Optimal Result: 0 - 1.3 mmol/mol creatinine.

The presence of organic compounds such as p-Hydroxybenzoate in the urine may point towards significant dysbiosis (=impaired microbiota). p-Hydroxybenzoat may reflect intestsinal overgrowth, usually accomanied by microbal hyperpermeability.

What does it mean if your 4-Hydroxybenzoic result is too high?

4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid is a marker for intestinal dysbiosis. Results may also show elevated values as a result of ingestion of foods such as jams and pie fillings containing paraben preservatives. The use of probiotics and the exclusion of paraben-containing foods is the first treatment consideration.

Take appropriate steps to ensure favorable gut microflora population.

Other ways to improve your gut bacteria:

1. Eat Lots of Vegetables, Legumes, Beans and Fruit
2. Cut out artifical sweeteners
3. Eat Fermented Foods
4. Eat Prebiotic Foods
5. Eat Whole Grains
6. Eat a Plant-Based Diet
7. Eat Foods Rich in Polyphenols
8. Avoid storing or heating food and drinks in plastic


- Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics.(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18215222)

- Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23609775)

- Impact of increasing fruit and vegetables and flavonoid intake on the human gut microbiota (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26757793)

- Effects of non-fermented and fermented soybean milk intake on faecal microbiota and faecal metabolites in humans. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22040525)

- Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25231862)

- Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal has a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761020)

- Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336217)

- Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835915/)

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