Genova Diagnostics

Genova Diagnostics is a global clinical laboratory, pioneering a systems approach that supports healthcare providers in the personalized treatment and prevention of chronic disease.

11-Eicosenoic

Optimal range: 3.7 - 18.1 µmol/L

Eicosenoic acid has recently been reported as one of the five biomarkers for diagnosis of schizophrenia.

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25-Hydroxyvitamin D

Optimal range: 50 - 80 ng/mL

Vitamin D is well known for the role it plays in regulating calcium and phosphorus to maintain bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder, neurological autoimmune processes, and in preventing on-going inflammation that damages tissue.

Vitamin D, frequently called the “sun vitamin,” is an essential component of the systems that our bodies use to keep bones and teeth strong. It also has important, emerging roles in immune function and cancer prevention. We have natural processes that regulate vitamin D production from the sun so extremely high levels of it are rare. Deficiency can cause a number of issues including weak bones, called osteomalacia.

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AA/EPA

Optimal range: 1 - 57 Ratio

This test measures the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in plasma. This ratio of the principle omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is a measure of the body’s eicosanoid balance. Balancing these eicosanoids in the body is an excellent way
for managing heart disease and other chronic and inflammatory processes.

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Alpha Linolenic

Optimal range: 13 - 80 µmol/L

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is plant-based essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained through the diet.

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alpha-Tocopherol

Optimal range: 6.8 - 31.7 mg/L

Naturally occurring vitamin E exists in eight chemical forms (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) that have varying levels of biological activity.

Alpha- (or α-) tocopherol is the only form that is recognized to meet human requirements. Alpha-tocopherol (body’s main form of vitamin E) functions as an antioxidant, regulates cell signaling, influences immune function and inhibits coagulation.

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Aluminum

Optimal range: 0 - 113 ppb

The major tissue sites of aluminum toxicity are the nervous system, immune system, bone, liver, and red blood cells. Aluminum may also interfere with heme (porphyrin) synthesis.

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Arachidic

Optimal range: 1.3 - 4.7 µmol/L

Arachidic acid (also called eicosanoic acid) is a long-chain saturated fatty acid. It is the elongation product of stearic acid and can be utilized as an energy source to build membranes.

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Arachidonic

Optimal range: 158 - 521 µmol/L

Arachidonic acid is an inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Our bodies produce this nutrient, and its excess may lead to inflammatory diseases and mood disorders.

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Arsenic

Optimal range: 0 - 10 ppb

Arsenic is a natural component of the earth’s crust and is widely distributed throughout the environment in the airwater and land. It is highly toxic in its inorganic form and considered a carcinogenic heavy metal.

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Behenic

Optimal range: 0.6 - 2.9 µmol/L

Behenic acid is a saturated fatty acids, in particular it is part of the group of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs).

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Beta-Carotene

Optimal range: 0.1 - 2.71 mg/L

Beta-Carotene is an oxidative stress marker.

– Beta-Carotene is involved in antioxidant protection.

– Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in the liver.

– Beta-carotene & other carotenoids are converted to vitamin A (retinol), involved in vision, antioxidant & immune function, gene expression & cell growth.

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Cadmium

Optimal range: 0 - 1.1 ppb

The principal organs most vulnerable to cadmium toxicity are your kidney and lung. Environmental cadmium exposure is associated with renal tubular damage and high blood pressure. Cadmium toxicity impacts the kidney, where damage to proximal tubules has been described. Also, cadmium compounds are classified as carcinogenic to humans.

Cadmium, a common environmental pollutant and a major constituent of tobacco smoke, has been identified as a new class of endocrine disruptors with a wide range of detrimental effects on reproduction.

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Calcium

Optimal range: 24 - 65 ppm

Calcium is essential for bones and teethheartnervesmuscles, and blood clotting.

Calcium is the most abundant mineral element in your body, because it is the major element in bones. Serum and red blood cell calcium, however, do not represent bone mineral content or dietary adequacy.

Although most of the body’s calcium is stored in bones, some circulates in the blood. About 40% of the calcium in blood is attached to proteins in blood, mainly albumin. Protein-bound calcium acts as a reserve source of calcium for the cells but has no active function in the body.

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Capric

Optimal range: 0.8 - 6.2 µmol/L

Capric acid (also known as Decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid (=MCFA) abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goatcow, and human. The MCFAs are virtually nonexistent in meats because animals oxidize them very rapidly from plants consumed, and do not accumulate in the tissues.

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Coenzyme Q10 (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.48 - 3.04 mg/L

CoEnzyme Q10 is an essential component of the mitochondria of the energy producing unit of the cell.

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Copper

Optimal range: 753 - 1920 ppb

Copper is part of enzymes, which are proteins that help biochemical reactions occur in every cell. Copper is involved in the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron.

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Dihomogamma Linolenic (Genova)

Optimal range: 27 - 140 µmol/L

Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA) is the elongation product of Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).

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Docosadienoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 2 µmol/L

Docosadienoic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid. Omega-6 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds.

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Docosahexaenoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 31 - 213 µmol/L

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the omega-3 fatty acids.

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Docosapentaenoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 11 - 50 µmol/L

Docosapentaenoic acid, or DPA, is a lesser known member of the omega-3 family.

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Docosatetraenoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 2.6 - 18.1 µmol/L

Docosatetraenoic acid is also known as Adrenic acid / Adrenate.

Docosatetraenoic acid is a member of the class of compounds known as very long-chain fatty acids.

Fatty acids belong to one of three types or families: saturatedmonounsaturated and polyunsaturated. These names describe the structure of the fatty acid in terms of whether it is fully loaded with hydrogen.

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Eicosadienoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 5.2 - 22.5 µmol/L

Eicosadienoic acid is the elongation product of Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and the direct precursor of Dihomogamma Linolenic (DGLA).

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Eicosapentaenoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 5 - 210 µmol/L

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) is a Polyunsaturated Omega-3 Fatty Acid and is involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and prevention of blood clots.

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EPA/DGLA (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.07 - 5.98 Ratio

The fatty acid profile shows the balance of fats and their metabolites in plasma. Your overall balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fats is represented by the ratios of AA/EPA(arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid) and EPA/DGLA.

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Gamma Linolenic (Genova)

Optimal range: 5 - 46 µmol/L

Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) is the precursor of both Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA), an anti-inflammatory fatty acid, and Arachidonic Acid (AA), a pro-inflammatory fatty acid. It can be produced in human tissues by action of desaturase enzymes on LA.

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gamma-Tocopherol (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.06 - 2.99 mg/L

Gamma-tocopherol is part of the Vitamin E classification group.

The term vitamin E refers to a group of eight naturally occurring compounds, all with different potencies:

– alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol and

– alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol.

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Heneicosanoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.74 µmol/L

Heneicosanoic acid is an odd-numbered saturated fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid. Vitamin B12 is required for the conversion of propionate into succinate for oxidation in the central energy pathways. Deficiency of vitamin B12 results in accumulation of propionate and subsequent buildup of the odd numbered fatty acids, such as heneicosanoic acid.

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Heptadecanoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 24.4 µmol/L

Heptadecanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Hexacosanoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.43 µmol/L

Hexacosanoic acid is a saturated fatty acid. It is a very long-chain fatty acid. Accumulation of certain very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) is associated with degenerative diseases of the central nervous system.

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LA/DGLA

Optimal range: 11 - 46 Ratio

LA/DGLA is a fatty acid ratio.

LA/DGLA stands for linolenic acid (=LA) and dihomogammalinolenic acid (=DGLA).

The LA/DGLA ratio is a biomarker that can indicate functional zinc deficiency.

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Lauric (Genova)

Optimal range: 2.2 - 27.3 µmol/L

Lauric acid is a saturated fat and one of the medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) together myristic and capric acid.

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Lead (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 29 ppb

Lead toxicity causes paralysis and pain in the extremities due to effects on demyelinization, axonal degeneration, and presynaptic block.

Lead toxicity commonly affects sensory, visual, auditory, and cerebellar (coordination) functions, reflecting its impact on the nervous system. Normocytic, sideroblastic anemia is the consequence of lead’s inhibiting effects on enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway.

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Lignoceric (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.63 - 2.45 µmol/L

Lignoceric Acid is a saturated fatty acids, in particular it is part of the group of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs).

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Linoleic (Genova)

Optimal range: 821 - 2032 µmol/L

Linoleic acid is by far the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in most human tissues. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid, and low levels indicate dietary insufficiency.

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Lipid Peroxides (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 2.6 nmol/ML

Lipid peroxides are oxidative degradation products of lipids, generated by a free radical chain reaction. Because of their abundance of reactive hydrogens, polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid peroxidation, which compromises the integrity and function of the cell membrane in which they reside.

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Magnesium (Genova)

Optimal range: 34 - 63 ppm

Measuring mineral concentrations inside your erythrocytes (red blood cells) is one of the best ways to determine their adequacy. Minerals are important catalysts that spark many of the chemical reactions in your body. The most extensively required mineral element in your body is magnesium. Erythrocyte magnesium is a measure of magnesium adequacy.

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Mead (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 8.3 µmol/L

Mead Acid (plasma) is a marker for overall, essential fatty acid status. 

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Mercury (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 9.8 ppb

Mercury is an element that is found all over the earth, in soil, rocks, and water. The issue with mercury is that if humans are exposed to it, depending on the amount, route, and duration of exposure, mercury can be toxic to humans.

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Myristic (Genova)

Optimal range: 15 - 139 µmol/L

Myristic acid is a medium chain fatty acid (=MCFA). It is present in palm kernel oil, coconut oil, butterfat, milk and to some extent in animal fats.

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Myristoleic (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.8 - 9.7 µmol/L

Myristoleic acid is one of the monounsaturated fatty acids.

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Nervonic (Genova)

Optimal range: 1.1 - 2.7 µmol/L

Nervonic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. Nervonic acid has the longest carbon chain of all monounsaturated fatty acids. It is found in highest concentrations in nerve membranes, particularly in myelin sheaths, which are sleeves of fatty tissue that protect your nerve cells.

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Nonadecanoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.89 µmol/L

Nonadecanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Oleic (Genova)

Optimal range: 466 - 1470 µmol/L

Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid in human cells.

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Palmitelaidic

Optimal range: 0 - 1.8 µmol/L

Palmitelaidic acid is a trans fat.

Trans fatty acids are prevalent in most diets because of the widespread use of hydrogenated oils used by manufacturers of margarines, bakery products, and peanut butters.

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Palmitic (Genova)

Optimal range: 667 - 2526 µmol/L

Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid.

Palmitic and stearic acids are significant markers for high consumption of saturated fats.

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Palmitoleic (Genova)

Optimal range: 30 - 256 µmol/L

Palmitoleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. Palmitoleic acid is the desaturation product of palmitic acid. Since palmitic acid is predominant in human tissues where desaturase enzyme activity is present, one might expect relatively high levels of palmitoleic acid.

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Pentadecanoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 20.6 µmol/L

Pentadecanoic acid is an odd numbered fatty acid with a 15-carbon backbone (15:0) and widely considered as one biomarker to assess dairy consumption/intake. It is not normally synthesized by humans, but is found in trace amounts in dairy products (milk fat) and ruminant meat fat.

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Potassium (Genova)

Optimal range: 2303 - 3374 ppm

Erythrocyte potassium levels uniquely reveal your total body potassium status. Potassium is an abundant mineral that helps keep normal water balance between the cells and body fluids. Muscle contractions, nerve impulses and blood pressure rely on availability of potassium.

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Selenium (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.13 - 0.32 ppm

Selenium is a mineral found in soil, water, and some foods. We need trace amounts for normal health, and selenium is an essential element in several metabolic pathways. It also has antioxidant properties that help prevent cellular damage from free radicals.

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Stearic (Genova)

Optimal range: 250 - 629 µmol/L

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is two carbon atoms longer than palmitic acid.

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Total C:18 Trans

Optimal range: 0 - 59 µmol/L

The total C18 trans isomers include elaidic acid, petroselaidic, and transvaccenic acids. The presence of these eighteen-carbon long trans fatty acids in human tissue can disrupt or impair cell membrane function. A person with high levels of total C18 trans isomers should avoid hydrogenated oils.

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Tricosanoic (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.78 µmol/L

Tricosanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Triene/Tetraene (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.023 Ratio

The Triene/Tetraene (T/T) ratio is another marker for essential fatty acid status. It is calculated as the ratio of Mead acid to arachidonic acid. This ratio, combined with measurements of the essential fatty acids and Mead acid, gives a more complete picture of the degree and nature of fatty acid deficiency. An elevated ratio shows a relative excess of triene (3 double bonds) compared to tetraene (4 double bonds), which results from essential fatty acid deficiency.

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Vaccenic

Optimal range: 40 - 122 µmol/L

Vaccenic acid is a naturally occuring trans-fatty acid. Vaccenic acid is called this way as it is found in cow’s milk. The latin word vacca means cow.

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Vitamin A (Retinol) (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.29 - 1.05 mg/L

Vitamin A is an antioxidant in the membranes of your cells where it serves a protective function. Every day you lose some vitamin A, because it is used in the replacement of old tissues.

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Zinc (Genova)

Optimal range: 643 - 1594 ppb

Zinc plays a vital role in immunity, protein metabolism, heme synthesis, growth & development, reproduction, digestion and antioxidant function.

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