White Blood Cell Differential Test

The White Blood Differential Test measures the percentage (and absolute values) of each type of white blood cell (WBC) that you have in your blood. 

Five different types of white blood cells, also called leukocytes, normally appear in the blood:

- Neutrophils
- Lymphocytes
- Monocytes
- Eosinophils
- Basophils

The test shows if the number of cells are in proper proportion with one another, and if there is more or less of one cell type. 

What do abnormal results mean?
Any infection or acute stress increases your number of white blood cells. High white blood cell counts may be due to inflammation, an immune response, or blood diseases such as leukemia. It is important to realize that an abnormal increase in one type of white blood cell can cause a decrease in the percentage of other types of white blood cells.

Although your white blood cells account for only about 1 percent of your blood, their impact is significant. White blood cells are essential for good health and protection against illness and disease. Think of white blood cells as your immunity cells. In a sense, they are continually at war. They flow through your bloodstream to battle viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders that threaten your health. When your body is in distress and a particular area is under attack, white blood cells rush in to help destroy the harmful substance and prevent illness. White blood cells are produced inside the bone marrow and stored in your blood and lymphatic tissues. Because some white blood cells have a short lifespan of one to three days, your bone marrow is constantly producing them.

Band Neutrophils (%)

Optimal range: 0 - 6 %

Band neutrophils are the immature form of a white blood cell found in our bodies. All white blood cells act as a defense mechanism against stress and infection. An unusually high level of band neutrophils typically indicates the presence of a bacterial infection or inflammation of tissue. 

LEARN MORE

Basophils (Absolute)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.3 x10E3/uL

Basophils are a type of white blood cell found in the body. All white blood cells are produced in response to infection or inflammation. Basophils are specialized in their large size and ability to “eat” other cells like bacteria. A blood test to assess white blood cell functioning is typically ordered to determine the existence or cause of infection / inflammation. 

LEARN MORE

Basophils (Percent)

Optimal range: 0 - 1 %

Basophils are a type of white blood cell found in the body. All white blood cells are produced in response to infection or inflammation. Basophils are specialized in their large size and ability to “eat” other cells like bacteria. A blood test to assess white blood cell functioning is typically ordered to determine the existence or cause of infection / inflammation. 

LEARN MORE

Eosinophils (Absolute)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.5 x10E3/uL

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell found in the body and play an important role in the removal of germs and allergen-related inflammatory response. Generally, an eosinophil count is ordered when a white blood cell count came back as abnormal. Your healthcare professional can then use the eosinophil test to identify the cause of the abnormality. 

LEARN MORE

Eosinophils (Percent)

Optimal range: 0 - 6 %

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell found in the body and play an important role in the removal of germs and allergen-related inflammatory response. Generally, an eosinophil count is ordered when a white blood cell count came back as abnormal. Your healthcare professional can then use the eosinophil test to identify the cause of the abnormality. 

LEARN MORE

Lymphocytes (Absolute)

Optimal range: 1.5 - 3.5 x10E3/uL

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the body. They serve in several major roles in our immune system including identification of and response to invading organism. Your healthcare professional may assess lymphocyte levels when a white blood cell count came back as abnormal.

LEARN MORE

Lymphocytes (Percent)

Optimal range: 20 - 40 %

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the body. They serve in several major roles in our immune system including identification of and response to invading organism. Your healthcare professional may assess lymphocyte levels when a white blood cell count came back as abnormal.

LEARN MORE

Monocytes (Absolute)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 0.9 x10E3/uL

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the body. Their primary function is a scavenger of damaged or dead cells, but they also aid in inflammatory response and the adaptive immune response, along with the four other types of white blood cell. Monocyte count is determined with a white blood cell differential.

LEARN MORE

Monocytes (Percent)

Optimal range: 4 - 8 %

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the body. Their primary function is a scavenger of damaged or dead cells, but they also aid in inflammatory response and the adaptive immune response, along with the four other types of white blood cell. Monocyte count is determined with a white blood cell differential.

LEARN MORE

Neutrophils (Absolute)

Optimal range: 1.6 - 9.3 x10E3/uL

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell in the body. They are phagocytic, meaning that they engulf and destroy things like bacteria and viruses at the site of an injury. Like all other white blood cells, they also play a part in our body’s inflammatory response to things like allergens.

LEARN MORE

Neutrophils (Percent)

Optimal range: 50 - 70 %

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell in the body. They are phagocytic, meaning that they engulf and destroy things like bacteria and viruses at the site of an injury. Like all other white blood cells, they also play a part in our body’s inflammatory response to things like allergens.

LEARN MORE

Polymorphs

Optimal range: 40 - 75 %

Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells refer to the group of white cells known as granulocytes. The three types of granulocytes are:

Neutrophils

Basophils

Eosinophils

LEARN MORE

Segmented Neutrophils

Optimal range: 1.5 - 8.5 cells/mcL

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell in the found. They are phagocytic, meaning that they engulf and destroy things like bacteria and viruses at the site of an injury. Like all other white blood cells, they also play a part in our body’s inflammatory response to things like allergens. 

LEARN MORE

Segmented Neutrophils (Percent)

Optimal range: 47 - 55 %

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell found in the body. They are phagocytic, meaning that they engulf and destroy things like bacteria and viruses at the site of an injury. Like all other white blood cells, they also play a part in our body’s inflammatory response to things like allergens. 

 

LEARN MORE