Lipoprotein Particles and Apolipoproteins

Lipoproteins are substances made of protein and fat that carry cholesterol through your bloodstream. 


Apolipoprotein A-1

Optimal range: 102 - 200 mg/dL

Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. It helps start the process for HDL to remove bad types of cholesterol from your body. In this way, apolipoprotein A can help to lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein A levels can be measured. But it's more common to measure the HDL and LDL ("bad") cholesterol when looking at cardiovascular risk.

This biomarker is useful for:

- Evaluating risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

- Aiding in the detection of Tangier disease


Apoprotein B100 (ApoB 100)

Optimal range: 0 - 80 mg/dL

Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a building block of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). These related molecules all transport fats and cholesterol in the bloodstream.



Optimal range: 10 - 100 mg/dL


Optimal range: 30 - 100 mg/dL


Optimal range: 30.5 - 100 umol/L

LDL Size

Optimal range: 20.5 - 100 nm

Small LDL-P and LDL Size are associated with CVD risk, but not after LDL-P is taken into account.



Optimal range: 0 - 1000 nmol/L

Lipoproteins are particles that transport fats throughout the body. These particles are essential and carry a combination of proteins, vitamins, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules.

The composition of a lipoprotein particle changes as it circulates in the blood. Some molecules are removed and others are added, resulting in lipoprotein particles with variable amounts of cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL-P) are bi-products of fat transport that remain in circulation for an extended time. While in circulation, LDL-P can penetrate the artery wall and get stuck, forming a fatty plaque. These plaques can build over time and lead to blockages, resulting in heart attacks and strokes.


LDL1 Pattern A

Optimal range: 0 - 57 mg/dL

LDL2 Pattern A

Optimal range: 0 - 30 mg/dL

LDL3 Pattern B

Optimal range: 0 - 6 mg/dL

LDL4 Pattern B

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mg/dL

Lipoprotein(a) / Lp(a)

Optimal range: 0 - 30 mg/dL

Lipoprotein(a) is a unique lipoprotein that has emerged as an independent risk factor for developing vascular disease.


LP-IR Score

Optimal range: 0 - 45 Units

The LP-IR score assesses an individual’s insulin resistance level and diabetes risk.


Small LDL-P

Optimal range: 0 - 527 nmol/L

These particles are associated with an increased risk of heart disease; more of these small particles lead to greater risk. Your Small LDL particle score can vary widely, with a lower score being much better. 



Optimal range: 0 - 10 mg/dL


Optimal range: 2 - 36 mg/dL

VLDL-C stands for very low-density lipoprotein. VLDL-C carries triglycerides in the blood and, to a lesser extent, cholesterol. High levels of VLDL-C are associated with a type of blood vessel disease called atherosclerosis.