Mycotoxins (Vibrant America)
The Vibrant Mycotoxins test is a urine-based assay for 31 of the most common mycotoxins produced by molds to which humans are exposed.
Individuals most at risk for mycotoxin exposure include those who live or work in older buildings, those who have known exposure to water-damaged buildings, and those with impaired immune responses or higher levels of oxidative stress.
Mycotoxins complicate human health in a number of ways and their presence in the human body can lead to a number of serious health concerns, including autoimmune disease and cancer.
There may be higher incidence of autoimmune or neurological symptoms in your patients with mycotoxin toxicity. Consider screening for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, connective tissue disorders, celiac disease, and neurological autoimmunity along with mycotoxin testing.
Treatment of mycotoxin exposure should include a holistic approach to eradicate the mold from the individual, thorough and professional removal of mold from environmental sources, and continued testing to monitor reductions in mycotoxin levels post-intervention.
Due to the common co-occurrence of Lyme and mycotoxin exposure from depressed immunity in affected individuals, as well as symptom overlap between tickborne diseases and mycotoxins, consider running the Vibrant Tickborne Diseases panel along with the Vibrant Mycotoxins test.
Aflatoxin B1Optimal range: 0 - 5.2 ng/g
- Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is produced by many strains of Aspergillus fungi.
- Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent natural carcinogen known and is usually the major aflatoxin produced by toxigenic strains.
- Aflatoxin B1 is one of the most potent liver carcinogens known and has been associated as a cocarcinogen with hepatitis B in the high incidence of human liver cancer.
- AFB1 is a potent toxin, mutagen, and carcinogen, and is implicated in the etiology of hepatocarcinoma.LEARN MORE
Aflatoxin B2Optimal range: 0 - 6.1 ng/g
Aatoxin B2 (AFB2) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus spp. and found in contaminated foods or hay exposed to water or humid conditions. Exposure routes are primarily ingestion or inhalation. Ingestion can either occur directly from food such as grains, tree nuts, and oilseeds or can also occur from ingestion of milk or meat from animals fed contaminated feed. Toxicity of aatoxins can be categorized as follows, in descending order of known toxic effects: aatoxin B1, aatoxin G1, aatoxin B2, and aatoxin G2. Animal studies have indicated that AFB2 has hepatotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects.LEARN MORE
Aflatoxin G1Optimal range: 0 - 4.9 ng/g
Aflatoxins are naturally occurring Mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the four major naturally known aflatoxins produced by the Aspergillus species.LEARN MORE
Aflatoxin G2Optimal range: 0 - 8.1 ng/g
Aflatoxin M1Optimal range: 0 - 4.8 ng/g
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the main metabolite of aflatoxin B1, which is a mycotoxin produced by the mold species Aspergillus. Aflatoxins are some of the most carcinogenic substances in the environment. Aflatoxin susceptibility is dependent on multiple different factors such as age, sex, and diet.LEARN MORE
Bisphenol A (BPA)Optimal range: 0 - 3.2 mcg/g
BPA is one of the highest volume of chemicals produced worldwide. It is a starting material for the synthesis of plastics. BPA-based plastic is clear and tough, and is made into plastic bottles including water bottles, sports equipment, CDs, and DVDs. Epoxy resins containing BPA are used to line water pipes, as coatings on the inside of many food and beverage cans and in making thermal paper such as that used in sales receipts.LEARN MORE
CitrininOptimal range: 0 - 9.4 ng/g
Dihydrocitrinone (DHC) is a metabolite of Citrinin (CTN), which is a mycotoxin that is produced by the mold genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus.LEARN MORE
Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin/DON)Optimal range: 0 - 50.6 Units
Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as Deoxynivalenol, a tricothecene mycotoxin, is produced by several species of Fusarium. DON has been associated with outbreaks of acute gastrointestinal illness in humans. The FDA advisory level for DON for human consumption is 1 ppm.LEARN MORE
diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)Optimal range: 0 - 3.2 ng/g
Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), also known as anguidine, is a type A trichothecene mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi. Trichothecenes are known as major contaminants of cereals and cereal-containing foods.LEARN MORE
DihydrocitrinoneOptimal range: 0 - 12.4 ng/g
Dihydrocitrinone is a metabolite of Citrinin (CTN), which is a mycotoxin that is produced by mold species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus.
CTN exposure can lead to nephropathy, because of its ability to increase permeability of mitochondrial membranes in the kidneys. The three most common exposure routes are through ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact.
CTN has been shown to be carcinogenic in rat studies. Multiple studies have linked CTN exposure to a suppression of the immune response.LEARN MORE
Diphenyl Phosphate (DPP)Optimal range: 0 - 1.3 mcg/g
DPP is a metabolite of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), which is used as plasticizer and a fire retardant for a variety of materials including electronic equipment, PVC, hydraulic fluids, glues, nail polishes, and casting resins. TPHP exhibits low acute toxicity by dermal or oral contact. Long-term exposure to TPHP has been linked with reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, metabolic disruption, endocrine effects, and genotoxicity.LEARN MORE
Fumonisins B1Optimal range: 0 - 4.6 ng/g
Fusarium is one of the most prevalent fungi associated with contamination of corn and other agricultural products throughout the world.
Many different fumonisins have so far been reported, and they have been grouped into four main categories (A, B, C, and P).
The most abundant of the fumonisins is fumonisin B1 (FB1).
They can also be found in moisture-damaged buildings, and, therefore, exposure of humans to Fusarium mycotoxins including FB1 may take place.
FB1 bears a clear structural similarity to the cellular sphingolipids, and this similarity has been shown to disturb the metabolism of sphingolipids by inhibiting a key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis.
FB1 is neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, and nephrotoxic in animals, and it has been classified as a possible carcinogen to humans. The cellular mechanisms behind FB1-induced toxicity include the induction of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity, as well as alterations in cytokine expression.
Peraica M, Radic B, Lucic A, Pavlovic M. Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(9):754-66. PMID: 10534900; PMCID: PMC2557730. [L]LEARN MORE
Fumonisins B2Optimal range: 0 - 5.4 ng/g
Fumonisin B2 is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium growing on moldy corn (maize) grain. FB2 and Fumonisin B3 (FB3) occur in lower concentrations than FB1. FB1 and FB2 are approximately equal in structure and toxicity but naturally occur in a ratio of about 3: 1 for FB1/FB2, thus has less toxicity than FB1.LEARN MORE
Fumonisins B3Optimal range: 0 - 8.1 ng/g
GliotoxinOptimal range: 0 - 155.9 ng/g
Gliotoxin is produced by the mold genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus spreads in the environment by releasing conidia which are capable of infiltrating the small alveolar airways of individuals.LEARN MORE
GlyphosateOptimal range: 0 - 0.75 mcg/g
Glyphosate is the world's most widely produced herbicide. It is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used in more than 700 different products for agriculture and forestry to home use.
Possible treatment options if in higher ranges:
Treatment of glyphosate toxicity should be centered on determining the route of introduction and avoiding future exposure. Glyphosate is readily metabolized in the body. However, a recent study found that glyphosate accumulates in mammalian bones. Another study found glyphosate to be detectable in mammalian intestine, spleen, liver, muscle, and kidney. Kidney impairment is common in regions where glyphosate may accumulate in ground water as metal chelates. The most effective way to reduce glyphosate exposure is to avoid living in areas where glyphosate is applied and to avoid eating GMO foods or animal products such as milk or meat for which GMO foods were used to feed the animals. Since glyphosate is now commonly combined with the weed killer 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), testing for this chemical with the GPL-TOX test may wish to be considered also.LEARN MORE
Isosatratoxin FOptimal range: 0 - 0.1 ng/g
Isosatratoxin F is another trichothecene produced by Stachybotrys chartarum. Several animal studies have shown that isosatratoxin F can cause nasal and pulmonary toxicity when administered intranasally or intratracheally. They showed that pulmonary alveolus cells were injured following intratracheal instillation of isosatratoxin F with marked changes in surfactant synthesis and secretion.LEARN MORE
mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)Optimal range: 0 - 20 mcg/g
MEOHP is a metabolite of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), which belongs to the most common environmental toxin phthalates.
Phthalates, often known as plasticizers, are a group of chemicals used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break. They are widely used in cosmetics, adhesives, detergents, lubricating oils, automotive plastics, and plastic clothes. People are exposed to phthalates by eating or drinking contaminated foods but also by breathing in air that contains phthalate vapors or dusts.LEARN MORE
Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEtP)Optimal range: 0 - 305 mcg/g
Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEtP) is a metabolite of DEP (diethyl phthalate).
Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEtP) is found in personal care products such as perfume, cologne, aftershaves, deodorants, shampoo, and hand lotion.LEARN MORE
Nivalenol (NIV)Optimal range: 0 - 2.4 Units
Produced by the mold genus Fusarium, the type B trichothecenes, nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated precursors are often contaminating cereal staples, posing a potential threat to public health that is still incompletely understood.
Trichothecenes are very resistant to milling and processing, they can enter human food products easily. NIV is not found in food as commonly as DON; however, it demonstrates higher toxicity in animal studies. The toxicity of NIV is often compared to the toxicity of DON; however, the amount of toxicological data on NIV impact is much lower compared to DON.LEARN MORE
PatulinOptimal range: 0 - 8.7 ng/g
Patulin is a mycotoxin associated with the spoilage of grains, fruits, cheeses, and breads. It is considered the most significant mycotoxin in fruit and fruit juices; important because high-risk populations such as infants, children and the elderly consume these products.LEARN MORE
Roridin AOptimal range: 0 - 5.7 ng/g
Roridin HOptimal range: 0 - 6.3 ng/g
Roridin H is produced mainly by Stachybotrys and categorized as a trichothecene mycotoxin. There are reports showing the involvement of these trichothecene in the development of 'sick building syndrome'. These trichothecenes were found in air samples in the ventilation systems of private houses and office buildings, and on the walls of houses with high humidity. The symptoms of airborne toxicosis disappeared when the buildings and ventilation systems were thoroughly cleaned.LEARN MORE
Roridin L-2Optimal range: 0 - 5.1 ng/g
Satratoxin GOptimal range: 0 - 0.1 ng/g
Satratoxin G is a macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced by commonly called black mold or Stachybotrys chartarum, that contribute to disorders associated with water-damaged buildings.LEARN MORE
Satratoxin HOptimal range: 0 - 0.1 ng/g
T-2 toxinOptimal range: 0 - 0.1 ng/g
T-2 Toxin is a tricothecene produced by species of Fusarium and is one of the rare and deadlier toxins. If ingested in sufficient quantity, T-2 toxin can severely damage the entire digestive tract and cause rapid death due to internal hemorrhage. T-2 has been implicated in the human diseases alimentary toxic aleukia and pulmonary hemosiderosis. Damage caused by T-2 toxin is often permanent.LEARN MORE
Verrucarin JOptimal range: 0 - 6.9 ng/g
Verrucarin J is a trichothecene produced by Stachybotrys chartarum. They can grow in damp indoor environments and may contribute to health problems among building occupants. These Trichothecenes are lipophilic and thus the route of exposure can easily be through the skin, gut, and pulmonary mucosa.LEARN MORE