Sexually transmitted disease
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person through sexual contact. STDs can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Examples include gonorrhea, genital herpes, human papillomavirus infection, HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, and syphilis.
Some STDs can be passed from a pregnant person to the baby, either during pregnancy or when giving birth. Other ways that STDs may be spread include during breastfeeding, through blood transfusions, or by sharing needles.
STDs don't always cause symptoms or may only cause mild symptoms. So it is possible to have an infection and not know it. And even without symptoms, STDs can still be harmful and may be passed on during sex.
If there are symptoms, they could include:
- Unusual discharge from the penis or vagina
- Sores or warts on the genital area
- Painful or frequent urination (peeing)
- Itching and redness in the genital area
- Blisters or sores in or around the mouth
- Abnormal vaginal odor
- Anal itching, soreness, or bleeding
- Abdominal painn
Early and rapid diagnosis of STDs increases the chance to limit effects of the disease. Left untreated, STDs, such as gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), can lead to devastating and sometimes long-term complications. These complications include blindness, bone deformities, brain damage, cancer, heart disease, infertility, birth defects, mental retardation, and even death.
There are many different kinds of STDs, and the types of treatment are as varied as their symptoms. No STD is harmless. Even the curable ones can cause serious consequences if left untreated. HIV is of particular concern as biological evidence demonstrates the increased likelihood of acquiring and transmitting HIV when STDs are present.
Chlamydia trachomatis, NAA, UrineOptimal range: 0 - 0 %
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females.
Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma.LEARN MORE
HIV Ag/Ab, 4th GenOptimal range: 0 - 0 %
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, NAA, UrineOptimal range: 0 - 0 %
What is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium. N. gonorrhoeae infects the mucous membranes of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women, and the urethra in women and men. N. gonorrhoeae can also infect the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, eyes, and rectum.
How do people get gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is transmitted through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. Gonorrhea can also be spread perinatally from mother to baby during childbirth.
People who have had gonorrhea and received treatment may be reinfected if they have sexual contact with a person infected with gonorrhea.LEARN MORE
Trichomonas Vaginalis, NAA, UrineOptimal range: 0 - 0 %
What is trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis (or “trich”) is a very common STD caused by infection with Trichomonas vaginalis (a protozoan parasite). Although symptoms vary, most people who have trich cannot tell they have it.
How common is trichomoniasis?
In the United States, CDC estimates that there were more than two million trichomoniasis infections in 2018. However, only about 30% develop any symptoms of trich. Infection is more common in women than in men. Older women are more likely than younger women to have the infection.
How is trichomoniasis spread?
Sexually active people can get trich by having sex without a condom with a partner who has trich.
In women, the infection is most commonly found in the lower genital tract (vulva, vagina, cervix, or urethra). In men, the infection is most commonly found inside the penis (urethra). During sex, the parasite usually spreads from a penis to a vagina, or from a vagina to a penis. It can also spread from a vagina to another vagina.
It is not common for the parasite to infect other body parts, like the hands, mouth, or anus. It is unclear why some people with the infection get symptoms while others do not. It probably depends on factors like a person’s age and overall health. People with trich can pass the infection to others, even if they do not have symptoms.LEARN MORE