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Optimal range: 57.5 - 86.2 %

The proportion of all immune cells that are T cells. This figure is rarely used for making treatment decisions.

Optimal range: 30.8 - 58.5 %

The CD4 percentage (CD4%) is the percentage of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that are CD4 cells.

The immune system contains lots of different cells. The two main types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. CD4 cells are a type of T cell. So the CD4% looks at the CD4 count in relation to other immune cells.

CD4% is sometimes a more stable indication of whether there has been a change in the immune system. If the percentage hasn’t changed the change in the absolute count is not important.

Optimal range: 12 - 35.5 %

The proportion of all T cells that are CD8 cells.

CD8 cells are also called cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. They help fight cancer and germs that live inside your cells (intracellular pathogens).

The CD8 percentage is sometimes more reliable than the absolute count of CD8 because it tends to vary less.

Optimal range: 6 - 29 %

The CD19 antigen (aka **B-lymphocyte antigen CD19** or **Cluster of Differentiation 19**) plays an important role in clinical oncology. It’s a **protein** found on the surface of **B-cells**, a type of white blood cell.

Optimal range: 57 - 85 %

Optimal range: 4.9 - 25.9 %

This test is used to detect soluble IL-2Rα in human plasma or serum produced in response to increased activation of B and** T cells** and immune system activation. Studies show elevated levels of sIL-2Rα in serum with the onset of rejection episodes in allograft recipients, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and in the course of some leukemias and lymphomas. This test may be of diagnostic and/or prognostic value in HLH, granulomatous, autoimmune, and malignant diseases.

Optimal range: 4.9 - 25.9 %

** T cells** and immune system activation. Studies show elevated levels of sIL-2Rα in serum with the onset of rejection episodes in allograft recipients, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and in the course of some leukemias and lymphomas. This test may be of diagnostic and/or prognostic value in HLH, granulomatous, autoimmune, and malignant diseases.

Optimal range: 30 - 61 %

The CD4 percentage (CD4%) is the percentage of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that are CD4 cells.

Optimal range: 12 - 42 %

The proportion of all T cells that are CD8 cells.

CD8 cells are also called cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. They help fight cancer and germs that live inside your cells (intracellular pathogens).

The CD8 percentage is sometimes more reliable than the absolute count of CD8 because it tends to vary less.

Optimal range: 0 - 11.3 %

The CD57 test is offered in some clinical laboratories and is being used by some health practitioners to evaluate and follow patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease.

Optimal range: 5 - 25 %

The marker **% Free Copper** on a Nutristat test signifies the proportion of unbound or available copper in the bloodstream. This measurement helps assess the balance between free copper and the copper bound to proteins like **ceruloplasmin**.

Abnormalities in % Free Copper levels can indicate imbalances in copper metabolism and potential health issues, such as Wilson's disease or other copper-related disorders. Nutristat tests, which assess copper, zinc, and related ratios, aid in evaluating nutritional and metabolic aspects related to these essential minerals.

Optimal range: 3.8 - 20 %

Essential fatty acids are classified into fat "families": **omega 3** fats and **omega 6** fats.

Optimal range: 30.5 - 39.7 %

When assessing fatty acids in RBCs, Genova measures a weighted percentage of fatty acids taken up into the erythrocyte wall. The total omega-6 percentage is a combined total weight percentage calculated by adding together each of the measured omega-6s.

Because some omega-6 fatty acids are less beneficial than others, each fatty acid abnormality should be addressed.

However, in general, assessing the total omega-6 percentage as it relates to the omega-3 percentage is helpful. A more balanced ratio may decrease risk of many chronic diseases. It should be noted that when dealing with percentages, the amount of each fatty acid can influence the others. For example, fish oil supplementation may increase the overall omega-3 percentage, which may ultimately lower the omega-6 percentage.

Optimal range: 13.3 - 16.6 %

When assessing fatty acids in RBCs, Genova measures a weighted percentage of fatty acids taken up into the erythrocyte wall. The total omega-9 percentage is a combined total weight percentage calculated by adding up each of the measured omega-9s. In general, because the omega-9 fatty acids are beneficial, higher levels are preferred; though identifying root cause of elevations or deficiencies is important. It should be noted that when dealing with percentages, the amount of each fatty acid can influence the others. For example, fish oil supplementation may increase the overall omega-3 percentage. By default, this may then lower the omega-6 percentage.

Optimal range: 1.6 - 5 %

When assessing fatty acids in RBCs, Genova measures a weighted percentage of fatty acids taken up into the erythrocyte wall. The total omega-3 percentage is a combined total weight percentage. It is calculated by adding up each of the measured omega-3s. Higher total percentages of omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and considered beneficial.

It should be noted that when dealing with percentages, the amount of each fatty acid can influence the others. For example, fish oil supplementation may increase the overall omega-3 percentage. By default, this may then lower the omega-6 percentage.

Optimal range: 30.5 - 39.7 %

When assessing fatty acids in RBCs, Genova measures a weighted percentage of fatty acids taken up into the erythrocyte wall. The total omega-6 percentage is a combined total weight percentage calculated by adding together each of the measured omega-6s.

Because some omega-6 fatty acids are less beneficial than others, each fatty acid abnormality should be addressed.

However, in general, assessing the total omega-6 percentage as it relates to the omega-3 percentage is helpful. A more balanced ratio may decrease risk of many chronic diseases. It should be noted that when dealing with percentages, the amount of each fatty acid can influence the others. For example, fish oil supplementation may increase the overall omega-3 percentage, which may ultimately lower the omega-6 percentage.

Optimal range: 17.3 - 22.5 %

Optimal range: 39.8 - 43.6 %

When assessing fatty acids in RBCs, Genova measures a weighted percentage of fatty acids taken up into the erythrocyte wall. The total saturated fatty acid percentage is a combined total weight percentage calculated by adding up each of the measured saturated fatty acids. It should be noted that when dealing with percentages, the amount of each fatty acid can influence the others. For example, fish oil supplementation may increase the overall omega-3 percentage, which then lowers the omega-6 percentage. Because some saturated fatty acids are beneficial, it is important to look at the levels of those specifically as well.

Optimal range: 39.8 - 43.6 %

Optimal range: 0 - 0 ng/mg Creat/Day

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