MycoTOX Profile (Mold Exposure)

Mycotoxins are some of the most prevalent toxins in the environment. Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by fungi like mold, which can infest buildings, vehicles, and foodstuffs. A majority of mycotoxin exposures are through food ingestion or airborne exposure. In the European Union, 20% of all grains harvested have been found to be contaminated with mycotoxins. Unfortunately, mycotoxins are resistant to heat and many processing procedures. Fungi are able to grow on almost any surface, especially if the environment is warm and wet. Inner wall materials of buildings, wall paper, fiber glass insulation, ceiling tiles, and gypsum support are all good surfaces for fungi to colonize. These fungi then release mycotoxins into the environment causing symptoms of many different chronic diseases.  Diseases and symptoms linked to mycotoxin exposure include fever, pneumonia-like symptoms, heart disease, rheumatic disease, asthma, sinusitis, cancer, memory loss, vision loss, chronic fatigue, skin rashes, depression, ADHD, anxiety, and liver damage.

Aflatoxin-M1

Optimal range: 0 - 0.5 ng/g creatinine

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the main metabolite of aflatoxin B1, which is a mycotoxin produced by the mold species Aspergillus. Aflatoxins are some of the most carcinogenic substances in the environment. Aflatoxin susceptibility is dependent on multiple different factors such as age, sex, and diet.

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Chaetoglobosin A

Optimal range: 0 - 10 ng/g creatinine

Chaetoglobosin A (CHA) is produced by the mold Chaetomium globosum (CG).

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Citrinin (Dihydrocitrinone DHC)

Optimal range: 0 - 25 ng/g creatinine

Dihydrocitrinone (DHC) is a metabolite of Citrinin (CTN), which is a mycotoxin that is produced by the mold genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus.

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Enniatin B

Optimal range: 0 - 0.3 ng/g creatinine

Enniatin B is a fungal metabolite categorized as cyclohexa depsipeptides toxin produced by the fungus Fusarium. This strain of fungus is one of the most common cereal contaminants.

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Gliotoxin

Optimal range: 0 - 200 ng/g creatinine

Gliotoxin (GTX) is produced by the mold genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus spreads in the environment by releasing conidia which are capable of infiltrating the small alveolar airways of individuals.

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Mycophenolic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 37.4 ng/g creatinine

Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is produced by the Penicillium fungus. MPA is an immunosuppressant which inhibits the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes.

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Ochratoxin A

Optimal range: 0 - 7.5 ng/g creatinine

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxin. This chemical is produced by molds in the Aspergillus and Penicillium families.

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Roridin E

Optimal range: 0 - 0.2 ng/g creatinine

Roridin E is a macrocyclic trichothecene produced by the mold species Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys (i.e. black mold).  Trichothecenes are frequently found in buildings with water damage but can also be found in contaminated grain.

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Sterigmatocystin

Optimal range: 0 - 0.4 ng/g creatinine

Sterigmatocystin (STG) is a mycotoxin that is closely related to aflatoxin. STG is produced from several species of mold such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Bipolaris. It is considered to be carcinogenic, particularly in the cells of the GI tract and liver. STG has been found in the dust from damp carpets.

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Verrucarin A

Optimal range: 0 - 1.3 ng/g creatinine

Verrucarin A (VRA) is a macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced from Stachybotrys, Fusarium, and Myrothecium. Trichothecenes are frequently found in buildings with water damage but can also be found in contaminated grain. VRA is a small, amphipathic molecule that can move passively across cell membranes.

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Zearalenone

Optimal range: 0 - 3.2 ng/g creatinine

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin that is produced by the mold species Fusarium, and has been shown to be hepatotoxic, haematotoxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic. ZEA is commonly found in several foods in the US, Europe, Asia, and Africa including wheat, barley, rice, and maize.

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