The GI – Advanced Profile (US BioTek)


Performed by: US BioTek

Biomarkers included in this panel:

a-Transglutaminase IgA


Acetate is the most abundant SCFA in the colon and makes up more than half of the total SCFA detected in feces. These beneficial SCFA have anti-inflammatory properties, provide energy to nourish the colonic epithelial cells and intestinal microbiota,

Learn more

Actinobacteria Phylum

Adenovirus 40/41

Aeromonas hydrophila

Akkermansia muciniphila

Akkermansia muciniphila may represent 3–5% of the microbial composition in the healthy human intestinal tract, and have a crucial role in the regulation of the gut barrier and other homeostatic and metabolic functions.

Learn more



Ampicillin, a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic, is part of the penicillin class and is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Its mechanism of action involves inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, which is crucial for bact

Learn more

Ancylostoma duodenale, Roundworm

Ascaris lumbricoides, Roundworm

Astrovirus (hAstro)


Augmentin, a widely used antibiotic, is a combination of two active ingredients: amoxicillin, a penicillin-type antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. This combination is designed to enhance the effectiveness of amoxicillin by o

Learn more

Bacillus species

Bacteroides fragilis

Species in the genus Bacteroides carry out broad metabolic functions, including degradation of complex plant polysaccharides, proteolytic activities, de-conjugation of bile acids, mucosal barrier integrity, short chain fatty acid production, fatty ac

Learn more

Bacteroidetes Phylum

The Bacteroidetes Phylum marker refers to a group of bacteria commonly found in the human gut, playing a crucial role in the digestive process. This phylum includes various species that are essential for breaking down complex molecules like carbohydr

Learn more


Beta glucuronidase

Bifidobacterium longum

Bifidobacterium longum is a specific species of microscopic non-pathogenic bacteria found naturally in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans as well as in most other animals.

Learn more

Bifidobacterium species

A common component of the microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract and in particular are amongst the first bacterial colonizers of the intestine.

Learn more

Black Walnut

Blastocystis hominis

Blastocystis hominis is found throughout the world in both people with and without symptoms. It is a non-pathogenic parasite. Non-pathogenic parasites are present in the gastrointestinal tract and generally are self-limiting and do not cause illness.

Learn more


Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced in the colon by the bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates, primarily dietary fiber. It serves as a primary energy source for colonocytes (cells of the colon) and has several important

Learn more

C. difficile, Toxin A

C. difficile, Toxin B


Calprotectin is a calcium-binding protein with antimicrobial properties. It accounts for 60% of neutrophil cytosolic content and is also found in monocytes and macrophages. Calprotectin is released from the intestinal mucosa into the stool

Learn more

Campylobacter species

Candida albicans

The Candida albicans marker in a gastrointestinal (GI) panel is a crucial indicator of the presence and concentration of Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus, in the gut microbiome. Candida albicans is a common commensal organism in the human body,

Learn more

Candida species

Caprylic Acid



Citrobacter freundii

Citrobacter spp., a gram-negative bacterium and member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is considered dysbiotic at 3+ or greater. Citrobacter freundii complex (including C. freundii, C. braakii, C. gullenii, C. murliniae, rodentium, C. wermanii,

Learn more

Citrobacter species

Citrus Seed

Clostridium species

Clostridium species, when identified in a gastrointestinal (GI) test, can be of significant clinical interest due to their diverse roles in human health and disease. Members of the Clostridium genus are a part of the normal gut flora in humans and an

Learn more


Coptis, often referred to in the context of traditional Chinese medicine, is a genus of plants known for their potent medicinal properties, particularly their natural inhibitory effects against various pathogens and health conditions. The most well-k

Learn more

Cryptosporidium species

Desulfovibrio piger

Dientamoeba fragilis

Endolimax nana

Entamoeba coli

Entamoeba histolytica

Enterobacter cloacae complex

Enterobacter is a genus of common Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, commonly found in the environment as well as the gastrointestinal tract. There are many species, however, not all species are known to cause human disease.

Learn more

Enterobacter ludwigii

Enterobacter ludwigii is a notable species within the Enterobacter genus, a part of the larger family of Enterobacteriaceae. This species, like others in its genus, is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, typically found in various env

Learn more

Enterobius vermicularis, Pinworm

Enterococcus faecalis


Enterococcus faecalis, a key indicator often identified in gut health assessments like the comprehensive GI tests, plays a significant role in understanding the complex ecosystem of the human gastrointestinal tract. As a bacterium that is naturally p

Learn more

Enterococcus faecium

Gram-positive species in the Firmicutes phylum. High levels may result from reduced stomach acid, PPI use, compromised digestive function, SIBO or constipation. High natural resistance to some antibiotics, which may result in overgrowth.

Learn more

Enterococcus faecium.

Enterococcus species

Enterococcus species, when detected in a gastrointestinal (GI) test, can provide important insights into the health and balance of the gut microbiome. These bacteria are part of the normal intestinal flora in humans and animals and typically coexist

Learn more

Enterocytozoon spp

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

Enteroinvasive E. coli/Shigella

Enterotoxigenic E. coli LT/ST


Escherichia species

Enterococcus species, commonly detected in gastrointestinal (GI) tests, represent a significant group of bacteria naturally inhabiting the human gut. These species, particularly Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, are noteworthy for their

Learn more

Euryarchaeota Phylum

The Euryarchaeota phylum, a key player in the realm of gut microbiome analysis, stands out in gut health panels for its unique and diverse archaeal species. This phylum, part of the broader Archaea domain, includes various organisms that play crucial

Learn more

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most important bacteria in the human gut flora and makes up to 5-10% of the total number of bacteria detected in stool samples from healthy humans. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has a crucial role in maintain

Learn more

Firmicutes Phylum

The marker "Firmicutes Phylum" refers to a significant group of bacteria commonly found in the human gut. Firmicutes are one of the most abundant types of bacteria in the human digestive tract, playing a crucial role in the body's abili

Learn more

Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes Ratio

The "Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes Ratio" is an important marker that provides insights into the composition of gut microbiota. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are two major groups of bacteria commonly found in the human gut. Each plays a critical

Learn more

Fusobacterium species

The marker Fusobacterium species refers to a group of bacteria that are part of the normal flora in the human gut but can also act as pathogens under certain conditions. Fusobacterium species are anaerobic bacteria, meaning they thrive in environment

Learn more



Geotrichum species

The Geotrichum species marker on a gastrointestinal (GI) panel is indicative of the presence and relative abundance of Geotrichum, a genus of fungi, in the gut microbiome. Geotrichum species are commonly found in soil, water, air, and various food pr

Learn more

Giardia intestinalis

Golden seal

Golden seal, or Hydrastis canadensis, is a North American herb known for its natural inhibitory properties, mainly due to alkaloids like berberine and hydrastine. It's traditionally used for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and

Learn more

H.pylori Virulence Factor, babA

H.pylori Virulence Factor, cagA

H.pylori Virulence Factor, dupA

H.pylori Virulence Factor, iceA

H.pylori Virulence Factor, oipA

H.pylori Virulence Factor, vacA

H.pylori Virulence Factor, virB

H.pylori Virulence Factor, virD

Helicobacter pylori

Hymenolepis spp, Tapeworm

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella spp. are gram-negative bacilli belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and closely related to the genera Enterobacter and Serratia. Klebsiella spp. are considered dysbiotic in the amount of 3 - 4 +. Klebsiella spp. are widely distribute

Learn more

Klebsiella species

Klebsiella are non-motile, Gramnegative rods that belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Klebsiella bacteria are considered commensal but act as opportunistic bacteria in the GI tract. Klebsiellais a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections.

Learn more

Lactobacillus rhamnosus

Lactobacillus rhamnosus was first isolated in 1983 and is known to have a strong avidity for human intestinal cells and can survive acid and bile environments. It is considered one of the most studied probiotics, with research showing that it co

Learn more

Lactobacillus species

Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus. Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”

Learn more


Methanobrevibacter smithii

Methanobrevibacter smithii, a prominent archaeon (=a microorganism) in the human gut microbiome, is frequently identified in comprehensive gut health tests and plays a pivotal role in the intricate ecosystem of our digestive system. This microorganis

Learn more

Morganella species



The GI – Advanced Profile by US BioTek features a comprehensive marker known as "Mucuous," which plays a pivotal role in assessing gastrointestinal health. This marker is crucial for understanding the mucosal integrity within the GI t

Learn more

Necator americanus, Hookworm


Norovirus GI/II

Occult Blood



Oxalobacter formigenes

Oxalobacter formigenes is a bacterium that colonizes the colon of a substantial proportion of the normal population and metabolizes dietary and endogenous oxalate and hence reducing the incidence of kidney stones.

Learn more

Pancreatic Elastase

Pancreatic elastase is an enzyme that digests protein. It’s only produced by the pancreas and when it is seen in the stool, it’s an excellent biomarker of how well the pancreas is performing.

Learn more


Pentatrichomonas hominis

Prevotella copri


Propionate is among the most common short-chain fatty acids produced in the human gut in response to indigestible carbohydrates (fiber) in the diet.

Learn more

Proteobacteria Phylum

Proteobacteria are a diverse phylum, comprised with several subclasses: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Zetaproteobacteria. The Proteobacteria are commonly occurring in

Learn more

Proteus mirabilis

Opportunistic Bacteria associated with Autoimmunity.  Gram-negative bacteria in the Proteobacteria phylum. High levels may indicate increased intestinal inflammatory activity; May contribute to loose stools or diarrhea; Pets or wild animals c

Learn more

Proteus species

Gram-negative bacteria in the Proteobacteria phylum. High levels may indicate increased intestinal inflammatory activity; May contribute to loose stools or diarrhea; Pets or wild animals can be a source.

Learn more

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

- Gram-negative bacteria in the Proteobacteria phylum. - Pseudomonas aeruginosa are normal flora in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which on occasion cause GI tract infection.

Learn more

Pseudomonas species

Rhodotorula species

Rotavirus A

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Salmonella species

Sapovirus (I,II,IV,V)

Secretory (sIgA)

Fecal Secretory IgA is a marker of gut secretory immunity and barrier function. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an antibody playing a critical role in mucosal immunity and is produced in greater quantities than all other types of antibody combined. I

Learn more

Shiga-like Toxin E. coli stx1

Shiga-like Toxin E. coli stx2

Short Chain Fatty Acids, Beneficial

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus species

Staphylococcus species, commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract, are a diverse group of bacteria. Some species are harmless and part of the normal gut flora, while others, like Staphylococcus aureus, can be pathogenic. The presence of Staphyloco

Learn more


Steatocrit is a diagnostic test specifically designed to measure the fat content in feces, offering a non-invasive method to evaluate fat malabsorption. This condition, where fats are not properly absorbed by the intestines, can lead to various gastr

Learn more

Stool Colour


Stool Form


Streptococcus species

Streptococcus is a member of Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) that belonged to Firmicutes phylum. Many strains of Streptococcus are non-pathogenic and occur as commensal flora on the skin, the oral cavity, n

Learn more

Strongyloides spp, Roundworm

Strongyloides spp refers to a genus of roundworms responsible for strongyloidiasis, a parasitic infection that can range from asymptomatic to severe, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. This parasite primarily infects humans through skin c

Learn more

Taenia species, Tapeworm

Trichuris trichiura, Whipworm



Valerate is a Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA). It is derived from bacterial fermentation of protein in the distal colon. SCFAs are the end product of the bacterial fermentation process of dietary fiber by beneficial flora in the gut and play an

Learn more

Verrucomicrobia Phylum

The marker "Verrucomicrobia Phylum" refers to a group of bacteria belonging to the phylum Verrucomicrobia, which is often evaluated during stool tests to understand gut health. Verrucomicrobia are a less common but interesting group of bact

Learn more

Vibrio species

Yersinia species



Zonulin is a protein that opens intercellular tight junctions in the gut lining (the connections between epithelial cells that make up the gastrointestinal lining). Zonulin increases intestinal permeability in the jejunum and ileum and is considered

Learn more