Quest Diagnostics

21-Hydroxylase Antibodies

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

This result is a qualitative determination of autoantibodies to 21-Hydroxylase (21-OH Abs) in patient serum. 21-OH Abs occur in autoimmune Addison's disease, whether isolated or part of type I or type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. This result should be used in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings and is not a substitute for functional testing required to diagnose adrenal insufficiency.

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Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies are autoantibodies produced by the immune system that mistakenly target proteins called acetylcholine receptors that are located on muscles that you can consciously or voluntarily control (known as skeletal muscle fibers). This test detects and measures AChR antibodies in the blood.

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Ana Pattern

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Usually, the results of the ANA test are reported in titers and patterns. The titer gives information about how many times the lab technician diluted the blood plasma to get a sample of ANAs.

The pattern of the ANA test can give information about the type of autoimmune disease present and the appropriate treatment program

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B2 GLYCOPROTEIN I (IGA)AB

Optimal range: 0 - 20 SAU

B2 GLYCOPROTEIN I (IGG)AB

Optimal range: 0 - 20 SGU

The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a clinical-pathologic correlation that includes a clinical event (e.g. thrombosis, pregnancy loss, thrombocytopenia) and persistent positive antiphospholipid antibodies (IgM or IgG ACA >40 MPL/GPL,IgM or IgG anti-b2GPI antibodies or a lupus anticoagulant).

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B2 GLYCOPROTEIN I (IGM)AB

Optimal range: 0 - 20 SMU

CARNITINE ESTERS

Optimal range: 4 - 13 umol/L

Carnitine, Free

Optimal range: 19 - 48 umol/L

Serum carnitine analysis is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with carnitine deficiency (either primary or secondary). Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited genetic condition that affects carnitine uptake by cells and tissues through a defect in the plasma membrane carnitine transporter. Secondary carnitine deficiency can be seen in some disease states or in patients on carnitine-poor diets, but is also seen in a number of metabolic disorders. In these disorders, carnitine complexes with the accumulated substrate of the blocked metabolic step, and the resulting acylcarnitine ester is excreted in the urine, leading to a depletion of carnitine in the patient.

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Carnitine, Total

Optimal range: 25 - 58 umol/L

Serum carnitine analysis is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with carnitine deficiency (either primary or secondary). Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited genetic condition that affects carnitine uptake by cells and tissues through a defect in the plasma membrane carnitine transporter. Secondary carnitine deficiency can be seen in some disease states or in patients on carnitine-poor diets, but is also seen in a number of metabolic disorders. In these disorders, carnitine complexes with the accumulated substrate of the blocked metabolic step, and the resulting acylcarnitine ester is excreted in the urine, leading to a depletion of carnitine in the patient.

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CHROMOGRANIN A

Optimal range: 25 - 140 ng/mL

The Chromogranin A test may be used to help detect, diagnose, and/or monitor neuroendocrine tumors, especially carcinoid tumors.

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COPEPTIN

Optimal range: 0 - 14 pmol/L

Cortisol, Free, Urine

Optimal range: 3.1 - 42.3 mcg/L

Cortisol is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by a multienzyme cascade in the adrenal glands. It is the main glucocorticoid in humans and acts as a gene transcription factor influencing a multitude of cellular responses in virtually all tissues. Cortisol plays a critical role in glucose metabolism, maintenance of vascular tone, immune response regulation, and in the body's response to stress. Its production is under hypothalamic-pituitary feedback control

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CORTISOL,FREE,LC/MS,S

Optimal range: 0.04 - 0.93 mcg/dL

ESTERIFIED/FREE RATIO:

Optimal range: 0.13 - 0.42 Ratio

ESTRADIOL (Quest)

Optimal range: 0 - 357 pg/mL

GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE

Optimal range: 7 - 20.5 U/g Hgb

GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE helps red blood cells (RBCs) function normally. It also protects them from potentially harmful byproducts that can accumulate when your body is fighting infection or as the result of certain medications. A lack of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE may make RBCs more vulnerable to breaking down in a process called hemolysis.

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Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 AB

Optimal range: 0 - 5 IU/ml

This test is intended for the semiquantitative determination of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody in human serum; it is useful as an aid in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (autoimmune mediated diabetes).

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Chronic Urticaria (CU) is a common skin disorder affecting 1 to 6% of the general population.

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HISTAMINE, PLASMA

Optimal range: 0 - 1.8 ng/mL

Useful for evaluating for diseases of immediate hypersensitivity or mast cell proliferation (mastocytosis).

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IGF 1, LC/MS

Optimal range: 52 - 328 ng/mL

IMMUNOGLOBULIN M

Optimal range: 50 - 300 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid, is the first antibody to be made by the body to fight a new infection. Expressed on the surface of B cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avidity (forms multiple binding sites with antigen). Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B-cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG. 

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Immunoglobulin Subclass 4

Optimal range: 4 - 86 mg/dL

IgG immunoglobulins are composed of four subtypes named IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. Each subclass is present in the serum in different concentrations, varies with age, and has different roles for immune response. Abnormal levels of one or more subclasses may be associated with certain conditions.

This marker helps to evaluate sinopulmonary infections, asthma; immunotherapy hyposensitization; and allergies.

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LH

Optimal range: 0.5 - 76.3 mIU/ml

LKM-1 Antibody (IgG)

Optimal range: 0 - 20 u

Liver Kidney Microsomal (LKM-1) Antibody (IgG)

The presence of LKM-1 antibodies can be used in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory tests to aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune liver diseases such as autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-2).

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LUPUS ANTICOAGULANT

Optimal range: 0 - 0.01 Units

Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE)

Optimal range: 0 - 10.8 ng/mL

Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is an enzyme that is found in the cytoplasm of neurons and neuroendocrine cells. The production of NSE occurs late in neural differentiation, thus making NSE an index of neural maturation.

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PARATHYROID HORMONE, INTACT

Optimal range: 14 - 64 pg/mL

PREGNENOLONE, LC/MS

Optimal range: 22 - 237 ng/dL

PROGESTERONE, LC/MS

Optimal range: 0 - 0.3 ng/mL

PROLACTIN-2

Optimal range: 3 - 30 ng/mL

PROSTAGLANDIN D2 (PG D2), URINE

Optimal range: 0 - 0 ng/liter

PROSTAGLANDINS: (PLASMA/SERUM)

Optimal range: 80 - 240 pg/mL

PROTHROMBIN ANTIBODY (IGG)

Optimal range: 0 - 20 G units

Anti-soluble liver antigen antibodies are detected in 10% - 30% of patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), but not in patients with type 2 AIH, primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis.

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T3 REVERSE, LC/MS/MS

Optimal range: 8 - 25 ng/dL

T3, FREE

Optimal range: 2.3 - 4.2 pg/mL

TESTOSTERONE,BIOAVAILABLE

Optimal range: 0.5 - 8.5 ng/dL

Total Glutathione

Optimal range: 373 - 838 uM

Glutathione is an antioxidant, a type of chemical which helps to boost your immune system as well as prevent and reverse cellular damage.  Unlike most antioxidants which come from the food you eat, glutathione is naturally produced by the body in the liver. Glutathione plays a number of roles in overall health including boosting the immune system, helping to break down nutrients in food, and protecting against chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinsons, diabetes, some types of cancer, and heart disease.  

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TRYPTASE

Optimal range: 0 - 10.99 mcg/L

Tryptase is an enzyme that is released, along with histamine and other chemicals, from mast cells when they are activated as part of a normal immune response as well as in allergic (hypersensitivity) responses.

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TSI stands for thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. TSIs are antibodies that tell the thyroid gland to become more active and release excess amounts of thyroid hormone into the blood. A TSI test measures the amount of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin in your blood.

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Z SCORE (FEMALE)

Optimal range: -2 - 2 SD

A Z-score compares your bone density to the average bone density of people your own age and gender.

For example, if you are a 50-year-old female, a Z-score compares your bone density to the average bone density of 50-year-old females.

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Z SCORE (MALE)

Optimal range: -2 - 2 SD

A Z-score compares your bone density to the average bone density of people your own age and gender.

For example, if you are a 50-year-old female, a Z-score compares your bone density to the average bone density of 50-year-old females.

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