Mycotoxins (Vibrant America)


Performed by: Vibrant America

Biomarkers included in this panel:

Aflatoxin B1

- Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is produced by many strains of Aspergillus fungi. - Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent natural carcinogen known and is usually the major aflatoxin produced by toxigenic strains. - Aflatoxin B1 is one of the most potent liver

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Aflatoxin B2

Aatoxin B2 (AFB2) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus spp. and found in contaminated foods or hay exposed to water or humid conditions. Exposure routes are primarily ingestion or inhalation. Ingestion can either occur directly from food su

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Aflatoxin G1

Aflatoxins are naturally occurring Mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the four major naturally known aflatoxins produced by the Aspergillus species.

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Aflatoxin G2

Aflatoxin M1

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the main metabolite of aflatoxin B1, which is a mycotoxin produced by the mold species Aspergillus. Aflatoxins are some of the most carcinogenic substances in the environment. Aflatoxin susceptibility is dependent on multiple d

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Bisphenol A (BPA)

BPA is one of the highest volume of chemicals produced worldwide. It is a starting material for the synthesis of plastics. BPA-based plastic is clear and tough, and is made into plastic bottles including water bottles, sports equipment, CDs, and DVDs

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Dihydrocitrinone (DHC) is a metabolite of Citrinin (CTN), which is a mycotoxin that is produced by the mold genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus.

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Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin/DON)

Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as Deoxynivalenol, a tricothecene mycotoxin, is produced by several species of Fusarium. DON has been associated with outbreaks of acute gastrointestinal illness in humans. The FDA advisory level for DON for human con

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diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)

Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), also known as anguidine, is a type A trichothecene mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi. Trichothecenes are known as major contaminants of cereals and cereal-containing foods.

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Dihydrocitrinone is a metabolite of Citrinin (CTN), which is a mycotoxin that is produced by mold species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus.  CTN exposure can lead to nephropathy, because of its ability to increase permeabi

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Diphenyl Phosphate (DPP)

DPP is a metabolite of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), which is used as plasticizer and a fire retardant for a variety of materials including electronic equipment, PVC, hydraulic fluids, glues, nail polishes, and casting resins. TPHP exhibits low acute t

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Fumonisins B1

Fusarium is one of the most prevalent fungi associated with contamination of corn and other agricultural products throughout the world. Many different fumonisins have so far been reported, and they have been grouped into four main categories (A, B

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Fumonisins B2

Fumonisin B2 is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium growing on moldy corn (maize) grain. FB2 and Fumonisin B3 (FB3) occur in lower concentrations than FB1. FB1 and FB2 are approximately equal in structure and toxicity but naturally occur in a ratio of a

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Fumonisins B3

Fumonisin B3 (FB3), a less commonly studied but significant mycotoxin, is an important marker in Total Tox Burden panels, reflecting potential exposure to toxins produced by Fusarium species, predominantly found in maize and its by-products. Structur

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Gliotoxin is produced by the mold genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus spreads in the environment by releasing conidia which are capable of infiltrating the small alveolar airways of individuals.

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Glyphosate is the world's most widely produced herbicide. It is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used in more than 700 different products for agriculture and forestry to home use. Possible treatment options if in higher ranges: Treatment

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Isosatratoxin F

Isosatratoxin F is another trichothecene produced by Stachybotrys chartarum. Several animal studies have shown that isosatratoxin F can cause nasal and pulmonary toxicity when administered intranasally or intratracheally. They showed that pulmonary a

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mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)

MEOHP is a metabolite of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), which belongs to the most common environmental toxin phthalates. Phthalates, often known as plasticizers, are a group of chemicals used to make plastics more flexible and harder to brea

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Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEtP)

Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEtP) is a metabolite of DEP (diethyl phthalate). Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEtP) is found in personal care products such as perfume, cologne, aftershaves, deodorants, shampoo, and hand lotion.

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Nivalenol (NIV)

Produced by the mold genus Fusarium, the type B trichothecenes, nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated precursors are often contaminating cereal staples, posing a potential threat to public health that is still incompletely understood. Trichothecene

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Patulin is a mycotoxin associated with the spoilage of grains, fruits, cheeses, and breads. It is considered the most significant mycotoxin in fruit and fruit juices; important because high-risk populations such as infants, children and the elderly c

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Roridin A

Roridin H

Roridin H is produced mainly by Stachybotrys and categorized as a trichothecene mycotoxin. There are reports showing the involvement of these trichothecene in the development of 'sick building syndrome'. These trichothecenes were found in air

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Roridin L-2

Satratoxin G

Satratoxin G is a macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced by commonly called black mold or Stachybotrys chartarum, that contribute to disorders associated with water-damaged buildings.

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Satratoxin H

T-2 toxin

T-2 Toxin is a tricothecene produced by species of Fusarium and is one of the rare and deadlier toxins. If ingested in sufficient quantity, T-2 toxin can severely damage the entire digestive tract and cause rapid death due to internal hemorrhage. T-2

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Verrucarin J

Verrucarin J is a trichothecene produced by Stachybotrys chartarum. They can grow in damp indoor environments and may contribute to health problems among building occupants. These Trichothecenes are lipophilic and thus the route of exposure can easil

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