattern of these antibodies, identified through methods such as indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), provide valuable information for diagnosis. In IIF, PR3-ANCA typically shows a cytoplasmic staining pattern (c-ANCA), while MPO-ANCA exhibits a perinuclear pattern (p-ANCA), although ELISA provides a more specific detection. The type and level of ANCA antibodies can not only help in diagnosing the specific type of vasculitis but also in assessing disease activity and guiding treatment strategies.
Elevated PR3-ANCA is often associated with GPA, and high levels of MPO-ANCA are commonly seen in MPA and EGPA. The presence of these antibodies suggests an autoimmune process where the body's immune system erroneously attacks its own cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage, particularly in the blood vessels. This can result in a range of symptoms, from skin rashes and joint pain to severe organ damage, depending on the vessels and organs affected.
The ANCA panel is a cornerstone in the diagnosis of vasculitides but must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings and other laboratory results. Its role extends beyond diagnosis; it's also vital in monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. Understanding the nuances of the ANCA panel and the diseases it helps diagnose is crucial for clinicians in providing accurate diagnoses and effective treatments. Ongoing research and advancements in the understanding of ANCA-associated diseases continue to refine the use and interpretation of this panel, making it an evolving and indispensable tool in clinical immunology.
Biomarkers included in this panel:
Anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibodies, detected through the Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) panel, are crucial in diagnosing autoimmune diseases like Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) and Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA). ThLearn more