ANA Comprehensive Panel
This test helps to detect and helps diagnose certain autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and Sjögren syndrome, among other types.
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a group of autoantibodies produced by a person's immune system when it fails to adequately distinguish between "self" and "nonself." The ANA test detects these autoantibodies in the blood.
ANA react with components of the body's own healthy cells and cause signs and symptoms such as tissue and organ inflammation, joint and muscle pain, and fatigue. ANA specifically target substances found in the nucleus of a cell, hence the name "antinuclear." They probably do not damage living cells because they cannot access their nuclei. However, ANA can cause damage to tissue by reacting with nuclear substances when they are released from injured or dying cells.
The ANA test is one of the primary tests for helping to diagnose a suspected autoimmune disorder or rule out other conditions with similar signs and symptoms. The ANA test may be positive with several autoimmune disorders. Patients with the autoimmune disorder systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are almost always positive for ANA, but the percentage of patients with other autoimmune disorders who have positive ANA results varies. Also, a significant number of patients with a variety of other types of disorders (and even some heathy people) may be positive for ANA, especially at low levels.
Anti-Centromere B AntibodiesOptimal range: 0 - 0.9 AI
Centromere B Antibody is diagnostic for the form of scleroderma known as CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal immotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia).
With a high specificity and a prevalence of 80 to 95%, antibodies against centromeres are pathognomonic for the limited form of progressive systemic sclerosis and can be detected even before the onset of the disease. If the corresponding clinical indication is given, the quantitative determination of antibodies with a monospecific test system, e.g. the Anti-Centromeres ELISA, is recommended.LEARN MORE
Anti-DNA (DS) Ab QnOptimal range: 0 - 4 IU/ml
The anti-dsDNA test identifies the presence of these autoantibodies in the blood.
The test for anti-dsDNA, along with other autoantibody tests, may be used to help establish a diagnosis of lupus and distinguish it from other autoimmune disorders.
The anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA) is a specific type of ANA antibody found in about 30% of people with systemic lupus. Less than 1% of healthy individuals have this antibody, making it helpful in confirming a diagnosis of systemic lupus. The absence of anti-dsDNA, however, does not exclude a diagnosis of lupus.
The presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies often suggests more serious lupus, such as lupus nephritis (kidney lupus). When the disease is active, especially in the kidneys, high amounts of anti-DNA antibodies are usually present. However, the anti-dsDNA test cannot be used to monitor lupus activity, because anti-dsDNA can be present without any clinical activity. Three tests are currently used to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies, namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test, and a test called radioimmunoassay.
Low to moderate levels of the autoantibody may be seen with other autoimmune disorders, such as Sjögren syndrome and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD).LEARN MORE
Antichromatin AntibodiesOptimal range: 0 - 0.9 AI
Help to diagnose drug-induced lupus (DIL) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Antibodies to both chromatin and histones have been found in patients with procainamide-induced lupus; however, patients with lupus induced by drugs such as quinidine, penicillamine, methyldopa, and acebutolol have antibodies to chromatin but not antihistone. Antichromatin antibodies are found in 50% to 90% of SLE patients and have been linked with proteinuria in SLE patients.
Antichromatin antibodies are more sensitive than anti-dsDNA antibodies in detecting active SLE.LEARN MORE
Antiscleroderma-70 AntibodiesOptimal range: 0 - 0.9 AI
Scl-70 antibody is seen in 20% of people with scleroderma (also known as systemic sclerosis), and in some people with CREST syndrome (calcinosis, Raynaud, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia).LEARN MORE
RNP Antibodies, IgG, SerumOptimal range: 0 - 0.99 Units
A positive result for RNP antibodies is consistent with a connective tissue disease. Although strongly associated with connective tissue diseases, RNP antibodies are not considered a "marker" for any particular disease except in the following situation: when found in isolation (ie, dsDNA antibodies and Sm antibodies are not detectable), a positive result for RNP antibodies is consistent with the diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease.LEARN MORE
Smith AntibodiesOptimal range: 0 - 0.9 AI
Smith antigens, along with RNP antigens, are part of small nuclear RNAs. Levels of antibodies to these two antigens are often elevated in SLE. The Smith antigen is composed of the B1, D, and E proteins.
Anti-Smith antibody has low sensitivity but high specificity for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is occasional present in mixed connective-tissue disease (MCTD).
Anti-Smith antibody levels are elevated in up to 30% of SLE cases and 8% of MCTD cases.LEARN MORE