Quest Diagnostics

21-Hydroxylase Antibodies

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

This result is a qualitative determination of autoantibodies to 21-Hydroxylase (21-OH Abs) in patient serum. 21-OH Abs occur in autoimmune Addison's disease, whether isolated or part of type I or type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. This result should be used in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings and is not a substitute for functional testing required to diagnose adrenal insufficiency.

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Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies are autoantibodies produced by the immune system that mistakenly target proteins called acetylcholine receptors that are located on muscles that you can consciously or voluntarily control (known as skeletal muscle fibers). This test detects and measures AChR antibodies in the blood.

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Ana Pattern

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Usually, the results of the ANA test are reported in titers and patterns. The titer gives information about how many times the lab technician diluted the blood plasma to get a sample of ANAs.

The pattern of the ANA test can give information about the type of autoimmune disease present and the appropriate treatment program

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ANA SCREEN, IFA

Optimal range: 0 - 0.01 Units

ANA IFA is a first line screen for detecting the presence of up to approximately 150 autoantibodies in various autoimmune diseases. A positive ANA IFA result is suggestive of autoimmune disease and reflexes to titer and pattern. Further laboratory testing may be considered if clinically indicated.

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ANA titer

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

The ANA titer is a measure of the amount of ANA in the blood; the higher the titer, the more autoantibodies are present in the sample.

Patient samples are often screened for antinuclear antibodies after being diluted 1:40 and 1:160 in a buffered solution. If staining is observed at both the 1:40 and 1:160 dilutions, then the laboratory continues to dilute the sample until staining can no longer be seen under the microscope. The level to which a patient's sample can be diluted and still produce recognizable staining is known as the ANA "titer." 

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B2 GLYCOPROTEIN I (IGA)AB

Optimal range: 0 - 20 SAU

B2 GLYCOPROTEIN I (IGG)AB

Optimal range: 0 - 20 SGU

The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a clinical-pathologic correlation that includes a clinical event (e.g. thrombosis, pregnancy loss, thrombocytopenia) and persistent positive antiphospholipid antibodies (IgM or IgG ACA >40 MPL/GPL,IgM or IgG anti-b2GPI antibodies or a lupus anticoagulant).

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B2 GLYCOPROTEIN I (IGM)AB

Optimal range: 0 - 20 SMU

CARNITINE ESTERS

Optimal range: 4 - 13 umol/L

CARNITINE, FREE

Optimal range: 19 - 48 umol/L

CARNITINE, TOTAL

Optimal range: 25 - 58 umol/L

CHROMOGRANIN A

Optimal range: 25 - 140 ng/mL

The Chromogranin A test may be used to help detect, diagnose, and/or monitor neuroendocrine tumors, especially carcinoid tumors.

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COPEPTIN

Optimal range: 0 - 14 pmol/L

Cortisol, Free, Urine

Optimal range: 3.1 - 42.3 mcg/L

Cortisol is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by a multienzyme cascade in the adrenal glands. It is the main glucocorticoid in humans and acts as a gene transcription factor influencing a multitude of cellular responses in virtually all tissues. Cortisol plays a critical role in glucose metabolism, maintenance of vascular tone, immune response regulation, and in the body's response to stress. Its production is under hypothalamic-pituitary feedback control

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CORTISOL,FREE,LC/MS,S

Optimal range: 0.04 - 0.93 mcg/dL

DRVVT SCREEN

Optimal range: 0 - 45 seconds

ESTERIFIED/FREE RATIO:

Optimal range: 0.13 - 0.42 Ratio

ESTRADIOL (Quest)

Optimal range: 0 - 357 pg/mL

GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE

Optimal range: 7 - 20.5 U/g Hgb

GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE helps red blood cells (RBCs) function normally. It also protects them from potentially harmful byproducts that can accumulate when your body is fighting infection or as the result of certain medications. A lack of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE may make RBCs more vulnerable to breaking down in a process called hemolysis.

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Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 AB

Optimal range: 0 - 5 IU/ml

This test is intended for the semiquantitative determination of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody in human serum; it is useful as an aid in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (autoimmune mediated diabetes).

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Chronic Urticaria (CU) is a common skin disorder affecting 1 to 6% of the general population.

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HISTAMINE, PLASMA

Optimal range: 0 - 1.8 ng/mL

Useful for evaluating for diseases of immediate hypersensitivity or mast cell proliferation (mastocytosis).

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IGF 1, LC/MS

Optimal range: 52 - 328 ng/mL

IMMUNOGLOBULIN M

Optimal range: 50 - 300 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid, is the first antibody to be made by the body to fight a new infection. Expressed on the surface of B cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avidity (forms multiple binding sites with antigen). Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B-cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG. 

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Immunoglobulin Subclass 4

Optimal range: 4 - 86 mg/dL

IgG immunoglobulins are composed of four subtypes named IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. Each subclass is present in the serum in different concentrations, varies with age, and has different roles for immune response. Abnormal levels of one or more subclasses may be associated with certain conditions.

This marker helps to evaluate sinopulmonary infections, asthma; immunotherapy hyposensitization; and allergies.

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INTRINSIC FACTOR BLOCKING ANTIBODY

Optimal range: 0 - 0.01 Positive / Negative

IODINE, RANDOM URINE

Optimal range: 34 - 523 mcg/L

Measurement of urinary iodine excretion provides the best index of dietary iodine intake.

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LH

Optimal range: 0.5 - 76.3 mIU/ml

LKM-1 Antibody (IgG)

Optimal range: 0 - 20 u

Liver Kidney Microsomal (LKM-1) Antibody (IgG)

The presence of LKM-1 antibodies can be used in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory tests to aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune liver diseases such as autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-2).

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LUPUS ANTICOAGULANT

Optimal range: 0 - 0.01 Units

Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE)

Optimal range: 0 - 10.8 ng/mL

Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is an enzyme that is found in the cytoplasm of neurons and neuroendocrine cells. The production of NSE occurs late in neural differentiation, thus making NSE an index of neural maturation.

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PARATHYROID HORMONE, INTACT

Optimal range: 14 - 64 pg/mL

PREGNENOLONE, LC/MS

Optimal range: 22 - 237 ng/dL

PROGESTERONE, LC/MS

Optimal range: 0 - 0.3 ng/mL

PROLACTIN-2

Optimal range: 3 - 30 ng/mL

PROSTAGLANDIN D2 (PG D2), URINE

Optimal range: 0 - 0 ng/liter

PROSTAGLANDINS: (PLASMA/SERUM)

Optimal range: 80 - 240 pg/mL

PROTHROMBIN ANTIBODY (IGG)

Optimal range: 0 - 20 G units

PTT-LA SCREEN

Optimal range: 0 - 40 seconds

Anti-soluble liver antigen antibodies are detected in 10% - 30% of patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), but not in patients with type 2 AIH, primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis.

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T3 REVERSE, LC/MS/MS

Optimal range: 8 - 25 ng/dL

T3, FREE

Optimal range: 2.3 - 4.2 pg/mL

TESTOSTERONE,BIOAVAILABLE

Optimal range: 0.5 - 8.5 ng/dL

TRYPTASE

Optimal range: 0 - 10.99 mcg/L

Tryptase is an enzyme that is released, along with histamine and other chemicals, from mast cells when they are activated as part of a normal immune response as well as in allergic (hypersensitivity) responses.

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TSI stands for thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. TSIs are antibodies that tell the thyroid gland to become more active and release excess amounts of thyroid hormone into the blood. A TSI test measures the amount of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin in your blood.

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Z SCORE (FEMALE)

Optimal range: -2 - 2 SD

A Z-score compares your bone density to the average bone density of people your own age and gender.

For example, if you are a 50-year-old female, a Z-score compares your bone density to the average bone density of 50-year-old females.

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