A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections (aka UTI), kidney disease and diabetes.

A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness.

For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease. Unusual urinalysis results often require more testing to uncover the source of the problem.

Why a urinalysis is performed:

  • To check your overall health. Your doctor may recommend a urinalysis as part of a routine medical exam, pregnancy checkup, pre-surgery preparation, or on hospital admission to screen for a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, kidney disease and liver disease.
  • To diagnose a medical condition. Your doctor may suggest a urinalysis if you're experiencing abdominal pain, back pain, frequent or painful urination, blood in your urine, or other urinary problems. A urinalysis may help diagnose the cause of these symptoms.
  • To monitor a medical condition. If you've been diagnosed with a medical condition, such as kidney disease or a urinary tract disease, your doctor may recommend a urinalysis on a regular basis to monitor your condition and treatment.

Albumin, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 0.0001 %

Albumin is one of the proteins found in your blood. If albumin shows up in your urine, it may be a sign of kidney damage.


Arsenic (Inorganic), Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 19 ug/L

Arsenic, a toxic heavy metal, can accumulate in the body. It may be of an organic or inorganic (toxic form) source. High levels cause GI distress, kidney problems, skin, heart and nervous system changes in health.


Arsenic (Total), Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 50 ug/L

Arsenic, Urine 24 Hr

Optimal range: 0 - 50 ug/24 hr

Beta Globulin, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Bilirubin, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 0.001 mg/dL

Cadmium, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 1 ug/L

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal found in soil, water, and air. Plants may contain high levels; foods that tend to accumulate it include soy, rice, tobacco, sunflower seeds and leafy greens. Health problems result from cadmium exposure.


Chloride, Urine

Optimal range: 110 - 250 mmol/24 hr

Chloride is the most abundant ion outside of cells. It is important for maintaining osmotic pressure, nerve cell function, and fluid balance. The urine chloride test is used primarily in cases of suspected metabolic alkalosis.


Coproporphyrin I

Optimal range: 5.6 - 28.6 mcg/g creat

Coproporphyrin III

Optimal range: 4.1 - 76.4 mcg/g creat

Creatinine (CRT), Urine

Optimal range: 0.3 - 3 g/L

A creatinine test reveals important information about your kidneys.

Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine, an amino acid made by the liver and stored in the liver. Creatinine is the result of normal muscle metabolism. The chemical enters your bloodstream after it’s broken down. Your kidneys remove it from your blood. The creatinine then exits the body through urination.


Glucose Qualitative, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 15 mg/dL


Optimal range: 0 - 2.9 mcg/g creat


Optimal range: 0 - 5.4 mcg/g creat

Hyaline Cast

Optimal range: 0 - 1.9 casts/lpf

Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles that can be found when urine is examined under the microscope during a test called urinalysis. Hyaline casts can be present in low numbers (0-1/LPF) in concentrated urine of otherwise normal patients and are not always associated with renal disease.


Ketones, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 0.001 Units

Our bodies normally run on glucose we get from food. When bodies don’t have glucose because of starvation or illness or can’t use glucose because of a lack of insulin, they start burning fat for energy.


Lead, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 29 ug/L

Lead is a potentially toxic element found in paints, batteries, electronics, and ceramics as well as in air, soil, and water. A urine test is a noninvasive test that can detect high levels of lead and prevent potential health issues.


Leukocyte Esterase, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 0.001 Units

M-Spike (Urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

M-protein is an abnormal protein produced by myeloma cells that accumulates in and damages bone and bone marrow.


Mercury, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 19 ug/L

Mercury, abbreviated Hg, comes in inorganic and organic forms. Both are toxic when they accumulate in the body and are associated with serious health problems.


Mercury, Urine 24 Hr

Optimal range: 0 - 20 ug/24 hr

Mercury/Creatinine Ratio, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 5 ug/g creat

Nitrate, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 0.001 Units


Optimal range: 0 - 3.5 mcg/g creat


Optimal range: 50 - 300 mg

Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood.


Potassium, Urine

Optimal range: 25 - 125 mmol/24 hr

Protein, 24hr calculated (Urine)

Optimal range: 30 - 150 mg/24 hr

Red Blood Cells (RBC), Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 2 /hpf

Red blood cells can enter the urine from the vagina in menstruation or from the trauma of bladder catheterization (a procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions).


Sodium, Urine

Optimal range: 39 - 258 mmol/24 hr

Sodium is an important electrolyte (a mineral in your blood and other bodily fluids) that helps your body and cells function. It helps your body regulate how much fluid it retains.


Total Porphyrins

Optimal range: 23.3 - 132.4 mcg/g creat

Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body such as hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins are normally present at low concentrations in blood and other body fluids, such as urine.


Total Protein, Urine

Optimal range: 0 - 20 mg/dL

Urine protein tests detect and/or measure protein being released into the urine. If the kidneys are damaged or compromised due to other conditions, they become less effective at filtering, causing detectable amounts of protein to spill over into the urine.


Urine Occult Blood

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mg/d

Urine occult blood is a test to determine if there is blood present in the urine and is done, along with several other tests, during a routine analysis of the urine. Although some urine in the blood isn’t unusual, it can also indicate severe problems with the kidneys or cancer.


Urine pH

Optimal range: 5 - 8 pH

Urine pH is a test to assess the pH level of your urine and is done, along with several other tests, during a routine analysis of the urine. Although some fluctuation of urine pH is normal, excessively acidic or alkaline urine can indicate a problem with the kidneys or digestive system.


Urine Specific Gravity

Optimal range: 1.001 - 1.035 SG

Urine specific gravity is a test to assess the concentration of your urine and is done, along with several other tests, during a routine analysis of the urine. An abnormal urine specific gravity test likely indicates a problem with the kidneys or heart.


Urobilinogen Bilirubin, Urine

Optimal range: 0.2 - 1 mg/dL

It is formed from bilirubin by intestinal bacteria in the duodenum, and a portion of it is absorbed back into the blood. Most urobilinogen is excreted in the feces or transported back to the liver and converted into bile. The remaining urobilinogen (<1%) is excreted in the urine.


Uroporphyrin I

Optimal range: 3.1 - 18.2 mcg/g creat

Uroporphyrin III

Optimal range: 0 - 4.8 mcg/g creat