Neurotransmitters (VibrantWellness)


Performed by: Vibrant Wellness

Biomarkers included in this panel:

Epinephrine (2nd Morning)

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a monoamine that serves as both a stress hormone and an excitatory neurotransmitter. It is produced by chromaffin cells within the adrenal medulla of the adrenal gland and is secreted into the bloodstream dur

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The Organic Acids Test measures levels of HVA (homovanillic acid) and VMA (vanillylmandelic acid), the metabolites of the neurotransmitters, dopamine and epinephrine/norepinephrine. It also measures the ratio of the two metabolites.

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The Norepinephrine / Epinephrine ratio is an indicator of epinephrine (adrenaline) conversion (epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine). Anxiety, burnout, and poor blood sugar control are associated with a relative epinephrine depletion, and t

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Quinolinic acid/5-HIAA Ratio

A high ratio of quinolinic acid to the tryptophan metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, indicates excessive inflammation due to recurrent infections, excessive tryptophan intake, immune overstimulation, excessive adrenal production of cortisol, or

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Serotonin plays important roles in the resolution of mood, sleep, and appetite. Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter synthesized by enzymes that act on tryptophan and/or 5-HTP. Neurotransmitters are divided

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Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine formed via the actions of monoamine oxidase, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase. VMA is found in the

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