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Blood Health

Your blood consists of two main components: the cellular components (red blood cells, white blood cells, and the cell fragments known as platelets); and the liquid component, called plasma. Together, these two parts of the blood are responsible for many functions, including oxygen transport, temperature regulation, blood clotting, and immune defense.


Ammonia

Optimal range:   11 - 55 µmol/L

Ammonia is a waste product naturally produced in the body. It primarily comes from the digestion of protein by bacteria in the intestines.

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Beta-2 Glycoprotein I Ab, IgA

Optimal range:   0 - 20 U/mL

Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody is an autoantibody that is associated with inappropriate blood clotting. This test detects and measures one class (IgA) of beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies.

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Bicarbonate (HCO3), Serum

Optimal range:   22 - 29 mmol/L

The bicarbonate content of serum or plasma is a significant indicator of electrolyte dispersion and anion deficit.

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C-Reactive Protein (CRP)

Optimal range:   0 - 1 mg/L

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a general indicator of inflammation in the body. The inflammation can be acute and caused by infection or injury. Inflammation can also be chronic, which typically points toward more serious diseases.  High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) tests are commonly ordered to determine your risk of cardiovascular disease. 

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Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)

Optimal range:   0 - 3 ug/L

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein normally found in embryonic entodermal epithelium.

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Ferritin

Optimal range:   30 - 400 µg/dL , 5.37 - 71.60 µmol/L , 30.00 - 400.00 ng/mL , 30.00 - 400.00 ug/L

Ferritin is a protein that serves as a storehouse for iron in the body. When iron supplies dwindle, ferritin releases some into the blood. Therefore, a blood ferritin test is an indication of how much iron is stored in the body. Iron is used primarily by red blood cells to carry oxygen to other cells, and as such Ferritin is vital to blood health. 

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Fibrinogen Activity

Optimal range:   196 - 441 mg/dL

It’s used to determine the level of fibrinogen in your blood. Fibrinogen, or factor I, is a blood plasma protein that’s made in the liver. Fibrinogen is one of 13 coagulation factors responsible for normal blood clotting.

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Fibrinogen Antigen

Optimal range:   149 - 353 mg/dL

Fibrinogen is a soluble protein in the plasma that is broken down to fibrin by the enzyme thrombin to form clots.

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Haemoglobin A1c

Optimal range:   0 - 0 %

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is the percentage of hemoglobin molecules with attached glucose molecules. HbA1c is an accurate means to estimate the average blood glucose over the preceding 3 months. 

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Haptoglobin

Optimal range:   34 - 200 mg/dL

Haptoglobin is a protein that your liver produces. It combines with hemoglobin, which transports oxygen to your organs and tissues via the red blood cells.  The haptoglobin test is a test for hemolytic anemia.

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Iron

Optimal range:   38 - 169 µg/dL , 6.80 - 30.25 µmol/L , 38.00 - 169.00 umol/L

The human body requires iron to perform many vital physiological functions. For instance, iron is the key component of hemoglobin which allows red blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body. Iron in the blood is mostly bound to the transportation protein transferrin. Most iron in the body is bound to red blood cells or stored in the spleen and cannot be directly tested. 

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IRON (Serum)

Optimal range:   9 - 30.4 umol/L

Iron is an essential element required for the production of hemoglobin. Without it, red blood cells cannot reproduce in the body. Doctors are also finding a connection of iron to hair regrowth in the body. 

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Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

Optimal range:   135 - 214 U/L

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that helps the process of turning sugar into energy for your cells to use. LDH is present in many kinds of organs and tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, pancreas, kidneys, skeletal muscles, brain, and blood cells.

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Large Unstained Cells (LUC)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.4 x 10E3/ml

Large unstained cells (LUC) are cells that are activated lymphocytes and peroxidase-negative cells. They are not stem cells, normal lymphocytes (white blood cells) or virocytes. They may indicate viral infections or inflammation.

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Large Unstained Cells (Percent)

Optimal range:   0 - 4.5 %

Large unstained cells (LUC) are cells that are activated lymphocytes and peroxidase-negative cells. They are not stem cells, normal lymphocytes (white blood cells) or virocytes. They may indicate viral infections or inflammation.

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Magnesium, RBC

Optimal range:   4.2 - 6.8 mg/dL

Hundreds of enzymatic reactions in the body depend on magnesium for energy production, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, and blood vessel function. A deficiency of this critical element within the cell may be seen with the RBC magnesium test.

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Nucleated red blood cell (NRBC)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 / 100 WBCs

The term 'NRBC' – 'nucleated red blood cells' – refers to precursor cells of the red blood cell lineage which still contain a nucleus.

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Plateletcrit (PCT)

Optimal range:   0.22 - 0.24 %

PCT is the volume occupied by platelets in the blood as a percentage and calculated according to the formula PCT = platelet count × MPV / 10,000 (25-27).

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Reticulocyte Count

Optimal range:   0.6 - 2.6 %

Reticulocytes are newly produced, relatively immature red blood cells (RBCs). A reticulocyte test determines the number and/or percentage of reticulocytes in the blood and is a reflection of recent bone marrow function or activity.

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Thrombocytes

Optimal range:   150 - 400 µl

Thrombocytes are one of three types of blood cell found in our bodies. Along with red blood cells and white blood cells, thrombocyte levels are assessed with a comprehensive blood count, which can be done as a part of a general health check up or in response to specific symptoms.

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Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)

Optimal range:   250 - 370 ug/dL , 44.75 - 66.23 µmol/L , 250.00 - 370.00 umol/L , 250.00 - 370.00 g/L

Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to see if you have too much or too little iron in the blood. Iron is vital in that it transports oxygen around the body. Frequently, a TIBC is ordered along with several other tests to determine the cause of conditions like anemia or to assess blood health in general.

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Transferrin

Optimal range:   200 - 390 mg/dL

Transferrin is the main protein in the blood that binds to iron and transports it throughout the body. A transferrin test directly measures the level in the blood.

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Transferrin saturation (Iron Saturation)

Optimal range:   15 - 55 %

Transferrin saturation (TSAT) is the ratio of serum iron and total iron-binding capacity. All three measurements are used to help determine the cause of iron levels that are abnormally high or abnormally low. TS may also be used to identify the presence and type of anemia.

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UIBC

Optimal range:   111 - 343 µg/dL , 19.87 - 61.40 µmol/L , 111.00 - 343.00 umol/L

Unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) is a blood test to see if you have too much or too little iron in the blood. Iron is vital in that it transports oxygen around the body. Frequently, A UIBC is ordered along with several other tests to determine the cause of conditions like anemia or to assess blood health in general.

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Lipid Panel

Your cardiovascular system is made up of your heart and blood vessels, and is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. A healthy cardiovascular system ensures a good balance of nutrients and optimal brain and body function.

Cardiovascular disease refers to several types of conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels, also known as the circulatory system. Some common cardiovascular diseases and conditions include:

Heart disease and stroke are two of the leading causes of death in the United States, major causes of disability and the principal causes of cardiovascular disease death.

Who’s at Risk?

Although cardiovascular disease affects people of all ages, races and backgrounds, there are certain chronic conditions and lifestyle factors that put people at a higher risk. For example: high blood pressure, diabetes and high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol), also known as “bad cholesterol,” are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition, unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use, a poor diet, physical inactivity, obesity and alcohol abuse can contribute to high blood pressure, heart disease and other vascular conditions. In some cases, people with a family history of cardiovascular disease share common environments and risk factors that increase their likelihood of having a heart attack or stroke. Combine those genetic factors with unhealthy lifestyle choices, and the risk of cardiovascular disease increases even more.

Can It Be Prevented?

There are several things people can do to prevent cardiovascular disease – and it starts with making healthy choices and managing medical conditions. This includes:

It is also important for individuals with existing medical conditions that affect cardiovascular health to manage and treat these conditions with the help of their doctor, nurse or other health care professional. Monitoring cholesterol levels, blood pressure and managing conditions such as diabetes can help lower the risk of heart disease and stroke.

In summary:


HDL

Optimal range:   39 - 180 mg/dL , 1.01 - 4.66 mmol/L

High-density lipoprotein or “good” cholesterol is known to decrease the risk of heart attack and stroke by removing “bad” cholesterol from the blood. It is typically assessed through a lipid profile, which measures “good” cholesterol, “bad” cholesterol, and total cholesterol. A healthcare professional may order a lipid profile when an individual is at an increased risk for heart disease or routinely in healthy adults to monitor cardiovascular health.

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hsCRP

Optimal range:   0 - 0.8 mg/L

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a general indicator of inflammation in the body. The inflammation can be acute and caused by infection or injury. Inflammation can also be chronic, which typically points toward more serious diseases.  High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) tests are commonly ordered to determine your risk of cardiovascular disease.

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IDL Cholesterol

Optimal range:   0 - 20 mg/dL

IDL Cholesterol is a plasma lipoprotein. Cholesterol and triglycerides are insoluble in water and therefore these lipids must be transported in association with proteins. Lipoproteins are complex particles with a central core containing cholesterol esters and triglycerides surrounded by free cholesterolphospholipids, and apolipoproteins, which facilitate lipoprotein formation and function.

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LDL

Optimal range:   7 - 100 mg/dL , 0.18 - 2.59 mmol/L

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or “bad” cholesterol, is known to increase risk of heart attack and stroke when levels become elevated in the blood. LDL-C is measured as a part of a lipid profile, which is used to determine your risk for developing cardiovascular disease. LDL-C can usually be controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes.

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LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio

Optimal range:   0.5 - 3 Ratio

LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is the ratio of two types of lipids in the blood. LDL stands for low density lipoprotein or “bad cholesterol” and HDL stands for high density lipoprotein or “good cholesterol.”

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Non-HDL Cholesterol

Optimal range:   0 - 159 mg/dL

Your non-HDL cholesterol result refers to your total cholesterol value minus your HDL cholesterol. Your lipid panel results normally include four numbers:

- low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol;
- high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol;
- triglycerides; and
- total cholesterol.

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Total Cholesterol

Optimal range:   100 - 199 mg/dL , 2.59 - 5.15 mmol/L

Your total cholesterol score is calculated using the following equation: HDL + LDL + 20 percent of your triglyceride level. With HDL cholesterol, higher levels are better. Low HDL cholesterol puts you at a higher risk for heart disease. With LDL cholesterol, lower levels are better. High LDL cholesterol puts you at a higher risk for heart disease.

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Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio

Optimal range:   0 - 5 Ratio

The total cholesterol /HDL ratio is the proportion of one type of cholesterol to all the other cholesterol in the blood. Total cholesterol includes three substances HDL, LDL, and VLDL. 

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Triglycerides

Optimal range:   0 - 149 mg/dL , 0.00 - 1.68 mmol/L

Triglycerides are a type of fat and the primary way our bodies store unused energy. While triglycerides are necessary for a healthy life, excessive amounts can put you at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Typically, a healthcare professional will look at triglyceride levels along with high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol to determine your risk of heart disease.

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Electrolytes

An electrolyte imbalance can lead to an imbalance in your body’s acid-base status, hydration, or conduction of charges across cells, all of which are essential, especially with increased activity.


Anion Gap

Optimal range:   10 - 19 mEq/L

An anion gap refers to the difference of positively and negatively charged molecules in the body. A gap that is unusually high or low frequently indicates a problem with the respiratory system, kidneys, or bones. Anion gap blood tests cover a large range of molecules and are more efficacious when narrowed to a few possibilities. 

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Calcium, Ionized, Serum

Optimal range:   4.5 - 5.6 mg/dL

Calcium is an important mineral found throughout the body. It is important for bone health, cell communication, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and nerve cell function. Ionized serum calcium is the biologically active form of calcium in the blood.

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Calcium, Serum

Optimal range:   9.3 - 9.9 mg/dL , 2.32 - 2.48 mmol/L

Calcium is a mineral used by our bodies in a variety of physiological functions including the construction and maintenance of bones, which is where most of our calcium is stored.  It is necessary to continually ingest calcium throughout a lifetime, because our bodies perpetually lose it. Typically, calcium levels in the body need to be extremely low or extremely high before problems start occurring. 

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Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Optimal range:   18 - 29 mEq/L , 18.00 - 29.00 mmol/L

Carbon dioxide exists most plentifully in the body in the form of bicarbonate. An essential electrolyte, carbon dioxide is filtered out of the body through the kidneys and the lungs. An unusual bicarbonate level in the blood typically points to either a problem with the kidneys, a problem with the lungs, or a metabolic problem. Carbon dioxide tests are often ordered along with several other tests to determine the cause of many simultaneous symptoms. 

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Chloride, Serum

Optimal range:   97 - 108 mEq/L , 97.00 - 108.00 mmol/L

Chloride is an electrolyte used by our bodies to maintain blood pH balance, fluid balance, and blood pressure. The kidneys filter chloride out of the blood and into urine. Chloride tests are almost always ordered as a part of a larger panel. Typically, these panels are used to determine the cause of kidney problems or a pH level that is too acidic or too basic. 

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Magnesium

Optimal range:   1.8 - 2.5 mg/dL , 0.74 - 1.03 mmol/L

Along with calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride, magnesium is one of the six essential minerals required by the human body in significant quantities. Involved in more than 300 enzyme reactions in the body, magnesium is necessary for bone formation, muscle activity, nerve transmission, energy production, and blood pressure regulation. It also plays an important role in blood sugar balance, as well as the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Low magnesium status is directly associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

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Osmolality

Optimal range:   275 - 295 mOsm/kg

Osmolality is a measure of the number of dissolved particles in a fluid. The osmolality test reflects the concentration of substances such as sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and urea in a sample of blood, urine, or sometimes stool.

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Potassium, Serum (Kalium)

Optimal range:   3.6 - 5.2 mmol/L

Potassium is both a positively charged electrolyte and a mineral. It helps keep the water balance inside and outside our body’s cells equal. Potassium is also important in how nerves work. Potassium tests can be used to diagnose cardiovascular problems, but the most common cause of significantly elevated potassium in the blood is kidney disease.

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Sodium, Serum (Natrium)

Optimal range:   137 - 144 mmol/L

Sodium is a vital electrolyte found in our bodies. It helps our cells to maintain fluid balance and aids in nerve and muscle function. An abnormal level of sodium in the blood is typically caused by extreme excess or extreme deficiency of water. This can be due to common things like vomiting/diarrhea or more a serious condition like kidney disease. A healthcare professional will likely need to compare an unusual blood sodium level to other biomarkers in order to determine the cause, if it is not readily apparent.

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Zinc

Optimal range:   60 - 130 µg/dL , 9.18 - 19.89 µmol/L

Zinc is a primary nutrient that we need to thrive. It’s used in a variety of functions through the body including wound healing and creation of DNA. In North America, zinc deficiencies are rare and an unusually high level of zinc in the blood usually indicates iron deficiency or lead poisoning.

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Liver Health

Your liver’s main function is to filter blood coming from the digestive tract before passing it throughout the body. A vital organ, your liver is also responsible for detoxifying chemicals, metabolizing drugs, producing proteins, and more. Liver dysfunction can have a negative impact on your immune system and energy levels and can lead to liver disease and cancer.


Alanine-aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT)

Optimal range:   7 - 55 U/L , 7.00 - 55.00 IU/L

Alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme produced by the liver and is used to facilitate chemical reactions in the body. A high level of ALT in the blood is typically an indication of liver damage. ALT tests are frequently run along side other tests (such as an alkaline phosphatase test) to determine the source of liver damage. 

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Albumin, Serum

Optimal range:   3.4 - 5 g/dL , 34.00 - 50.00 g/L

Albumin is a protein created by our liver and is used in a variety of functions throughout the body, including: tissue maintenance and transportation of molecules. Unusual albumin levels typically indicate liver disease or kidney disease.

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Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio

Optimal range:   0.7 - 1.7 Ratio

The albumin to globulin (A/G) ratio has been used as an index of disease state, however, it is not a specific marker for disease because it does not indicate which specific proteins are altered.

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Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

Optimal range:   44 - 126 U/L , 44.00 - 126.00 IU/L

ALP is an enzyme generated most commonly in the liver, bones, and placenta. Its main function is to assist in the breakdown of proteins. ALP tests are typically ordered as an assessment of a liver or bone disease. 

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Alpha-1-Globulin, Serum

Optimal range:   0 - 0.4 g/dL

Protein in the serum is made up of albumin (∼ 60%) and globulin.

Globulins are divided into alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and gamma globulins.

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Alpha-2-Globulin, Serum

Optimal range:   0.4 - 1 g/dL

Globulins are divided into alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and gamma globulins.

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Aspartate-aminotransferase (AST, SGOT)

Optimal range:   10 - 34 U/L , 10.00 - 34.00 IU/L

Aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) are both produced by the liver and serve in functions throughout the human body. Aspartate-aminotransferase is most commonly related to liver health. Blood tests for AST and ALT are often ordered together to identify the source of damage in our organs. 

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Beta Globulin, Serum

Optimal range:   0.7 - 1.3 g/dL

Protein in the serum is made up of albumin (∼60%) and globulin. Together with albumin, globulin forms the total protein level on a blood test lab report. It includes carrier proteins, enzymes, clotting factors, and, predominantly, antibodies.

Globulin is categorized into three main groups:

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Bilirubin Direct

Optimal range:   0 - 0.3 mg/dL , 0.00 - 5.13 µmol/L

Bilirubin is a waste byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells. Yellow in coloration, bilirubin is filtered out of the blood by the liver and excreted in stool by the intestines. Bilirubin tests are done when a disease or blockage of the liver is suspected. Direct bilirubin differs from indirect bilirubin in that it is bound to a sugar and is therefore water soluble. 

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Bilirubin Indirect

Optimal range:   0.2 - 0.9 mg/dL

The Indirect Bilirubin test measures how much bilirubin is in your blood. It originates from the breakdown of hemoglobin in the red blood cells, but must be removed by your liver. 

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Bilirubin Total

Optimal range:   0.1 - 1.23 mg/dL , 1.71 - 21.03 µmol/L

Bilirubin is a waste byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells. Yellow in coloration, bilirubin is filtered out of the blood by the liver and excreted in stool by the intestines. Bilirubin tests are done when a disease or blockage of the liver is suspected. 

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Gamma Globulin, Serum

Optimal range:   0.4 - 1.8 g/dL

Gamma globulin is a major class of immunoglobulins found in the blood, including many of the most common antibodies circulating in the blood.

The gamma globulin band consists of 5 immunoglobulins:

  1. 80% is immunoglobulin G (IgG)
  2. 15% is immunoglobulin A (IgA)
  3. 5% is immunoglobulin M (IgM)
  4. 0.2% is immunoglobulin D (IgD)
  5. A trace is immunoglobulin E (IgE)

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Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)

Optimal range:   0 - 38 U/L , 0.00 - 38.00 IU/L

Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is an enzyme most commonly associated with the liver. GGT tests are often run to determine the cause and extent of liver damage or to monitor treatment of alcohol abuse disorders. While an elevated GGT score may be a cause for concern, a normal or low score is generally not.

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Globulin, Serum

Optimal range:   2.2 - 3.9 g/dL , 22.00 - 39.00 g/L

Globulins are a group of proteins in the blood stream that help to regulate the function of the circulatory system. 

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Total Protein, Serum

Optimal range:   6 - 8.3 g/dL , 60.00 - 83.00 g/L

Total protein is a measure of two types of protein: albumin and globulin. Abnormal protein levels are seen in a number of disorders; therefore, total protein levels are often used, along with other tests, to diagnose things like liver disease and kidney disease.

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Metabolic Health

Metabolism is your body’s way of chemically processing sugar and fat for use throughout the body as energy. An optimal metabolism supports healthy weight control and energy levels, while a dysfunctional metabolism can lead to undesired fluctuations in weight and fatigue or hyperactivity.


Ceruloplasmin

Optimal range:   19 - 39 mg/dL

Ceruloplasmin is a copper-containing enzyme that plays a role in the body's iron metabolism. This test measures the amount of ceruloplasmin in the blood.

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Cyclic AMP, Plasma

Optimal range:   12 - 22 pmol/mL

Cyclic AMP (Cyclic adenosine-3′-5′-monophosphate) serves as a 2nd messenger in signal transmission of many hormones, such as adrenaline, ACTH, LH, FSH, glucagon, and calcitonin.

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Dihydrotestosterone (female)

Optimal range:   4 - 22 ng/dL

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Dihydrotestosterone (male)

Optimal range:   30 - 85 ng/dL

Dihydrotestosterone is a hormone that stimulates the development of male characteristics

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Estimated Average Glucose (eAG)

Optimal range:   68 - 114 mg/dL

Your estimated Average Glucose (eAG) number is calculated from the result of your A1c test. Like the A1c, the eAG shows what your average blood sugars have been over the previous 2 to 3 months, but instead of a percentage, the eAG is in the same units (mg/dl) as your blood glucose meter.

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Free Androgen Index

Optimal range:   0 - 6.6 u

The free androgen index is a measure of the biologically active testosterone in the blood. It is a ratio of the total testosterone to the level of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).

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Free testosterone

Optimal range:   32 - 168 pg/mL

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone in humans. A healthcare professional may order a free testosterone blood test if you’re experiencing sexual problems or a secondary condition, like hyperthyroidism, is suspected.  

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Free Testosterone, Direct (Female)

Optimal range:   0 - 4.2 pg/mL

Although Testosterone is generally viewed as a male-only hormone, women’s ovaries also make small amounts of testosterone. It helps many organs and body processes in women. Free testosterone and albumin-bound testosterone are also referred to as bioavailable testosterone. This is the testosterone that is easily used by your body.

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Free Thyroxine

Optimal range:   0.6 - 1.2 ng/dL , 7.72 - 15.45 pmol/L

Thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. The term “free thyroxine” means the measured thyroxine that is not bound to proteins in the blood.

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Free Thyroxine Index

Optimal range:   4.8 - 12.7 Units

Free thyroxine index is considered to be a reliable indicator of thyroid status in the presence of abnormalities in plasma protein binding. The free thyroxine index has generally been replaced by Free Thyroxine in the assessment of thyroid function, but is occasionally useful when a free T4 result is suspected of being anomalous.

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Glucose

Optimal range:   65 - 100 mg/dL , 3.61 - 5.55 mmol/L

Glucose is a simple sugar used as a primary energy source in our bodies. Blood glucose tests are most frequently ordered for the diagnoses and monitoring of diabetes. 

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Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase

Optimal range:   0 - 0.5 nmol/L

Glutamic acid decarboxylase is an enzyme found in brain and pancreas that converts glutamic acid (glutamate) into GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The glutamic acid decarboxylase test is a test that looks for antibodies directed against the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme.

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Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)

Optimal range:   4.8 - 5.6 %

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is the percentage of hemoglobin molecules with attached glucose molecules. HbA1c is an accurate means to estimate the average blood glucose over the preceding 3 months. 

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Homocysteine

Optimal range:   0 - 10.4 µmol/L , 0.00 - 10.40 umol/L

Homocysteine is an amino acid that requires vitamin B12 and folate to be used by our bodies. As such, homocysteine blood tests are often ordered to identify vitamin B12 / folate deficiency.  Rarely, an abnormally high level of homocysteine indicates a rare genetic disorder called homocystinuria.

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Insulin (Fasting)

Optimal range:   2 - 25 uIU/ml

When insulin enters your bloodstream, it helps cells throughout your body to absorb glucose.

Insulin allows your body to:

  1. Use glucose from the food that you eat for energy; and
  2. Store glucose for future use.

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Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1)

Optimal range:   61 - 200 ng/dL

IGF-1 measurements are adjusted for age because levels tend to decrease as you get older.

Results of IGF-1 are given in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). Normal ranges by age are:

- 182 to 780 ng/mL for ages 16 to 24

- 114 to 492 ng/mL for ages 25 to 39

- 90 to 360 ng/mL for ages 40 to 54

- 71 to 290 ng/mL for people 55 and older

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Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), Serum

Optimal range:   15 - 65 pg/mL

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) helps the body maintain stable levels of calcium in the blood.

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Pregnenolone

Optimal range:   22 - 237 ng/dL

Pregnenolone is a chemical substance that is a precursor to all steroid hormones.

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Reverse T3, Serum

Optimal range:   8 - 25 ng/dL

Reverse T3 is a biologically inactive thyroid hormone; however, it does block the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3). Higher levels of reverse T3 can decrease the effect of thyroid hormone.

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Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG)

Optimal range:   18 - 57 nmol/L

Sex hormone-binding globulin is a protein that binds primarily to testosterone, making it biologically unusable by our bodies. For this reason, an abnormal level of SHBG indicates that too much or too little testosterone is present in the tissues. In men, this can cause sexual issues like erectile dysfunction or infertility. In women, it can cause irregular menstruation or excess facial hair growth. A healthcare professional may order a SHBG test when total testosterone levels do not fit with one or more of the above-mentioned symptoms.

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T3, Free

Optimal range:   2.6 - 4 pmol/L

Triiodothyronine or T3 is the most biologically active thyroid hormone in humans. The term “free T3” means the amount of T3 that is not bound to proteins in the blood.

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T4, Free

Optimal range:   0.7 - 1.53 ng/dL , 9.01 - 19.69 pmol/L

Thyroxine or T4 is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. The term “free T4” means measured T4 that is not bound to proteins in the blood.

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T4, Total (Thyroxine)

Optimal range:   4.5 - 12 ug/dL , 57.92 - 154.46 nmol/L

Thyroxine (T4) is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is sometimes called total thyroxine because it includes both free T4 and T4 bound to proteins.

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T7 Index

Optimal range:   1.2 - 4.3 Units

The T7 Index is used to calculate Free T4, one of the two active thyroid hormones in your bloodstream.

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Testosterone

Optimal range:   298 - 1043 ng/dL , 10.34 - 36.19 nmol/L , 2.98 - 10.43 ng/mL

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone in humans. Testosterone blood tests can assess testosterone that is bound to a protein, testosterone that is free in the blood, or both. A healthcare professional may order any of these tests if you’re experiencing sexual or hormonal problems.

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Testosterone (Female/Child)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.7 nmol/L

Testosterone is a male sex hormone or androgen. It is generally low in women and children, but it can be elevated in certain diseases. A certain level of testosterone is important for development and maturation in both genders.

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Testosterone, Serum (Female)

Optimal range:   8 - 48 ng/dL

Testosterone is a male sex hormone produced in a woman’s ovaries in small amounts as well. Combined with estrogen, the female sex hormone, testosterone helps with the growth, maintenance, and repair of a woman’s reproductive tissues, bone mass, and human behaviors.

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Thyroglobulin

Optimal range:   0 - 55 ng/mL

Thyroglobulin is the protein precursor of thyroid hormone and is made by normal well differentiated benign thyroid cells or thyroid cancer cells.

More info


Thyroglobulin Antibodies

Optimal range:   0 - 1 IU/L , 0.00 - 10.00 IU/ml

Thyroglobulin antibodies are antibodies that recognize and bind to thyroglobulin, interfering with its function. Thyroglobulin is critical for thyroid hormone production, so thyroglobulin antibodies usually indicate thyroid disease.

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Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (Anti-TPO Ab)

Optimal range:   0 - 34 IU/ml

Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is an enzyme that is critical for to thyroid hormone synthesis in the thyroid gland. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies bind to and block the action of TPO, resulting in decreases in thyroid hormone levels. 

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Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Optimal range:   0.5 - 4.5 mIU/L , 0.50 - 4.50 IU/L

TSH stands for thyroid stimulating hormone, though it is sometimes called thyrotropin or thyrotropic hormone. TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone, which is is critical for the proper function of virtually every cell in the body.

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Thyrotropin Receptor Ab, Serum

Optimal range:   0 - 1.75 IU/L

More info


Thyroxine-binding globulin, TBG

Optimal range:   14 - 31 ug/ml

Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) is produced in the liver and is the primary circulating (transport) protein that binds thyroid hormones3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and carries them in the bloodstream.

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Total T3

Optimal range:   80 - 200 ng/mL , 8000.00 - 20000.00 ng/dL

Triiodothyronine or T3 is the most biologically active thyroid hormone in humans. It is called total T3 because it includes both free T3 and T3 bound to proteins.

More info


Tri iodothyronine (T3) Uptake

Optimal range:   23.4 - 42.7 %

More info


Triiodothyronine, Serum

Optimal range:   2 - 4.4 pg/mL

Triiodothyronine (T3) is the most biologically active thyroid hormone in humans. It is sometimes called total triiodothyronine because it includes both free triiodothyronine and triiodothyronine bound to proteins.

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Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins and minerals are substances obtained from food and supplements needed for normal growth and body processes. Deficiencies in certain vitamins and minerals can interfere with normal body function.


Calcitriol (1,25 di-OH Vit D)

Optimal range:   19.9 - 79.3 pg/mL

Calcitriol is the active form of Vitamin D. It is also known as 1,25(OH)2D. Calcitriol has long been known for its important role in regulating body levels of calcium and phosphorus, and in mineralization of bone.

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Methylmalonic Acid, Serum

Optimal range:   0 - 378 nmol/L

Methylmalonic acid is a compound that reacts with vitamin B-12 to produce coenzyme A (CoA). When vitamin B-12 deficiencies occur, methylmalonic acid levels increase.

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Phosphate (Phosphorus)

Optimal range:   2.5 - 4.5 mg/dL , 0.81 - 1.45 mmol/L

Along with calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride, phosphorus is one of the six essential minerals required by the human body in significant quantities.

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Vitamin A

Optimal range:   18 - 77 ug/dL

Vitamin A is one of the fat-soluble vitamins required for health. It’s especially important for vision, skin and mucous membranes found surrounding all organs. Vitamin A provides free radical-fighting functions for immunity and for anti-aging.

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Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Optimal range:   66.5 - 200 nmol/L

Vitamin B1, also called thiamine, is important for nervous system and muscle function. Thiamine acts as a coenzyme for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. It also is essential for the production of hydrochloric acid. 

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Vitamin B12

Optimal range:   300 - 647 pg/mL , 221.40 - 477.49 pmol/L

Vitamin B12 is essential in many basic bodily functions. High levels are not usually cause for concern, but low levels may indicate a medical deficiency or disease. In America, food such as cereal and grains are enriched with many essential vitamins, including vitamin B12. For this reason, dietary deficiency is rare.

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Vitamin B6

Optimal range:   5.3 - 46.7 ug/L

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin involved in energy production, synthesis of hemoglobin, serotonin, dopamine, and amino acids, and other enzymatic reactions in the body. 

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Vitamin B9 (Folate/Folic Acid)

Optimal range:   5.3 - 20 ng/mL , 12.01 - 45.32 nmol/L

Folate belongs to the B vitamin family and is used for healthy cell development.  Folate is water-soluble and is expelled daily in urine. For this reason, it is important that our diets have enough folate in them to make up for the loss. Deficiency can easily be caused by conditions that impair absorption in the digestive tract. 

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Vitamin C

Optimal range:   0.2 - 2.3 mg/dL

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that functions in immunity, the synthesis of collagen and neurotransmitters, and protein metabolism. It’s an antioxidant that slows down aging. Deficiency is called scurvy.

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Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy

Optimal range:   40 - 80 ng/mL , 99.84 - 199.68 nmol/L

Vitamin D, frequently called the “sun vitamin,” is an essential component of the systems that our bodies use to keep bones and teeth strong. It also has important, emerging roles in immune function and cancer prevention. We have natural processes that regulate vitamin D production from the sun so extremely high levels of it are rare. Deficiency can cause a number of issues including weak bones, called osteomalacia.

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Muscle Health

Keeping your muscles healthy will help you to be able to walk, run, jump, lift things, play ... Healthy muscles let you move freely and keep your body strong.


Aldolase

Optimal range:   3.3 - 10.3 ug/L

Aldolase is an enzyme that participates in glycolysis, which is the pathway for metabolizing glucose into energy. Elevated levels of aldolase in the blood occur in diseases of muscle including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dermatomyositis, and polymyositis.

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Creatine kinase

Optimal range:   24 - 204 U/L , 0.41 - 3.47 µkat/L , 24.00 - 204.00 IU/L

Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that our muscles release into the bloodstream in response to physical damage. CK tests are often run to diagnose a heart attack or determine the extent of a sports related injuy. 

 

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Creatine phosphokinase (CPK)

Optimal range:   29 - 168 U/L

Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme in the body. It is found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle.

This test may be used to:

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Troponin

Optimal range:   0 - 0.03 ng/mL

Troponin proteins are released when the heart muscle has been damaged, such as occurs with a heart attack. The more damage there is to the heart, the greater the amount of troponin T and I there will be in the blood.

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Kidney Health

Your kidneys help maintain blood pressure, keep the blood's acid-base level within a healthy range, and filter the blood so nutrients are absorbed and waste is passed out of the body as urine. Your kidney function reflects how well your kidneys are filtering your blood. Abnormal kidney function could result in the accumulation of waste products in the body, which can cause fatigue, headaches, nausea, and more.


Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

Optimal range:   7 - 28 mg/dL , 2.50 - 10.00 mmol/L

Urea nitrogen is a waste product formed in our bodies and is filtered out of the blood and into urine by our kidneys. While low levels are not indicative of a problem, unusually high levels always point toward kidney dysfunction.

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BUN/Creatinine Ratio

Optimal range:   10 - 20 :1 ratio

The BUN/Creatinine ratio is useful in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic renal disease.

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Creatinine, Serum

Optimal range:   0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL , 53.04 - 106.08 µmol/L , 53.04 - 106.08 umol/L

Creatinine is formed by the breakdown of creatine, a key molecule in muscular metabolism. Our kidneys are responsible for removing creatinine from the blood and expelling it in urine. Therefore, blood creatinine levels are a good indicator of how well the kidneys are working. 

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Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (African Am)

Optimal range:   60 - 150 mL/min per 1.73 m2

eGFR stands for estimated glomerular filtration rate. Your eGFR score is a reflection of your blood test for creatinine, a waste product formed in muscular metabolism. It estimates how well your kidneys are working.

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Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (Non-African Am)

Optimal range:   60 - 150 mL/min per 1.73 m2

eGFR stands for estimated glomerular filtration rate. Your eGFR score is a reflection of your blood test for creatinine, a waste product formed in muscular metabolism. It estimates how well your kidneys are working.

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Uric Acid

Optimal range:   3.4 - 7.2 mg/dL , 202.23 - 428.26 µmol/L , 0.20 - 0.43 mmol/L

Uric acid is a natural byproduct formed during the breakdown of our body’s cells and the food that we eat. Excess uric acid can be caused by either an overproduction of uric acid or inefficient removal of it from the blood. The most common affliction associated with excess uric acid is gout, a painful form of arthritis.

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White Blood Cell Differential Test

The White Blood Differential Test measures the percentage (and absolute values) of each type of white blood cell (WBC) that you have in your blood. 

Five different types of white blood cells, also called leukocytes, normally appear in the blood:

- Neutrophils
- Lymphocytes
- Monocytes
- Eosinophils
- Basophils

The test shows if the number of cells are in proper proportion with one another, and if there is more or less of one cell type. 

What do abnormal results mean?
Any infection or acute stress increases your number of white blood cells. High white blood cell counts may be due to inflammation, an immune response, or blood diseases such as leukemia. It is important to realize that an abnormal increase in one type of white blood cell can cause a decrease in the percentage of other types of white blood cells.

Although your white blood cells account for only about 1 percent of your blood, their impact is significant. White blood cells are essential for good health and protection against illness and disease. Think of white blood cells as your immunity cells. In a sense, they are continually at war. They flow through your bloodstream to battle viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders that threaten your health. When your body is in distress and a particular area is under attack, white blood cells rush in to help destroy the harmful substance and prevent illness. White blood cells are produced inside the bone marrow and stored in your blood and lymphatic tissues. Because some white blood cells have a short lifespan of one to three days, your bone marrow is constantly producing them.


Band Neutrophils (%)

Optimal range:   0 - 6 %

Band neutrophils are the immature form of a white blood cell found in our bodies. All white blood cells act as a defense mechanism against stress and infection. An unusually high level of band neutrophils typically indicates the presence of a bacterial infection or inflammation of tissue. 

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Basophils (Absolute)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.3 x10E3/uL , 0.00 - 300.00 cells/mcL

Basophils are a type of white blood cell found in the body. All white blood cells are produced in response to infection or inflammation. Basophils are specialized in their large size and ability to “eat” other cells like bacteria. A blood test to assess white blood cell functioning is typically ordered to determine the existence or cause of infection / inflammation. 

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Basophils (Percent)

Optimal range:   0 - 1 %

Basophils are a type of white blood cell found in the body. All white blood cells are produced in response to infection or inflammation. Basophils are specialized in their large size and ability to “eat” other cells like bacteria. A blood test to assess white blood cell functioning is typically ordered to determine the existence or cause of infection / inflammation. 

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Eosinophils (Absolute)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.5 x10E3/uL , 0.00 - 500.00 cells/mcL

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell found in the body and play an important role in the removal of germs and allergen-related inflammatory response. Generally, an eosinophil count is ordered when a white blood cell count came back as abnormal. Your healthcare professional can then use the eosinophil test to identify the cause of the abnormality. 

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Eosinophils (Percent)

Optimal range:   0 - 6 %

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell found in the body and play an important role in the removal of germs and allergen-related inflammatory response. Generally, an eosinophil count is ordered when a white blood cell count came back as abnormal. Your healthcare professional can then use the eosinophil test to identify the cause of the abnormality. 

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Lymphocytes (Absolute)

Optimal range:   1.5 - 3.5 x10E3/uL

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the body. They serve in several major roles in our immune system including identification of and response to invading organism. Your healthcare professional may assess lymphocyte levels when a white blood cell count came back as abnormal.

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Lymphocytes (Percent)

Optimal range:   20 - 40 %

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the body. They serve in several major roles in our immune system including identification of and response to invading organism. Your healthcare professional may assess lymphocyte levels when a white blood cell count came back as abnormal.

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Monocytes (Absolute)

Optimal range:   0.2 - 0.9 x10E3/uL , 0.20 - 0.90 abs , 0.20 - 0.90 x10^9/L

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the body. Their primary function is a scavenger of damaged or dead cells, but they also aid in inflammatory response and the adaptive immune response, along with the four other types of white blood cell. Monocyte count is determined with a white blood cell differential.

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Monocytes (Percent)

Optimal range:   4 - 8 %

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the body. Their primary function is a scavenger of damaged or dead cells, but they also aid in inflammatory response and the adaptive immune response, along with the four other types of white blood cell. Monocyte count is determined with a white blood cell differential.

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Neutrophils (Absolute)

Optimal range:   1.6 - 9.3 x10E3/uL

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell in the body. They are phagocytic, meaning that they engulf and destroy things like bacteria and viruses at the site of an injury. Like all other white blood cells, they also play a part in our body’s inflammatory response to things like allergens.

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Neutrophils (Percent)

Optimal range:   50 - 70 %

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell in the body. They are phagocytic, meaning that they engulf and destroy things like bacteria and viruses at the site of an injury. Like all other white blood cells, they also play a part in our body’s inflammatory response to things like allergens.

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Polymorphs

Optimal range:   40 - 75 %

Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells refer to the group of white cells known as granulocytes. The three types of granulocytes are:

Neutrophils

Basophils

Eosinophils

More info


Segmented Neutrophils

Optimal range:   1.5 - 8.5 cells/mcL

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell in the found. They are phagocytic, meaning that they engulf and destroy things like bacteria and viruses at the site of an injury. Like all other white blood cells, they also play a part in our body’s inflammatory response to things like allergens. 

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Segmented Neutrophils (Percent)

Optimal range:   47 - 55 %

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell found in the body. They are phagocytic, meaning that they engulf and destroy things like bacteria and viruses at the site of an injury. Like all other white blood cells, they also play a part in our body’s inflammatory response to things like allergens. 

 

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Pancreas Health

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme.


Amylase

Optimal range:   25 - 115 U/L

Our bodies use amylase for the digestion of carbohydrates. Primarily the pancreas produces it, and unusual levels of amylase in the blood may point to a problem with the pancreas or the gynecological organs in women. An amylase test is often done along with a lipase test to assess pancreatic health.

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Lipase

Optimal range:   23 - 160 U/L

Lipase is an enzyme produced by the pancreas and is used for digestion. Therefore, abnormal lipase levels are usually indicative of a pancreatic disorder. A healthcare professional may order a lipase test to diagnose or monitor such a condition.

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Trypsin

Optimal range:   169 - 773 ng/mL

Trypsin is an enzyme made in the pancreas that helps digest protein foods. In pancreatitis, trypsin levels increase in the blood. The trypsin test is the most accurate test for acute pancreatitis.

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Urinalysis

A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections (aka UTI), kidney disease and diabetes.

A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness.

For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease. Unusual urinalysis results often require more testing to uncover the source of the problem.

Why a urinalysis is performed:


Albumin, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 %

Albumin is one of the proteins found in your blood. If albumin shows up in your urine, it may be a sign of kidney damage.

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Alpha-1-Globulin, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0 %

Alpha-2 globulins is a class of proteins that has many functions in the body and is involved in inflammation.

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Alpha-2-Globulin, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0 %

Alpha-2 globulins is a class of proteins that has many functions in the body and is involved in inflammation.

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Arsenic (Inorganic), Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 19 ug/L

Arsenic, a toxic heavy metal, can accumulate in the body. It may be of an organic or inorganic (toxic form) source. High levels cause GI distress, kidney problems, skin, heart and nervous system changes in health.

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Arsenic (Total), Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 50 ug/L

Arsenic is an element found in nature, and in man-made products, including some pesticides. Arsenic is widely distributed in the Earth’s crust. It is found in water, air, food, and soil.

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Arsenic, Urine 24 Hr

Optimal range:   0 - 50 ug/24 hr

Arsenic is an element found in nature, and in man-made products, including some pesticides. Arsenic is widely distributed in the Earth’s crust. It is found in water, air, food, and soil.

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Beta Globulin, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0 %

Beta globulin proteins help carry substances, such as iron, through the bloodstream and help fight infection. They should normally not be detected in urine.

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Bilirubin, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 mg/dL

Bilirubin is primarily derived from metabolism of hemoglobin. Only conjugated bilirubin is excreted into the urine and normally only trace amounts can be detected in urine.

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Cadmium, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 1 ug/L

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal found in soil, water, and air. Plants may contain high levels; foods that tend to accumulate it include soy, rice, tobacco, sunflower seeds and leafy greens. Health problems result from cadmium exposure.

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Chloride, Urine

Optimal range:   110 - 250 mmol/24 hr

Chloride is the most abundant ion outside of cells. It is important for maintaining osmotic pressure, nerve cell function, and fluid balance. The urine chloride test is used primarily in cases of suspected metabolic alkalosis.

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Coproporphyrin I

Optimal range:   5.6 - 28.6 mcg/g creat

Coproporphyrin I is a porphyrin metabolite arising from heme synthesis.

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Coproporphyrin III

Optimal range:   4.1 - 76.4 mcg/g creat

Coproporphyrin III is a porphyrin derivative.

Small amounts of porphyrins (coproporphyrin) are excreted in normal human urine. Coproporphyrin also is present in bile and feces.

More info


Creatinine (CRT), Urine

Optimal range:   0.3 - 3 g/L , 30.00 - 300.00 mg/dL

A creatinine test reveals important information about your kidneys.

Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine, an amino acid made by the liver and stored in the liver. Creatinine is the result of normal muscle metabolism. The chemical enters your bloodstream after it’s broken down. Your kidneys remove it from your blood. The creatinine then exits the body through urination.

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Gamma Globulin, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0 %

The gamma-globulin fraction contains the immunoglobulins, a family of proteins that function as antibodies.

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Glucose Qualitative, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 15 mg/dL

Glucose is not present in urine, in general because in the kidneys, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate of glomerulus, across the tubular epithelium of proximal tubule into the bloodstream. 

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Heptacarboxyporphyrin

Optimal range:   0 - 2.9 mcg/g creat

Heptacarboxyporphyrin is a Porphyrin.

Porphyrins are precursors of heme and usually only occur in urine in negligible amounts.

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Hexacarboxyporphyrin

Optimal range:   0 - 5.4 mcg/g creat

Hexacarboxyporphyrin is a Porphyrin. Porphyrins are precursors of heme and usually only occur in urine in negligible amounts.

More info


Hyaline Cast

Optimal range:   0 - 1.9 casts/lpf

Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles that can be found when urine is examined under the microscope during a test called urinalysis. Hyaline casts can be present in low numbers (0-1/LPF) in concentrated urine of otherwise normal patients and are not always associated with renal disease.

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Ketones, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

Our bodies normally run on glucose we get from food. When bodies don’t have glucose because of starvation or illness or can’t use glucose because of a lack of insulin, they start burning fat for energy.

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Lead, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 29 ug/L

Lead is a potentially toxic element found in paints, batteries, electronics, and ceramics as well as in air, soil, and water. A urine test is a noninvasive test that can detect high levels of lead and prevent potential health issues.

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Leukocyte Esterase, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


M-Spike (Urine)

Optimal range:   0 - 0 %

M-protein is an abnormal protein produced by myeloma cells that accumulates in and damages bone and bone marrow.

More info


Mercury, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 19 ug/L

Mercury, abbreviated Hg, comes in inorganic and organic forms. Both are toxic when they accumulate in the body and are associated with serious health problems.

More info


Mercury, Urine 24 Hr

Optimal range:   0 - 20 ug/24 hr

More info


Mercury/Creatinine Ratio, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 5 ug/g creat

More info


Nitrate, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


Pentacarboxyporphyrin

Optimal range:   0 - 3.5 mcg/g creat

More info


Porphyrins

Optimal range:   50 - 300 mg

Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood.

More info


Potassium, Urine

Optimal range:   25 - 125 mmol/24 hr

Potassium is an electrolyte that helps your cells and organs work. Your body needs it to digest food, keep your heart beating right, and various other activities. You get most of your potassium from foods. Your body uses what it needs, and your kidneys put the rest into your urine as waste.

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Protein, 24hr calculated (Urine)

Optimal range:   30 - 150 mg/24 hr

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Red Blood Cells (RBC), Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 2 /hpf

Red blood cells can enter the urine from the vagina in menstruation or from the trauma of bladder catheterization (a procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions).

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Sodium, Urine

Optimal range:   39 - 258 mmol/24 hr

Sodium is an important electrolyte (a mineral in your blood and other bodily fluids) that helps your body and cells function. It helps your body regulate how much fluid it retains.

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Total Porphyrins

Optimal range:   23.3 - 132.4 mcg/g creat

Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body such as hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins are normally present at low concentrations in blood and other body fluids, such as urine.

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Total Protein, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 20 mg/dL

Urine protein tests detect and/or measure protein being released into the urine. If the kidneys are damaged or compromised due to other conditions, they become less effective at filtering, causing detectable amounts of protein to spill over into the urine.

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Urine Occult Blood

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 mg/d

Urine occult blood is a test to determine if there is blood present in the urine and is done, along with several other tests, during a routine analysis of the urine. Although some urine in the blood isn’t unusual, it can also indicate severe problems with the kidneys or cancer.

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Urine pH

Optimal range:   5 - 8 pH

Urine pH is a test to assess the pH level of your urine and is done, along with several other tests, during a routine analysis of the urine. Although some fluctuation of urine pH is normal, excessively acidic or alkaline urine can indicate a problem with the kidneys or digestive system.

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Urine Specific Gravity

Optimal range:   1.001 - 1.035 SG

Urine specific gravity is a test to assess the concentration of your urine and is done, along with several other tests, during a routine analysis of the urine. An abnormal urine specific gravity test likely indicates a problem with the kidneys or heart.

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Urobilinogen Bilirubin, Urine

Optimal range:   0.2 - 2 mg/dL

It is formed from bilirubin by intestinal bacteria in the duodenum, and a portion of it is absorbed back into the blood. Most urobilinogen is excreted in the feces or transported back to the liver and converted into bile. The remaining urobilinogen (<1%) is excreted in the urine.

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Uroporphyrin I

Optimal range:   3.1 - 18.2 mcg/g creat

More info


Uroporphyrin III

Optimal range:   0 - 4.8 mcg/g creat

More info


White Blood Cells (WBC), Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 10 /hpf

More info



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Immune System

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by “foreign” invaders. These are primarily microbes—tiny organisms such as bacteria, parasites, and fungi that can cause infections.


Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Antibody

Optimal range:   0 - 0.45 nmol/L

At the normal neuromuscular junction, a nerve cell tells a muscle cell to contract by releasing the chemical acetylcholine (ACh). ACh attaches to the ACh receptor — a pore or “channel” in the surface of the muscle cell — twisting it open and allowing an inward flux of electrical current that triggers muscle contraction.

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Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

Optimal range:   26 - 36 seconds

The Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test tells you how many seconds (s) it takes your blood to form a clot after body tissue(s) or blood vessel walls were injured.

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Anti-Smith Antibody

Optimal range:   0 - 0 Units

The Anti-Smith Antibody targets your body’s own proteins and is found almost exclusively in people with lupus. Though not all people with lupus have this antibody (only around 30%), those who do usually receive a diagnosis of lupus. Anti-Smith antibody is more common in blacks and Asians with SLE (around 60%) than in whites with SLE.

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Antinuclear Antibodies Direct (ANA Direct)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.99 Units

Antinuclear antibodies or ANAs are autoantibodies that react to substances within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies can react to almost anything with the nucleus including DNA, centromeres, histones, ribosomes, and other nuclear proteins.

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C3a desArg Fragment

Optimal range:   55 - 486 ng/mL

C3 is the most abundant protein of the complement system. C3 can be cleaved in two divalent fragments, where C3b is the larger fragment. C3a is the smaller fragment that is released into the surrounding fluids. C3a can bind to receptors on basophils and mast cells triggering them to release their vasoactive amines (e.g. histamine). Because of the role of these biomarkers in anaphylaxis, C3a is called an anaphylatoxin. C3a is one of the most potent constrictors of smooth muscle cells. C3a has been shown to be a multifunctional pro-inflammatory mediator.

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CCP Antibodies IgG/IgA

Optimal range:   0 - 19 Units

Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) is an antibody present in most rheumatoid arthritis patients.

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Complement C3

Optimal range:   90 - 180 mg/dL

Investigation of renal/joint/connective tissue disorders and their symptoms.

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Complement C4, Serum

Optimal range:   14 - 44 mg/dL

Complement component 4 (C4) is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein. This protein is part of the complement system.

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Complement C4a

Optimal range:   0 - 650 ng/mL

The complement C4 test is one of the most frequently used complement component tests. Your doctor may order a complement C4 test if you’re experiencing symptoms that indicate an autoimmune disease.

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Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody

Optimal range:   0 - 19.9 Units

To help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and differentiate it from other types of arthritis.

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Dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT)

Optimal range:   29 - 42 seconds

More info


ds-DNA Antibody, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 29.9 IU/ml

Evaluating patients with signs and symptoms consistent with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

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Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

Optimal range:   1 - 20 mm/hr

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is a relatively simple, inexpensive, non-specific test that has been used for many years to help detect inflammation associated with conditions such as infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

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Histamine, Plasma

Optimal range:   0 - 0.99 ng/mL

Histamine is a substance that is produced by the body as part of an allergic reaction.

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Immature Grans (Abs)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 x10E3/µL

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.

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Immature Granulocytes (%)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.5 %

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.

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Immunoglobulin A, Qn, Serum

Optimal range:   87 - 352 mg/dL

More info


Immunoglobulin D, Quant, Serum

Optimal range:   0 - 14.11 mg/dL

More info


Immunoglobulin E, Total

Optimal range:   0 - 100 IU/ml

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) are antibodies produced by the immune system. 

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Immunoglobulin G, Qn, Serum

Optimal range:   700 - 1600 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and viral infections.

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Immunoglobulin M, Qn, Serum

Optimal range:   40 - 230 mg/dL

More info


Interleukin-6

Optimal range:   0 - 1.8 pg/mL

Interleukin-6 is involved in inflammation and infection responses and also in the regulation of metabolicregenerative, and neural processes.

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Jo 1 Antibodies, IgG, Serum

Optimal range:   0 - 0.99 Units

This test measures the amount of antibodies to anti-Jo-1 in blood. It is used to help diagnose and manage muscle diseases that affects the immune system such as polymyositis (a type of chronic inflammation of the muscles) associated with autoimmune disease.

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Liver-Kidney Microsomal Antibodies

Optimal range:   0 - 20 Units

These antibodies target a human body’s produced enzyme called cytochrome P450 2D6, a protein found primarily in liver cells which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism. The development of the LKM antibodies is strongly associated with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.

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Lupus Anticoagulant

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 GPL

Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining of cells. These substances prevent blood clotting in a test tube.

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Prothrombin Time (PT)

Optimal range:   11 - 13.5 seconds

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot.

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Prothrombin Time (PT) INR

Optimal range:   0.8 - 1.1 seconds

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot. 

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RA Latex Turbid

Optimal range:   0 - 13.9 IU/ml

The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) latex turbid test is a laboratory test that’s used to help your doctor diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.

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Rheumatoid factor

Optimal range:   0 - 13.9 IU/ml

A rheumatoid factor test measures the amount of rheumatoid factor in your blood. Rheumatoid factors are proteins produced by your immune system that can attack healthy tissue in your body.

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TGF-b1

Optimal range:   344 - 2382 pg/mL

Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, and regulation of the immune system.

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Thrombin time

Optimal range:   11.3 - 18.5 seconds

Thrombin is an enzyme in the blood that acts on the clotting factor fibrinogen to form fibrin, helping blood to clot. The thrombin time assesses the activity of fibrinogen.

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Transforming Growth Factor beta, Plasma

Optimal range:   463 - 5423 pg/mL

Transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional peptide growth factor that has an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and repair in a variety of tissues.

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Tryptase

Optimal range:   2.2 - 13.2 ug/L

Tryptase is an enzyme that is released, along with histamine and other chemicals, from mast cells when they are activated as part of a normal immune response as well as in allergic (hypersensitivity) responses.

More info


Vegf, Serum

Optimal range:   62 - 707 pg/mL

VEGF stands for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. VEGF is a growth factor that promotes the growth of new blood vessels.

More info



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Other

This category includes all markers that do not fall into any of the other categories.


Anti DNAse B Titer

Optimal range:   0 - 251 U/mL

The AntiDNAse B Titer is a test used in conjunction with ASO titer tests. It tests for poststreptococcal complications.

More info


Bordetella Pertussis (IgG/IgM)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.94 index

More info


CA 125

Optimal range:   0 - 45.9 U/mL

A CA 125 test may be used to monitor certain cancers during and after treatment. In some cases, a CA 125 test may be used to look for early signs of ovarian cancer in people with a very high risk of the disease.

More info


Cat Dander, IgE

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kunits/L

Testing for IgE antibodies may be useful to establish the diagnosis of an allergic disease and to define the allergens responsible for eliciting signs and symptoms.

More info


CD1656

Optimal range:   100 - 1000 U/L

More info


CD19

Optimal range:   200 - 2100 U/L

More info


CD3

Optimal range:   900 - 4500 U/L

More info


CD4

Optimal range:   500 - 2400 U/L

More info


CD4/CD8 Ratio

Optimal range:   2 - 4 Ratio

More info


CD8

Optimal range:   300 - 1600 U/L

More info


Coenzyme Q10

Optimal range:   0.48 - 3.04 mg/L

Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone is a cofactor, electron carrier, and antioxidant. It is a critical component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria.

More info


Diphtheria Antibodies

Optimal range:   0.1 - 0.3 IU/ml

Diphtheria is a contagious and potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterium called Corynebacterium diphtheria. Testing for the antibodies against the disease gives doctors an idea if you have immunity towards diphtheria.

More info


Heliocobater Pylori Antibody IgA (ARUP)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.7 EV

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria. These germs can enter your body and live in your digestive tract. After many years, they can cause sores, called ulcers, in the lining of your stomach or the upper part of your small intestine. 

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Mercury

Optimal range:   0 - 14.9 ug/L

Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal element. It exists in three forms: elemental, inorganic, and organic. All three of these forms of mercury can be toxic, causing several health problems.

More info


Metanephrine Plasma

Optimal range:   0 - 62 pg/mL

Metanephrine, a metabolite of epinephrine, is at normally low levels in the plasma. Certain tumors increase the levels and will increase the levels of Metanephrine. The Metanephrine test, when normal, means these tumors are not present.

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Normetanephrine

Optimal range:   0 - 145 pg/mL

Normetanephrine, a metabolite of norepinephrine, is at normally low levels in the plasma. Certain tumors increase the levels and will increase the levels of nor-metanephrine. The Normetanephrine test, when normal, means these tumors are not present.

More info


Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

Optimal range:   0 - 4 ng/mL

The Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures the amount of prostate specific antigen proteins made by the prostate gland and prostate cancers. It is used as a screen for prostate cancer, or a way to monitor progress of prostate cancer patients.

More info


Pyruvate

Optimal range:   0.3 - 1.5 mg/dL

Pyruvate or pyruvic acid is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways. Abnormalities in pyruvate alone are not diagnostic of any disease, but they are clinically useful when measured with lactate deform the lactate to pyruvate ratio.

More info


RNP Antibodies, IgG, Serum

Optimal range:   0 - 0.99 Units

More info


Rocky Mtn Spotted Fev, IgG, Qn

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii.

More info


Special Stains

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

Special Stains Test is a lab test performed on a skin sample (biopsy) to determine the pathology and confirm there is a skin disease present. It may also be used to monitor the effects of treatment of the skin disease.

More info


Tetanus Antibodies

Optimal range:   0.1 - 0.5 IU/ml

More info


Tumor Necrosis Factor

Optimal range:   0 - 8.1 pg/mL

More info


Varicella-Zoster Antibody, IgG

Optimal range:   1.1 - 10 AI

The Varicella-Zoster Antibody (IgG) test looks for antibodies in your blood that your body makes against the varicella-zoster virus. It is very contagious. Varicella-zoster virus, a herpesvirus, causes two distinct rash-associated diseases:

– chickenpox (varicella)

– shingles (herpes zoster).

More info



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Stool

In this category we look at digestion, absorbtion, gut immunology, gut metabolism, gut microbiology, beneficial bacteria and fecal fats.


Acetate

Optimal range:   48.1 - 69.2 %

Acetate is the most abundant SCFA in the colon and makes up more than half of the total SCFA detected in feces. These beneficial SCFA have anti-inflammatory properties, provide energy to nourish the colonic epithelial cells and intestinal microbiota, and exert numerous positive effects on gut homeostasis.

More info


Adenovirus 40/41

Optimal range:   0 - 9000000000 Units

Adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41 cause acute gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) primarily in children.

More info


Akkermansia muciniphila

Optimal range:   1200000 - 100000000000 CFU/g stool

Akkermansia muciniphila may represent 3–5% of the microbial composition in the healthy human intestinal tract, and have a crucial role in the regulation of the gut barrier and other homeostatic and metabolic functions.

More info


Anaerotruncus colihominis

Optimal range:   0 - 32000000 CFU/g stool

Anaerotruncus colihomonis (pronounced “an-AERO-trunk-us colly-HOM-in-iss”) is a newly described bacterial genus and species isolated from the stool specimens of children. Its clinical significance, however, is unknown.

The species is found only relatively infrequently in the human gut. It comes from the genus Anaerotruncus, which contains just this one species. The genus name comes from the Greek words “an” and “aero”, meaning respectively “without” and “air”, and the Latin word “truncus”, which means “stick”—making the overall name “a stick that lives without air”, since the cells of this bacterial genus are rod-like in shape and live in the absence of oxygen. The species name “colihominis” means “of the gut of man”.

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Ancylostoma duodenale

Optimal range:   0 - 0.00001 Units

The distribution of hookworm (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) is worldwide, with particular prevalence in rural areas of the moist tropics where there is inadequate sanitation and people walk barefoot. The two species produce indistinguishable thin-walled eggs that hatch in soil. Infection is usually acquired by walking barefoot in soil contaminated with human faeces. The larvae undergo several moults before infective larvae are produced.

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Anti-gliadin IgA

Optimal range:   0 - 157 U/L

Antigliadin antibodies (AGAs) are antibodies of the IgA and IgG classes found in the serum of celiac disease patients. These antibodies mainly target gliadin-derived peptides, which are the main proteins of gluten. AGAs are not specific for celiac disease as they are also found in patients with other gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, gastroenteritis, and IBD.

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Ascaris lumbricoides

Optimal range:   0 - 0.00001 Units

Ascaris lumbricoides, an intestinal roundworm, is one of the most common helminthic human infections worldwide.

Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode of man. The female worms are larger than the males and can measure 40 cm in length and 6 mm in diameter. They are white or pink and are tapered at both ends. 

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Bacillus spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 149999 Units

Bacillus spp. are spore forming bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment. B. cereus in particular is a frequently recognized cause of toxin-induced acute gastroenteritis.

Other infections caused by this genus include:

More info


Bacteroides fragilis

Optimal range:   1600000000 - 250000000000 Units

More info


Bacteroides vulgatus

Optimal range:   0 - 2200000000 CFU/g stool

Bacteroides vulgatus is among the most commonly isolated microbes from the human gastrointestinal tract, and it has been found to constitute part of the core gut microbiota in healthy humans.

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Bacteroides-Prevotella group

Optimal range:   3400000 - 1500000000 CFU/g stool

The predominant genera in the human colonic microbiota are Bacteroides and Prevotella, which belong to the major phyla Bacteroidetes.

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Bacteroidetes

Optimal range:   861000000000 - 3310000000000 Units

Bacteroidetes are the most prominent gut microbes in much of the world. They are thought to help protect against obesity because they do not digest fat well.

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Barnesiella spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 160000000 CFU/g stool

Barnesiella ssp. is a small group of two species of bacteria that are usually only found at reasonably low levels in the gut.

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Beneficial SCFAs

Optimal range:   13.6 - 150 micromol/g

Short chain fatty acids are saturated fatty acids consisting of no more than 6 carbons. The most common forms—acetate, propionate, and butyrate—are also helpful for colon and overall health. Thus, they are called beneficial SCFAs.

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Beta-glucuronidase

Optimal range:   368 - 6266 U/g

Beta-glucuronidase is an enzyme produced by certain unfriendly gut bacteria. A proper balance of beta-glucuronidase is essential for good health and disease prevention.

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Bifidobacterium longum

Optimal range:   0 - 720000000 CFU/g stool

Bifidobacterium longum is a specific species of microscopic non-pathogenic bacteria found naturally in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans as well as in most other animals.

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Bifidobacterium spp.

Optimal range:   67000000 - 6400000000 Units

A common component of the microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract and in particular are amongst the first bacterial colonizers of the intestine.

More info


Bilfidobacterium

Optimal range:   4 - 10 Units

More info


Blastocystis hominis

Optimal range:   0 - 1999 Units

More info


Butyrivibrio crossotus

Optimal range:   5500 - 590000 CFU/g stool

Butyrivibrio‘ is a genus of bacteria in Class Clostridia. Butyrivibrio crossotus are often found in the human gut and inversely associated with obesity.

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C. difficile, Toxin A

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

More info


C. difficile, Toxin B

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

More info


Calprotectin

Optimal range:   0 - 50 mcg/g

Calprotectin is a protein that binds to both calcium and zinc. Fecal calprotectin levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation, thus it is useful for distinguishing between inflammatory and non-inflammatory diarrhea.

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Campylobacter

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

When people worry about eating undercooked chicken, they usually focus on getting sick from salmonella bacteria. But another common type of bacteria called campylobacter can also make you ill if you eat poultry that isn’t fully cooked.

More info


Candida albicans

Optimal range:   0 - 499 Units

More info


Candida spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 4999 Units

More info


Chilomastix mesnili

Optimal range:   0 - 99999 Units

More info


Cholesterol

Optimal range:   0.4 - 4.8 mg/g

More info


Chymotrypsin

Optimal range:   0.9 - 26.8 U/g

More info


Citrobacter freundii

Optimal range:   0 - 499999 Units

More info


Citrobacter spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 4999999 Units

More info


Clarithromycin

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

More info


Clostridium spp.

Optimal range:   170000000 - 15000000000 CFU/g stool

Clostridium spp. is part of the intestinal indigenous microbiota and they can produce several endogenous infections.

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Collinsella aerofaciens

Optimal range:   14000000 - 1900000000 CFU/g stool

Collinsella aerofaciens is a group of bacteria found in the gut and also on the surface of the tongue. It is named after the microbiologist Matthew Collins.

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Coprococcus eutactus

Optimal range:   0 - 120000000 CFU/g stool

The abundance of Coprococcus eutactus is associated with greater bacterial gene richness in the gut.

Coprococcus is a genus of anaerobic cocci which are all part of the human faecal flora. Coprococcus includes those gram-positive, anaerobic cocci that actively ferment carbohydrates, producing butyric and acetic acids with formic or propionic and/or lactic acids. Fermentable carbohydrates are either required or are highly stimulatory for growth and continued subculture. The genus is bio-chemically closely related to Ruminococcus.

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Cryptosporidium

Optimal range:   0 - 999999 Units

More info


Cyclospora spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 49999 Units

More info


Cytomegalovirus

Optimal range:   0 - 99999 Units

More info


Deoxycholic acid (DCA)

Optimal range:   0.67 - 6.76 mg/g

More info


Desulfovibrio piger

Optimal range:   0 - 18000000 CFU/g stool

Desulfovibrio piger is part of a group called Sulfate-reducing bacteria (=SRB). SRBs are normal inhabitants of the intestine in humans. This group of bacteria can “breathe” sulfate rather than oxygen. SRBs have been suspected to contribute to gastrointestinal disease due to the production of hydrogen sulfide, which can be considered toxic to the gut epithelium.

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Dientamoeba fragilis

Optimal range:   0 - 99999 Units

More info


E. coli O157

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

More info


Elastase-1

Optimal range:   201 - 2000 ug/g

Pancreatic elastase is an enzyme that digests protein. It’s only produced by the pancreas and when it is seen in the stool, it’s an excellent biomarker of how well the pancreas is performing.

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Endolimax nana

Optimal range:   0 - 9999 Units

More info


Entamoeba coli

Optimal range:   0 - 4999999 Units

More info


Entamoeba histolytica

Optimal range:   0 - 9999 Units

More info


Enterobacter spp.

Optimal range:   1000000 - 50000000 Units

More info


Enterococcus faecalis

Optimal range:   0 - 9999 Units

More info


Enterococcus faecium

Optimal range:   0 - 9999 Units

More info


Enterococcus spp.

Optimal range:   190000 - 200000000 Units

More info


Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

More info


Enteroinvasive E. coli/Shigella

Optimal range:   0 - 99 Units

More info


Enterotoxigenic E. coli LT/ST

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

More info


Eosinophil Protein X

Optimal range:   0 - 4.6 mcg/g

Eosinophil Protein X is a water-soluble protein that is found in eosinophils. Fecal Eosinophil Protein X levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation where high concentrations of eosinophils may be found.

More info


Epstein Barr Virus

Optimal range:   0 - 999999 Units

More info


Escherichia coli

Optimal range:   2 - 10 Units

More info


Escherichia coli (CFU/g stool)

Optimal range:   90000 - 46000000 CFU/g stool

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that normally live in the intestines of people and animals.

More info


Escherichia spp.

Optimal range:   3700000 - 3800000000 Units

More info


Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

Optimal range:   1000 - 500000000 CFU/g stool

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most important bacteria in the human gut flora and makes up to 5-10% of the total number of bacteria detected in stool samples from healthy humans. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has a crucial role in maintaining gut physiology and host wellbeing.

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Fecal Fat, Total

Optimal range:   3.2 - 38.6 mg/g

A fecal fat test helps your doctor identify pancreatic or intestinal disorders. It can indicate your body isn’t creating enough enzymes or there is malabsorption.

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Fecal Occult Blood

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

The fecal occult blood test (=FOBT) looks for blood in your feces. “Occult” (=hidden) means that the blood amount is so small that it cannot be seen with the naked eye. The bleeding does not change the color of the stool or result in visible bright red blood. Therefore, the blood is found only by testing the stool for blood in the laboratory.

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Fecal secretory IgA

Optimal range:   0 - 885 mcg/g

Fecal Secretory IgA is a marker of gut secretory immunity and barrier function.

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Firmicutes

Optimal range:   57000000000 - 304000000000 Units

More info


Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B Ratio)

Optimal range:   12 - 620 Ratio

The F/B ratio provides an estimate of the predominance of two major phyla of commensal organisms, which has been associated with a number of metabolic disorders.

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Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes Ratio

Optimal range:   0 - 0.99 Ratio

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Fluoroquinolones

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Fusobacterium spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 240000 CFU/g stool

Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).

Fusobacterium is very rarely found among the usual gut bugs, but it appears to flourish in colon cancer cells.

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Geotrichum spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 299 Units

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Giardia

Optimal range:   0 - 4999 Units

Giardia infection (giardiasis) is one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States.

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H. PYLORI, Antigen

Optimal range:   0 - 0 Units

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Helicobacter pylori

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

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Klebsiella pneumoniae

Optimal range:   0 - 49999 Units

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Klebsiella spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 4999 Units

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Lactobacillus species

Optimal range:   2 - 10 Units

Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus.

Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”, and in fact may contribute to good health, often being included in probiotic supplements. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a byproduct of glucose metabolism.

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Lactobacillus spp.

Optimal range:   8300000 - 5200000000 Units

Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus.

Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”, and in fact may contribute to good health, often being included in probiotic supplements. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a byproduct of glucose metabolism.

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LCA / DCA Ratio

Optimal range:   0.39 - 2.07 Ratio

LCA and DCA are secondary bile acids. These secondary bile acids are associated with disease. An LCA:DCA ratio greater than 1 is associated with increased risk of gallstones, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. 

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Lithocholic acid (LCA)

Optimal range:   0.65 - 5.21 mg/g

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Long-Chain Fatty Acids

Optimal range:   1.2 - 29.1 mg/g

Long chain fatty acids are a fecal fat. Fecal fats also include triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids. They are derived predominately from the dietary ingestion of fat, and provide important clues about digestion and absorption.

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M2 Pyruvate Kinase

Optimal range:   0 - 4 U/mL

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Methanobrevibacter smithii

Optimal range:   0 - 86000000 CFU/g stool

Methanobrevibacter smithii is highly prevalent in the human gut. Lower counts have been associated with obesity while higher amounts have been associated with anorexia.

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Microsporidium spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 4999 Units

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Morganella spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (avium)

Optimal range:   0 - 4999 Units

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n-Butyrate % (Stool)

Optimal range:   11.8 - 33.3 %

N-Butyrate is one of the short-chain fatty acids produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in the colon. It becomes a food supply capable of providing up to 30% of the energy needed by colon cells. N-butyrate improves colon health.

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n-Butyrate Concentration

Optimal range:   3.6 - 100 micromol/g

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Necator americanus

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Norovirus GI/II

Optimal range:   0 - 9000000 Units

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Odoribacter spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 80000000 CFU/g stool

The bacteria are found in the human gut where they are considered “commensal”, which means “eating from the same dish”. They exist in the human body without either helping or hindering us.

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Oxalobacter formigenes

Optimal range:   0 - 15000000 CFU/g stool

Oxalobacter formigenes is a bacterium that colonizes the colon of a substantial proportion of the normal population and metabolizes dietary and endogenous oxalate and hence reducing the incidence of kidney stones.

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Pancreatic Elastase 1

Optimal range:   200 - 1000 mcg/g

Pancreatic elastase is an enzyme that digests protein. It’s only produced by the pancreas and when it is seen in the stool, it’s an excellent biomarker of how well the pancreas is performing.

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Pentatrichomonas hominis

Optimal range:   0 - 99 Units

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Phospholipids

Optimal range:   0.2 - 6.9 mg/g

The enzyme LCAT transesterifies cholesterol in the blood with fats from lecithin. When this happens as it should, HDL, VLDL and LDL lipoprotein particles are remodeled and cholesterol is moved out of the blood. The Phospholipid test looks for LCAT deficiency. 

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Prevotella copri

Optimal range:   0 - 9999999 Units

Prevotella copri is a gut bacteria that may cause rheumatoid arthritis. Studies consistently find different bacterial patterns in people with inflammatory arthritis vs controls.

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Prevotella spp.

Optimal range:   140000 - 16000000 CFU/g stool

Prevotella spp. is known for its ability to degrade complex plant polysaccharides (carbohydrates) and fiber.

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Products of Protein Breakdown (Total)

Optimal range:   1.8 - 9.9 micromol/g

Products of Protein Breakdown, which includes isovalerate, valerate and isobutyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation of proteinaceous material (polypeptides and amino acids) in the distal colon.

Products of Protein Breakdown (Total) is a set of markers of undigested protein reaching the colon.

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Propionate (Stool)

Optimal range:   0 - 29.3 %

Propionate is among the most common short-chain fatty acids produced in the human gut in response to indigestible carbohydrates (fiber) in the diet.

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Proteus mirabilis

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

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Proteus spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 49999 Units

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Pseudoflavonifractor spp.

Optimal range:   420000 - 130000000 CFU/g stool

Pseudoflavonifractor spp. has been positively associated with weight loss.

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Optimal range:   0 - 499 Units

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Pseudomonas spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 9999 Units

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Putrefactive SCFAs

Optimal range:   1.3 - 8.6 micromol/g

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Rodotorula spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

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Roseburia spp.

Optimal range:   130000000 - 12000000000 CFU/g stool

Roseburia is a genus (=group) of 5 species of bacteria named in the 1980s after American microbiologist Theodor Rosebury. Bacteria in this genus are notable for breaking down sugar, and producing a short-chain fatty acid called butyrate which is important as a food for the cells lining the colon.

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Ruminococcus spp.

Optimal range:   95000000 - 1600000000 CFU/g stool

The Ruminococcus bacteria in our gut microbiomes play a major role in helping us digest resistant starches - the complex carbohydrates found in high fiber foods such as lentils, beans, and unprocessed whole grains.

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Salmonella

Optimal range:   0 - 9999 Units

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Secretory IgA

Optimal range:   510 - 2010 ug/g

Secretory IgA is a marker of gut secretory immunity, tolerance and exclusion of bacteria.

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Shiga-like Toxin E. coli stx1

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

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Shiga-like Toxin E. coli stx2

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

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Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA), Total

Optimal range:   23.3 - 200 micromol/g

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Staphylococcus aureus

Optimal range:   0 - 499 Units

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Staphylococcus spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 9999 Units

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Steatocrit

Optimal range:   0 - 14.9 %

The steatocrit is a measure of the amount of fat in stool.

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Stool pH

Optimal range:   6.1 - 7.9 pH

A fecal pH test is one where a specimen of feces is tested for acidity in order to diagnose a medical condition.

Stool pH is dependent in part on fermentation of sugars. Colonic fermentation of normal amounts of carbohydrate sugars and production of fatty acids accounts for the normally slightly acidic pH.

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Streptococcus spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 999 Units

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Taenia spp.

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Trichuris trichiura

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Triglycerides

Optimal range:   0.3 - 2.8 mg/g

Most of the fats in our diet are in the form of triglycerides. These are broken down by an efficient digestive system into smaller fragments that can then be absorbed from the small intestine.

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Veillonella spp.

Optimal range:   120000 - 55000000 CFU/g stool

Veillonella are anaerobic, gram-negative cocci, part of the normal flora of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vaginal tract.

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Vibrio cholerae

Optimal range:   0 - 99999 Units

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Virulence Factor, babA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Virulence Factor, cagA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Virulence Factor, dupA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Virulence Factor, iceA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Virulence Factor, oipA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Virulence Factor, vacA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Virulence Factor, virB

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

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Virulence Factor, virD

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0001 Units

More info


Yersinia enterocolitica

Optimal range:   0 - 99999 Units

More info


Zonulin, Stool

Optimal range:   0 - 107 ng/mL

More info



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Gonadotropins

The gonadotropins are peptide hormones that regulate ovarian and testicular function and are essential for normal growth, sexual development and reproduction. The human gonadotropins include follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone which are made in the pituitary, and chorionic gonadotropin which is made by the placenta.


Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Optimal range:   1.5 - 12.4 IU/L

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a pituitary hormone that regulates growth, sexual development and reproduction, including menstruation, follicular development and ovulation.

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Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Optimal range:   0.7 - 12.5 IU/L

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a pituitary hormone that is essential for sexual development and reproduction in both men and women. 

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Prolactin

Optimal range:   102 - 496 mU/L , 4.79 - 23.31 ng/mL

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that causes breast development in women and milk production in pregnant women. Prolactin does not have known biological function in men.

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  • Use self upload form
  • 800+ biomarkers explained
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Full Interpretation
  • Instant interpretation
  • We upload 4 reports for you
  • 800+ biomarkers explained
  • Nutrition Recommendations
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  • Online support
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  • Unlimited access
  • No subscription
  • Instant interpretations
  • We upload 10 reports for you
  • 800+ biomarkers explained
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DUTCH

The DUTCH test is a urine steroid hormone test that measures hormones and hormone metabolites from a dried urine sample.


16-OH-E1

Optimal range:   0.7 - 2.6 ng/mg

16α-Hydroxyestrone (16α-OH-E1), or hydroxyestrone, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3,16α-diol-17-one, is an endogenous steroidal estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone, as well as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of estriol. It is a potent estrogen similarly to estrone, and it has been suggested that the ratio of 16α-hydroxyestrone to 2-OH-E1, the latter being much less estrogenic in comparison and even antiestrogenic in the presence of more potent estrogens like estradiol, may be involved in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Conversely, 16α-hydroxyestrone may help to protect against osteoporosis.

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16-OH-E1 (male)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.2 ng/mg

16α-Hydroxyestrone (16α-OH-E1), or hydroxyestrone, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3,16α-diol-17-one, is an endogenous steroidal estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone, as well as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of estriol. 

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16-OH-E1 Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0.2 - 0.6 ng/mg

16α-Hydroxyestrone (16α-OH-E1), or hydroxyestrone, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3,16α-diol-17-one, is an endogenous steroidal estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone, as well as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of estriol. It is a potent estrogen similarly to estrone, and it has been suggested that the ratio of 16α-hydroxyestrone to 2-OH-E1, the latter being much less estrogenic in comparison and even antiestrogenic in the presence of more potent estrogens like estradiol, may be involved in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Conversely, 16α-hydroxyestrone may help to protect against osteoporosis.

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2-Methoxy-E1

Optimal range:   2.5 - 6.5 ng/mg

The 2-Methoxy Estrogens are considered to be protective. Low levels are usually a reflection of overall low estrogens and may be improved with supplemental estrogen.

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2-Methoxy-E1 (male)

Optimal range:   0 - 2.8 ng/mg

The 2-Methoxy Estrogens are considered to be protective. Low levels are usually a reflection of overall low estrogens and may be improved with supplemental estrogen.

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2-Methoxy-E1 Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0.3 - 1.4 ng/mg

The 2-Methoxy Estrogens are considered to be protective. Low levels are usually a reflection of overall low estrogens and may be improved with supplemental estrogen.

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2-Methoxy-E2

Optimal range:   0.3 - 0.7 ng/mg

The 2-Methoxy Estrogens are considered to be protective. Low levels are usually a reflection of overall low estrogens and may be improved with supplemental estrogen.

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2-Methoxy-E2 Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0 - 0.4 ng/mg

The 2-Methoxy Estrogens are considered to be protective. Low levels are usually a reflection of overall low estrogens and may be improved with supplemental estrogen.

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2-OH-E1

Optimal range:   5.1 - 13.1 ng/mg

2-Hydroxyestrone is an endogenous biomarker and major urinary metabolite of estrone and estradiol. Along with 16α-Hydroxyestrone, 2-Hydroxyestrone is used as an indicator for increased risk of breast cancer. 

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2-OH-E1 (male)

Optimal range:   0 - 5.9 ng/mg

2-Hydroxyestrone is an endogenous biomarker and major urinary metabolite of estrone and estradiol. Along with 16α-Hydroxyestrone, 2-Hydroxyestrone is used as an indicator for increased risk of cancer.

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2-OH-E1 Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0.3 - 2 ng/mg

2-Hydroxyestrone is an endogenous biomarker and major urinary metabolite of estrone and estradiol. Along with 16α-Hydroxyestrone, 2-Hydroxyestrone is used as an indicator for increased risk of breast cancer. 

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2-OH-E2

Optimal range:   0 - 1.2 ng/mg

Research and clinical studies show that the 2-hydroxylated estrogens (2-OH E2 and 2-OH E1) are a safer pathway of hydroxylation than the 4-hydroxyestrogens (4-OH E2 and 4-OH E1), which bind to and damage DNA, leading to mutations that are associated with increased breast cancer risk.

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2-OH-E2 Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0 - 0.3 ng/mg

Research and clinical studies show that the 2-hydroxylated estrogens (2-OH E2 and 2-OH E1) are a safer pathway of hydroxylation than the 4-hydroxyestrogens (4-OH E2 and 4-OH E1), which bind to and damage DNA, leading to mutations that are associated with increased breast cancer risk.

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24hr Free Cortisol

Optimal range:   80 - 230 ug

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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24hr Free Cortisone

Optimal range:   220 - 450 ug

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4-OH-E1

Optimal range:   0 - 1.8 ng/mg

A very carcinogenic estrogen metabolite, levels low in the reference range are desirable. Additional magnesium, liver support, and methylation support may help decrease 4-OH-E1 levels.

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4-OH-E1 (male)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.8 ng/mg

A very carcinogenic estrogen metabolite, levels low in the reference range are desirable. Additional magnesium, liver support, and methylation support may help decrease 4-OH-E1 levels.

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4-OH-E1 Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0 - 0.3 ng/mg

A very carcinogenic estrogen metabolite, levels low in the reference range are desirable. Additional magnesium, liver support, and methylation support may help decrease 4-OH-E1 levels.

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4-OH-E2

Optimal range:   0.15 - 0.5 ng/mg

4 hydroxy estrone (4-OH-E1) and estradiol (4-OH-E2) are metabolites of estrone and estradiol, are very reactive estrogens and may increase risk of estrogen-sensitive cancers.

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4-OH-E2 Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 ng/mg

4 hydroxy estrone (4-OH-E1) and estradiol (4-OH-E2) are metabolites of estrone and estradiol, are very reactive estrogens and may increase risk of estrogen-sensitive cancers.

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5-Hydroxyindoleacetate (5HIAA)

Optimal range:   2.5 - 7.5 ug/mg

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

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5a-Androstanediol

Optimal range:   12 - 30 ng/mg

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5a-Androstanediol (male)

Optimal range:   30 - 250 ng/mg

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5a-DHT

Optimal range:   0 - 6.6 ng/mg

5a-DHT is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone. The enzyme 5α-reductase catalyzes the formation of DHT from testosterone in certain tissues including the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, epididymides, skin, hair follicles, liver, and brain.

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5a-DHT (male)

Optimal range:   5 - 25 ng/mg

5a-DHT is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone. The enzyme 5α-reductase catalyzes the formation of DHT from testosterone in certain tissues including the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, epididymides, skin, hair follicles, liver, and brain.

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5b-Androstanediol

Optimal range:   20 - 75 ng/mg

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5b-Androstanediol (male)

Optimal range:   40 - 250 ng/mg

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8-OHdG (Waking)

Optimal range:   0 - 5.2 ng/mg

8-OHdG measures the effect of endogenous oxidative damage to DNA. The marker is used to estimate the risk for various cancers and degenerative diseases. Adjusting treatments and lifestyle to minimize the presence of 8-OHdG is a productive step toward health and longevity.

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a-Pregnanediol (luteal range)

Optimal range:   580 - 3000 ng/mg

This test measures pregnanediol, a metabolite of progesterone. It is used in the evaluation and decision making in women who are having difficulty becoming pregnant or maintaining a pregnancy. It is also used to monitor “high-risk” pregnancies.

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a-Pregnanediol (male)

Optimal range:   20 - 130 ng/mg

Progesterone itself is not readily found in the urine. Instead, this test measures pregnanediol (a progesterone metabolite). Pregnanediol is well-established in research literature as a reliable marker for progesterone levels.

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a-Pregnanediol (oral progesterone range)

Optimal range:   580 - 3000 ng/mg

This test measures pregnanediol, a metabolite of progesterone. It is used in the evaluation and decision making in women who are having difficulty becoming pregnant or maintaining a pregnancy. It is also used to monitor “high-risk” pregnancies.

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a-Pregnanediol (postmenopausal range)

Optimal range:   15 - 50 ng/mg

This test measures pregnanediol, a metabolite of progesterone. It is used in the evaluation and decision making in women who are having difficulty becoming pregnant or maintaining a pregnancy. It is also used to monitor “high-risk” pregnancies.

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a-Tetrahydrocortisol (a-THF)

Optimal range:   75 - 370 ng/mg

Metabolized cortisol is the sum of a-tetrahydrocortisol (a-THF), b-tetrahydrocortisol (b-THF), and b-tetrahydrocortisone (b-THE). They are a good indication of the total cortisol output from the adrenal gland or clearance out the body.

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a-Tetrahydrocortisol (a-THF) (male)

Optimal range:   175 - 700 ng/mg

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Androsterone

Optimal range:   200 - 1650 ng/mg

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Androsterone (male)

Optimal range:   500 - 3000 ng/mg

Androsterone and Etiocholanolone are DHEA metabolites via Androstenedione and the 5α- and 5β-reductase pathways.

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b-Pregnanediol (luteal range)

Optimal range:   2000 - 9000 ng/mg

Pregnanediol is a metabolite of the molecule of progesterone, which is important for fertility and for menstruation. Pregnanediol levels increase after ovulation and when the placenta releases the hormone.

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b-Pregnanediol (male)

Optimal range:   75 - 400 ng/mg

Progesterone itself is not readily found in the urine. Instead, this test measures pregnanediol (a progesterone metabolite). Pregnanediol is well-established in research literature as a reliable marker for progesterone levels.

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b-Pregnanediol (oral progesterone range)

Optimal range:   2000 - 9000 ng/mg

Pregnanediol is a metabolite of the molecule of progesterone, which is important for fertility and for menstruation. Pregnanediol levels increase after ovulation and when the placenta releases the hormone.

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b-Pregnanediol (postmenopausal range)

Optimal range:   60 - 200 ng/mg

Pregnanediol is a metabolite of the molecule of progesterone, which is important for fertility and for menstruation. Pregnanediol levels increase after ovulation and when the placenta releases the hormone.

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b-Tetrahydrocortisol (b-THF)

Optimal range:   1050 - 2500 ng/mg

B-Tetrahydrocortisol [aka 5-beta-Tetrahydrocortisol (5b-THF)] is a metabolite of cortisol.

Tetrahydrocortisone, Tetrahydrocortisol and Allo-Tetrahydrocortisol are cortisol metabolites that reflect approximately 50% of daily cortisone synthesis. These will often reflect a chronic adrenal picture if levels are out of normal limits.

Urine contains free cortisol, but it also contains many cortisol metabolites, like cortisone or 5-alpha- tetrahydrocortisol, 5-beta-tetrahydrocortisol, tetrahydrocortisone, etc.

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b-Tetrahydrocortisol (b-THF) (male)

Optimal range:   1750 - 4000 ng/mg

B-Tetrahydrocortisol [aka 5-beta-Tetrahydrocortisol (5b-THF)] is a metabolite of cortisol.

Tetrahydrocortisone, Tetrahydrocortisol and Allo-Tetrahydrocortisol are cortisol metabolites that reflect approximately 50% of daily cortisone synthesis. These will often reflect a chronic adrenal picture if levels are out of normal limits.

Urine contains free cortisol, but it also contains many cortisol metabolites, like cortisone or 5-alpha- tetrahydrocortisol, 5-beta-tetrahydrocortisol, tetrahydrocortisone, etc.

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b-Tetrahydrocortisone (b-THE)

Optimal range:   1550 - 3800 ng/mg

b-Tetrahydrocortisone (b-THE) is an adrenal steroid and a cortisol metabolite.

Tetrahydrocortison (THE) is a down-stream metabolite of cortisol and cortisone. It can often reflect a chronic adrenal picture if levels are out of normal limits.

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b-Tetrahydrocortisone (b-THE) (male)

Optimal range:   2350 - 5800 ng/mg

b-Tetrahydrocortisone (b-THE) is an adrenal steroid and a cortisol metabolite.

Tetrahydrocortison (THE) is a down-stream metabolite of cortisol and cortisone. It can often reflect a chronic adrenal picture if levels are out of normal limits.

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Cortisol A (Waking)

Optimal range:   12 - 55 ng/mg

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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Cortisol B (Morning)

Optimal range:   38 - 155 ng/mg

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Cortisol C (Afternoon)

Optimal range:   7.3 - 30 ng/mg

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Cortisol D (Night)

Optimal range:   0 - 14 ng/mg

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Cortisone A (Waking)

Optimal range:   40 - 120 ng/mg

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Cortisone B (Morning)

Optimal range:   90 - 230 ng/mg

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Cortisone C (Afternoon)

Optimal range:   32 - 95 ng/mg

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Cortisone D (Night)

Optimal range:   0 - 55 ng/mg

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Creatinine A (Waking)

Optimal range:   0.2 - 2 mg/ml

A creatinine test reveals important information about your kidneys.

Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine, an amino acid made by the liver and stored in the liver. Creatinine is the result of normal muscle metabolism. The chemical enters your bloodstream after it’s broken down. Your kidneys remove it from your blood. The creatinine then exits the body through urination.

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Creatinine B (Morning)

Optimal range:   0.2 - 2 mg/ml

A creatinine test reveals important information about your kidneys.

Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine, an amino acid made by the liver and stored in the liver. Creatinine is the result of normal muscle metabolism. The chemical enters your bloodstream after it’s broken down. Your kidneys remove it from your blood. The creatinine then exits the body through urination.

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Creatinine C (Afternoon)

Optimal range:   0.2 - 2 mg/ml

A creatinine test reveals important information about your kidneys.

Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine, an amino acid made by the liver and stored in the liver. Creatinine is the result of normal muscle metabolism. The chemical enters your bloodstream after it’s broken down. Your kidneys remove it from your blood. The creatinine then exits the body through urination.

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Creatinine D (Night)

Optimal range:   0.2 - 2 mg/ml

A creatinine test reveals important information about your kidneys.

Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine, an amino acid made by the liver and stored in the liver. Creatinine is the result of normal muscle metabolism. The chemical enters your bloodstream after it’s broken down. Your kidneys remove it from your blood. The creatinine then exits the body through urination.

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DHEA-S (Urine)

Optimal range:   20 - 750 ng/mg

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DHEA-S (Urine) (male)

Optimal range:   30 - 1500 ng/mg

DHEA is produced in the adrenal glands and is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogen.

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Epi-Testosterone

Optimal range:   2.3 - 14 ng/mg

Epi-Testosterone is one of several naturally-occurring testosterone compounds in the body that act as steroids. Athletes using anabolic steroids may be questioned about anabolic steroid use if testosterone increases while Epi-Testosterone levels stay low.

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Epi-Testosterone (male)

Optimal range:   25 - 115 ng/mg

Epi-Testosterone is one of several naturally-occurring testosterone compounds in the body that act as steroids. Athletes using anabolic steroids may be questioned about anabolic steroid use if testosterone increases while Epi-Testosterone levels stay low.

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Estradiol (E2)

Optimal range:   1.8 - 4.5 ng/mg

The most physiologically active estrogen. Binds to both to ER and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol, made in the ovary, rapidly converts to estrone. Poor symptom control with estrogen replacement may suggest the need for improving absorption or increasing estradiol.

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Estradiol (E2) (male)

Optimal range:   0.5 - 2.2 ng/mg

Estradiol is the main "female" hormone. The full name is 17-beta-Estradiol.

Current research indicates that, in some people, this hormone may play a role in the loss of bone density, prevents male bodies from clearing DHT out of the prostate gland, and can stimulate estrogen-sensitive tumor growth (if estrogen-sensitive cancer cells are already present).

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Estradiol (E2) Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0.2 - 0.7 ng/mg

The most physiologically active estrogen. Binds to both to ER and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol, made in the ovary, rapidly converts to estrone. Poor symptom control with estrogen replacement may suggest the need for improving absorption or increasing estradiol.

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Estriol (E3)

Optimal range:   5 - 18 ng/mg

Has weak estrogen activity. Considered to be a protective estrogen. Most prevalent estrogen in pregnancy.

More info


Estriol (E3) (male)

Optimal range:   2 - 8 ng/mg

Has weak estrogen activity. Considered to be a protective estrogen. Most prevalent estrogen in pregnancy.

More info


Estriol (E3) Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   0.6 - 4 ng/mg

More info


Estrone (E1)

Optimal range:   12 - 26 ng/mg

Estrogen metabolite

More info


Estrone (E1) Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   3 - 7 ng/mg

Estrogen metabolite

More info


Estrone(E1) (male)

Optimal range:   4 - 16 ng/mg

There are three types of estrogen: estradiol, estriol, and estrone. Estradiol is the primary female sex hormone. Estriol and estrone are minor female sex hormones. Estriol is nearly undetectable in women who aren’t pregnant.

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Etiocholanolone

Optimal range:   200 - 1000 ng/mg

Etiocholanolone is an androstenedione and testosterone metabolite that is excreted in the urine. It is produced from androstenedione and the 5-alpha and 5-beta-reductase metabolic pathways. It is helpful in evaluating adrenal and androgen function.

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Etiocholanolone (male)

Optimal range:   400 - 1500 ng/mg

Etiocholanolone is an androstenedione and testosterone metabolite that is excreted in the urine. It is produced from androstenedione and the 5-alpha and 5-beta-reductase metabolic pathways. It is helpful in evaluating adrenal and androgen function.

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Homovanillate (HVA) (DUTCH)

Optimal range:   4 - 13 ug/mg

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite.

Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Melatonin (Waking)

Optimal range:   10 - 85 ng/mg

Melatonin is a hormone produced in the pineal gland in response to light therefore, among many things, it regulates the sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm and is also a very powerful antioxidant.

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Metabolized Cortisol (THF+THE)

Optimal range:   2750 - 6500 ng/mg

Metabolized cortisol best reflects total cortisol production.

More info


Metabolized Cortisol (THF+THE) (male)

Optimal range:   4550 - 10000 ng/mg

Metabolized cortisol best reflects total cortisol production.

More info


Methylmalonate (MMA) (DUTCH)

Optimal range:   0 - 2.2 ug/mg

The measurement of elevated amounts of methylmalonic acid in the blood or urine serves as a sensitive and early indicator of vitamin B12 deficiency.

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Progesterone (Urine)

Optimal range:   6 - 20 ng/mL

Although progesterone is found in both males and females, it is primarily known for its role in conception, pregnancy, and the regulation of a woman’s menstrual cycle.

More info


Pyroglutamate

Optimal range:   32 - 60 ug/mg

Pyroglutamate (or Pyroglutamic acid) is an intermediate in the glutathione metabolism and a marker of glutathione deficiency.

More info


Saliva Cortisol - Afternoon

Optimal range:   0.4 - 1.5 ng/mL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Saliva Cortisol - Night

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 ng/mL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Saliva Cortisol - W+30 min.

Optimal range:   3.7 - 8.2 ng/mL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Saliva Cortisol - W+60 min.

Optimal range:   2.3 - 5.3 ng/mL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Saliva Cortisol - Waking

Optimal range:   1.6 - 4.6 ng/mL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Saliva Cortisol Total (male)

Optimal range:   9.6 - 19.3 ng/mL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Saliva Cortisone - Afternoon

Optimal range:   2 - 7.1 ng/mL

More info


Saliva Cortisone - Night

Optimal range:   0 - 4.8 ng/mL

More info


Saliva Cortisone - W+30 min

Optimal range:   12.4 - 19.4 ng/mL

More info


Saliva Cortisone - W+60 min.

Optimal range:   9.4 - 15.3 ng/mL

More info


Saliva Cortisone - Waking

Optimal range:   6.8 - 14.5 ng/mL

More info


Saliva Cortisone Total

Optimal range:   36 - 55 ng/mL

More info


Testosterone (DUTCH)

Optimal range:   2.3 - 14 ng/mg

More info


Testosterone (DUTCH) (male)

Optimal range:   25 - 115 ng/mg

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone in humans. Testosterone blood tests can assess testosterone that is bound to a protein, testosterone that is free in the blood, or both. A healthcare professional may order any of these tests if you’re experiencing sexual or hormonal problems.

More info


Total DHEA Production

Optimal range:   400 - 3000 ng/mg

DHEA is often called the anti-aging hormone. It’s made in the adrenal glands naturally and levels hit their peak in your 20s. They start to dwindle after you hit 30. Estrogen and testosterone are created from DHEA.

More info


Total Estrogen

Optimal range:   35 - 70 ng/mg

Total estrogen is a reliable test for estrogen status and is used to detect hormone imbalances.

More info


Total Estrogen (male)

Optimal range:   10 - 34 ng/mg

Estrogen is known as the “female” hormone. The four major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4).

Although estrogen is identified with a females, it is also found in men.

More info


Total Estrogen Postmenopausal

Optimal range:   4 - 15 ng/mg

Total estrogen is a reliable test for estrogen status and is used to detect hormone imbalances.

More info


Vanilmandelate (VMA)

Optimal range:   2.4 - 6.4 ug/mg

Vanilmandelate is a metabolite of epinephrine and norepinephrine (also known as adrenaline and noradrenaline).

More info


Xanthurenate

Optimal range:   0 - 1.4 ug/mg

Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein. Inadequate vitamin B6 is one factor that leads to increased concentrations of kynurenate and xanthurenate in urine.

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Endocrinology

Endocrinology is the study of medicine that relates to the endocrine system, which is the system that controls hormones. An endocrinologist will deal with diseases that are caused by problems with hormones.


17-OH Progesterone

Optimal range:   35 - 290 ng/dL

17-OHP is produced by the adrenal gland as part of the process of making the important hormone cortisol. The adrenal glands are two small glands. One is located on top of each kidney. Along with special enzymes, or proteins, 17-OH progesterone is converted to a hormone called cortisol.

More info


ACTH, Plasma

Optimal range:   7.2 - 63.3 pg/mL

ACTH, a pituitary hormone, stimulates cortisol production from the adrenal glands. If ACTH levels are too low or too high, it can indicate that the pituitary or the adrenal glands are diseased.

More info


ADH

Optimal range:   0 - 4.7 pg/mL

ADH stands for antidiuretic hormone also known as vasopressin. ADH primarily acts in the kidney to resorb water. Vasopressin can also be administered to raise blood pressure.

More info


Aldos/Renin Ratio

Optimal range:   0 - 30 ng/dL per ng/mL/hr

The aldosterone to renin ratio blood test measures the amount of aldosterone divided by the amount of renin in the blood plasma. The test determines whether or not primary hyperaldosteronism is present and causing high blood pressure.

More info


Aldosterone

Optimal range:   0 - 30 ng/dL

Aldosterone is a mineralcoritcoid and a hormone. It allows the transport of sodium across the cell membrane. Aldosterone is important in blood pressure regulation and also for the volume of blood found in the blood vessels.

More info


Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH)

Optimal range:   5.5 - 37.4 pmol/L

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a protein hormone produced by cells within the ovary. Understanding your AMH level can help to assess your ovarian egg reserve and therefore your fertility.

More info


Cortisol - AM (Serum)

Optimal range:   6.2 - 19.4 ug/dL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

More info


Cortisol, Serum

Optimal range:   2.3 - 19.4 µg/dL , 63.46 - 535.25 nmol/L

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli. Levels naturally peak in the morning and then reach their lowest point at night. A high blood cortisol level at night may indicate a problem with the adrenal glands; however, individuals who work at night and sleep during the day will have an inversed pattern.

More info


Cortisol-Binding Globulin (CBG)

Optimal range:   19 - 45 mg/L , 1.90 - 4.50 mg/dL

Cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) is a serum alpha-2-globulin-binding protein with high affinity and limited capacity for cortisol. It binds most (±92%) of the serum cortisol; the remaining cortisol (±8%) circulates in a free form or bound to albumin.

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DHEAS (Serum)

Optimal range:   9.58 - 405.306 mcg/dL , 0.26 - 10.98 umol/L

It stands for Dehydroepiandrosterone and is a building block of steroid hormones that is produced predominantly in the adrenal glands.

More info


Estradiol

Optimal range:   45.4 - 1461 pmol/L , 12.37 - 397.98 pg/mL

Estradiol (Estrogen) is a female hormone, produced primarily in the ovary. The amount of estrogen produced depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle.

Men also produce estradiol, but only very small amounts.

Shortly before ovulation, estradiol levels surge and then fall immediately after ovulation. They then rise again and remain elevated until 2-3 days before menstruation.

More info


Estradiol (male)

Optimal range:   7.6 - 42.6 pg/mL

Estradiol is the main "female" hormone. The full name is 17-beta-Estradiol.

Current research indicates that, in some people, this hormone may play a role in the loss of bone density, prevents male bodies from clearing DHT out of the prostate gland, and can stimulate estrogen-sensitive tumor growth (if estrogen-sensitive cancer cells are already present).

Men need to produce estrogen through a process involving an enzyme called aromatase that transforms testosterone into estradiol.

Aging men sometimes have too much aromatase activity, which causes their testosterone to convert to excess estradiol. This results in depletionof vital testosterone while spiking estradiol to unsafe ranges.

More info


Estrogens, Total (female)

Optimal range:   50 - 170 pg/mL

Total estrogen is a reliable test for estrogen status and is used to detect hormone imbalances.

Estrogen is known as the “female” hormone. The four major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4).

More info


Estrogens, Total (male)

Optimal range:   40 - 115 pg/mL

Estrogen is known as the “female” hormone. The four major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4).

Although estrogen is identified with a females, it is also found in men.

More info


Progesterone (male)

Optimal range:   0.27 - 0.9 ng/mL

Progesterone is present in men but at a much lower level than found in premenopausal women. Progesterone is not only a female hormone. Although in females it is responsible for protecting the unborn child from rejection during pregnancy, progesterone performs various other functions in both men and women. Progesterone is the precursor to other hormones, including testosterone, the sex hormone that emphasizes male characteristics.

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Progesterone (Serum)

Optimal range:   0.3 - 50.6 nmol/L , 0.95 - 160.91 ng/mL

Progesterone plays an important role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. Levels of progesterone rise with pregnancy, and rise even higher if there are twins. Imbalances of progesterone are linked with health challenges in both men and women.

More info


Renin Activity, Plasma

Optimal range:   0.167 - 5.38 ng/mL/hr

Renin is an enzyme produced by the kidney that can raise blood pressure levels. The renin activity plasma test helps your doctor determine whether or not your high blood pressure is due to poor kidney health.

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Celiac Comprehensive Panel

Celiac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten in genetically sensitive individuals. The diagnosis is largely based on a biopsy of the small intestine, but serologic tests also help support a diagnosis and may assist identification of patients who may require biopsy.


Deamidated Gliadin Abs, IgA

Optimal range:   0 - 19 Units

More info


Deamidated Gliadin Abs, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 19 Units

More info


Endomysial Antibody IgA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


t-Transglutaminase (tTG) IgA

Optimal range:   0 - 3 U/mL , 0.00 - 100.00 ug/g

A tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTg-IgA) test is used to help doctors diagnose celiac disease or to see how well people with the condition are doing.

More info


t-Transglutaminase (tTG) IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 5 U/mL

A tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTg-IgA) test is used to help doctors diagnose celiac disease or to see how well people with the condition are doing.

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Lyme Testing

Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged deer tick. It is the most common tickborne infectious disease in the United States.  

Lyme disease can be difficult to diagnose for a number of reasons. Many of the common symptoms associated with the disease, such as headaches, dizziness, and joint/body pain, also occur with other diseases. The most distinct symptom of Lyme disease—the circular red rash known as erythema migrans (EM)—does not appear in at least one quarter of people who are actually infected with Lyme bacteria. Also, current diagnostic tests do not always detect early Lyme disease. Because treatment is generally more effective in early stages of the disease, it is important to develop new tools that can help doctors make an early diagnosis.

Doctors need to know whether a patient has an active infection, or has been exposed to the Lyme bacteria earlier in their life. Today's diagnostic tests have some limitations that make a clear, quick diagnosis difficult.

Lyme antibody tests—the most common diagnostic tool available today—look for antibodies in the blood that show a person has been exposed to B. burgdorferi. But it can take a few weeks before a person's immune system creates measurable levels of antibodies. This gap between being infected with the bacteria and the body's creation of antibodies can result in a false negative test for those with very early Lyme disease, resulting in a delay in treatment.


18 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


23 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


23 KD (IGM) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


28 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


30 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


39 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


39 KD (IGM) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


41 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


41 KD (IGM) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


45 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


58 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


66 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


93 KD (IGG) Band

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

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Bartonella Henselae Ab, Igg

Optimal range:   0 - 0.003125 Units

More info


Bartonella Henselae Ab, Igm

Optimal range:   0 - 0.01 Units

More info


Bartonella Quintana Ab, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 0.003125 Units

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Bartonella Quintana Ab, IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 0.01 Units

More info


Borrelia Burgdorferi IGG ABS -IB

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 Units

More info


Borrelia Burgdorferi IGM ABS -IB

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 Units

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C6 Qual Result

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

More info


CD8-CD57 + Lymphs (Absolute)

Optimal range:   60 - 360 uL

More info


CD8-CD57 + Lymphs (Percent)

Optimal range:   2 - 17 %

The CD57 test is offered in some clinical laboratories and is being used by some health practitioners to evaluate and follow patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease.

More info


CMV-IgG Antibody

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

Cytomegalovirus is a common virus that usually causes no or only mild symptoms. Cytomegalovirus testing detects antibodies in the blood that the body produces in response to the infection or detects CMV directly.

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EBV-VCA, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

EBV-VCA, IgG is an antibody (protein) that is produced by the body in an immune response to an Epstein-Barr virus antigen.

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Lyme Disease AB (IGG), Blot

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 index

More info


Lyme Disease AB (IGM), Blot

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 index

More info


Lyme Disease Ab, Quant, IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 0.79 index

More info


Lyme Disease Screen

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 index

More info


Lyme IgG/IgM Ab

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 ISR

More info


Lyme Index (C6 ELISA)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.91 index

More info


Lyme WB IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

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Candida IgA, IgM, IgG Blood Test

This candida test is used to screen for antibodies the body develops in response to Systemic Candidiasis or Candida.  Candida is another name for yeast, a fungus which is normally found in small amounts in the body.  The immune system normally keeps Candida under control but in cases where a person is sick or taking antibiotics the yeast may spread, becoming a potentially dangerous infection.  This candida test looks for 3 antibody types including Iga, IgM and IgG


Candida Antibodies IgA

Optimal range:   0 - 9 U/mL

More info


Candida Antibodies IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 29 U/mL

More info


Candida Antibodies IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 9 U/mL

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Babesiosis

Babesiosis is a malaria-like parasitic disease caused by infection with Babesia, a genus of Apicomplexa. Human babesiosis is an uncommon but emerging disease in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and parts of Europe, and sporadic throughout the rest of the world.


Babesia duncani, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 40 Units

More info


Babesia duncani, IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 20 Units

More info


Babesia microti, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 40 Units

Babesiosis is an infection caused by the parasite Babesia microti. The infection is acquired by contact with Ixodes ticks carrying the parasite. 

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Babesia microti, IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 20 Units

Babesiosis is an infection caused by the parasite Babesia microti. The infection is acquired by contact with Ixodes ticks carrying the parasite. 

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WA1 IgG Antibody, IFA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.0039 Units

WA1, also known as Babesia duncani, has been associated with symptoms similar to those caused by Babesia microti. Little, if any, crossreactivity occurs between Babesia microti and WA1.

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Infectious Disease Profile

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.

There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.

Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected body fluids. Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment and for hepatitis B transmission from mother to baby at birth, from family member to child, and also by sexual contact.


Beta-2 Microglobulin, Serum

Optimal range:   0.6 - 2.4 mg/L

Because Beta-2 Microglobulin is increased with blood cell cancers, it may be useful as a tumor marker. Though it can be used to assess kidney function as well.

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Free Kappa Lt Chains, Serum

Optimal range:   3.3 - 19.4 mg/L

Light chains are proteins produced by immune cells called plasma cells. Also called kappa light chains, they link together with other proteins (heavy chains) to form immunoglobulins (= antibodies) that target and neutralize specific threats to the body (= bacteria & viruses).

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Free Lambda Lt Chains, Serum

Optimal range:   5.71 - 26.3 mg/L

Light chains are proteins produced by immune cells called plasma cells. Also called “Free Lambda Light Chains” they link together with other proteins (heavy chains) to form immunoglobulins (= antibodies) that target and neutralize specific threats to the body (= bacteria & viruses).

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Hep C Virus Ab

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 Units

More info


Hepatitis A Virus Antibody

Optimal range:   0 - 1 index

More info


Hepatitis B Core Antibody (Total)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.5 index

More info


Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

Optimal range:   0 - 7.5 index

More info


Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

Optimal range:   0 - 1 index

More info


Hepatitis C Virus Antibody

Optimal range:   0 - 0.8 index

More info


HIV-1/HIV-2 Antibodies -EIA

Optimal range:   0 - 1 index

More info


Kappa/Lambda Ratio, Serum

Optimal range:   0.26 - 1.65 Ratio

More info


Rapid plasma reagin (RPR)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is a test used to screen for syphilis. The RPR test measures IgM and IgG antibodies to lipoidal material released from damaged host cells as well as to lipoprotein-like material, and possibly cardiolipin released from the treponemes. 

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Treponema Palladium Total Antibodies (FTA abs)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 index

More info



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Zika Virus

Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.


Flavivirus IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 0 Units

More info


Zika virus IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 0 Units

More info


Zika Virus, NAA, Serum

Optimal range:   0 - 0 Units

More info


Zika Virus, NAA, Urine

Optimal range:   0 - 0 Units

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Lifestyle Dashboard


Alcohol

Optimal range:   0 - 1.5 drinks

More info


Bedtime Glucose

Optimal range:   80 - 120 mg/dL

More info


Fast

Optimal range:   13 - 16 hrs

More info


Food Ranking

Optimal range:   7 - 10 scale

More info


Meditation

Optimal range:   20 - 100 min

More info


Sauna

Optimal range:   30 - 60 min

More info


Waking Glucose

Optimal range:   70 - 99 mg/dL

More info


Weight

Optimal range:   160 - 180 lbs

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Complete Blood Count (CBC)

The complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most frequently ordered blood tests. To understand this test, it is important to know that blood consists of two major parts: plasma and cellular elements. The plasma is the part of the blood that is liquid which allows the blood to flow easily. The other part of the blood consists of blood cells.

The major cells in the blood are white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), and platelets. Each of these types of cells carries out specific and important functions.

The complete blood count test measures the quantity of all the different types of cells in the blood. It also provides some valuable information on other parameters related to each type of blood cell.

Complete blood count (CBC). Blood is collected by inserting a needle into a vein and allowing the blood to flow into a tube. The blood sample is sent to the laboratory and the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are counted. The CBC is used to test for, diagnose, and monitor many different conditions.

The test gets a lot of information from your blood sample:


Haemoglobin (g/L)

Optimal range:   138 - 151 g/L

More info


Hematocrit (HCT) / Packed Cell Volume (PCV)

Optimal range:   34.9 - 50 %

The hematocrit test is often used to check for anemia, usually along with a hemoglobin test or as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The test may be used to screen for, diagnose, or monitor a number of conditions and diseases that affect the proportion of the blood made up of red blood cells (RBCs).

More info


Hemoglobin

Optimal range:   12 - 15.5 g/dL , 120.00 - 155.00 g/L

Hemoglobin (Hb) is the iron-containing oxygen transportation protein in red blood cells. It's rate of binding oxygen depends on the number oxygen molecules already bound. 

 

More info


Mean Cell Volume

Optimal range:   75 - 95 fL/red cell , 75.00 - 95.00 fl

Mean cell volume indicates the average volume of red blood cells in the body. It is often measured as a part of the red blood cell indices in a comprehensive blood count test. The results of the red blood cell indices will tell a healthcare professional whether or not anemia is present and, if so, what type it is.

More info


Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH)

Optimal range:   26.6 - 33 pg , 26.60 - 33.00 pg/cell

Mean corpuscular (or cell) hemoglobin (abbreviated as MCH) is an estimate of the amount of hemoglobin in an average red blood cell. Hemoglobin is a substance in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells in the body from the lungs.

More info


Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)

Optimal range:   32 - 35 g/dL , 19.90 - 21.77 mmol/L , 320.00 - 350.00 g/L

MCHC stands for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. MCHC is part of the red cell indices, together with MCH and MCV. Those parameters reflect the size and hemoglobin content of red cells. They have traditionally been used to aid in the differential diagnosis of anemia.

More info


Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

Optimal range:   80 - 96 fl

Mean corpuscular volume indicates the average volume of red blood cells in the body. It is often measured as a part of the red blood cell indices in a comprehensive blood count test. The results of the red blood cell indices will tell a healthcare professional whether or not anemia is present and, if so, what type it is.

More info


Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)

Optimal range:   7.5 - 11.5 fl

Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a calculation that indicates the average size of platelets in the blood. This measurement is typically done during a comprehensive blood count. An abnormal MPV is not, in it of itself, an indication of disease or disorder. MPV scores are compared against other types of blood counts to give a healthcare professional more information about a potential medical issue.

More info


Platelet count / Platelets

Optimal range:   150 - 400 µl , 150.00 - 400.00 x10^9/L , 150.00 - 400.00 x10/9/l

Platelet count is a measure of how many platelets are present in the blood. Platelets are one of three types of blood cell, and their role is to aid in blood clotting. All three types of blood cell are assessed with a comprehensive blood count, which can be done as part of a general health check up or in response to specific symptoms.

More info


RDW-CV (Red Cell Distribution Width) in %

Optimal range:   11.7 - 15 %

Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the average size of the red blood cells. 

More info


RDW-SD (Red Cell Distribution Width) in fL

Optimal range:   39 - 46 fl

Red cell distribution width (abbreviated as RDW) is a measurement of the amount that red blood cells vary in size. Red blood cells help carry oxygen in the blood.

More info


Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes / RBC)

Optimal range:   4.2 - 6.1 cells/mcL , 4.20 - 6.10 x10^12/L , 4.20 - 6.10 x10/12/l

Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most plentiful type of cell in the blood (~40% to 45% of the body's blood supply). They carry oxygen to the tissues and organs. They also bring back carbon dioxide back to the lungs so that it can be removed (exhaled) from the body. Red blood cells get their color from the protein hemoglobin. RBCs are constantly being replenished and they have a lifespan of around 120 days. 

More info


White blood cells (Leucocytes / WBC)

Optimal range:   4.5 - 10.8 x10E3/µL , 4.50 - 10.80 x10^9/L , 4.50 - 10.80 x10/9/l

White blood cells are the muscle of our body’s immune system. They serve to identify invasive microorganisms, isolate them, destroy them, and remember their weaknesses for later. There are five types of white blood cells, and they’re all measured with a blood differential test. Typically, this test is ordered when a complete blood count comes back as abnormal.

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Catecholamine blood test


Catecholamines, Total

Optimal range:   242 - 1125 pg/mL

Catecholamines are a group of similar hormones released into the bloodstream in response to physical or emotional stress.

The primary catecholamines are:

More info


Dopamine

Optimal range:   0 - 20 pg/mL

Dopamine is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system and is involved in the control of movement.

More info


Epinephrine

Optimal range:   0 - 95 pg/mL

More info


Norepinephrine

Optimal range:   217 - 1109 pg/mL

Norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) is one of the catecholamines. Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenalin), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

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Organic Acids, Plasma

Organic Acids, Urine assay, is the preferred test when screening for inherited disorders of metabolism. This plasma test is not as sensitive and will only detect the organic acids listed.


2-Keto-3-Methylvaleric Acid

Optimal range:   10 - 30 umol/L

2-Hydroxy-3-methylpentanoic acid or 2-hydroxy-3-methylvaleric acid (HMVA) is an organic acid generated by L-isoleucine metabolism. It is derived from the reduction of 2-Keto-3-methylvaleric acid (KMVA), possibly through the action of a lactate dehydrogenase.

More info


2-Ketoisocaproic Acid

Optimal range:   20 - 75 umol/L

2-Ketoisocaproic Acid is a B-Complex Vitamin Marker (Leucine catabolism).

2-Ketoisocaproic Acid is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids.

More info


2-Ketoisovaleric Acid

Optimal range:   3 - 20 umol/L

AKA: alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid

Alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids.

More info


3-Oh-Butyric Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 30 umol/L

3-Oh-Butyric Acid is a metabolic marker of blood sugar utilization and insulin function.

More info


Acetoacetic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 66 umol/L

Acetoacetic acid (=acetoacetate) is a ketone body and a weak Beta-keto acid produced from acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes.

More info


Citric Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 100 umol/L

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells.

More info


Lactic Acid

Optimal range:   600 - 2600 umol/L

Formed from pyruvate in anaerobic or oxygen-starved (hypoxic) conditions to allow for ongoing production of ATP.

More info


Pyruvic Acid

Optimal range:   20 - 140 umol/L

Pyruvic Acid feeds into the citric acid cycle & converts into acetyl CoA. Pyruvate is formed from carbohydrate via glucose or glycogen & secondarily from fats (glycerol) & glycogenic amino acids. Pyruvic acid is also formed from lactic acid with O2 and zinc.

More info


Succinic Acid

Optimal range:   16 - 25 umol/L

Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body.

More info



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Ehrlichia Ab Panel

Human ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by rickettsial-like agents. Two forms, human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), have been described. HME is often referred to as "spotless" or rashless Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and has been reported in various regions of the United States. The causative agent of HME has been identified as Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Infected individuals produce specific antibodies to Ehrlichia chaffeensis which can be detected by an immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test.


E. chaffeensis (HME) IgG Titer

Optimal range:   0 - 0.015625 Units

More info


E. chaffeensis (HME) IgM Titer

Optimal range:   0 - 0.05 Units

More info


HGE IgG Titer

Optimal range:   0 - 0.015625 Units

More info


HGE IgM Titer

Optimal range:   0 - 0.05 Units

More info



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H pylori, IgM, IgG, IgA Ab


H. pylori Breath Test

Optimal range:   0 - 0.001 Units

The H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) breath test is a simple and safe test used to detect an active H. pylori infection.

More info


H. pylori, IgA Abs

Optimal range:   0 - 8.9 Units

More info


H. pylori, IgG Abs

Optimal range:   0 - 0.8 U/mL

More info


H. pylori, IgM Abs

Optimal range:   0 - 8.9 Units

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Allergen Profile, Mold

This test detect possible allergic responses to various substances in the environment and evaluate for hay fever, asthma, atopic eczema, and respiratory allergy.


Alternaria alternata

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

Alternaria alternata is one of the most common fungi associated with asthma.

More info


Aspergillus fumigatus

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus causes allergic diseases, respiratory illnesses, and bloodstream infections.

More info


Aureobasidi pullulans

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

It is a commonly encountered species in wet buildings. It is both a soil and leaf fungus.

More info


C. Albicans IGA

Optimal range:   0 - 0.99 Units

Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cells and one of the few species of the Candida genus that cause the infection candidiasis in humans.

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C. Albicans IGG

Optimal range:   0 - 0.99 Units

Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cells and one of the few species of the Candida genus that cause the infection candidiasis in humans.

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C. Albicans IGM

Optimal range:   0 - 0.99 Units

Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cells and one of the few species of the Candida genus that cause the infection candidiasis in humans.

More info


Candida albicans

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus Candida. There are over 20 species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans.

More info


Cladosporium herbarum

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

More info


Epicoccum purpur

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

More info


Fusarium proliferatum

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

More info


Mucor racemosus

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

More info


Penicillium chrysogen

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

More info


Phoma betae

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

More info


Setomelanomma rostrat

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

More info


Stemphylium herbarum

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 kU/L

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Herpes Testing

To screen for or diagnose infection with the herpes simplex virus (HSV)


Herpesvirus 6 IGG (HHV-6)

Optimal range:   0 - 9.99 index

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a set of two closely related herpesviruses, HHV6-A and HHV6-B. Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has long been suspected as one trigger for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 

More info


Herpesvirus 6 IGM (HHV-6)

Optimal range:   0 - 19.99 index

More info


HSV 1 IgG, Type Spec

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 index

More info


HSV 1 IgM Antibodies

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 titer

More info


HSV 2 IgG, Type Spec

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 index

More info


HSV 2 IgM Antibodies

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 titer

More info


Human Herpes Virus Type 6 IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 0.1 Units

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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

To help diagnose infectious mononucleosis (mono); to distinguish between an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and another illness with similar symptoms.


EBV Ab VCA, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 17.9 U/mL

EBV-VCA, IgG is an antibody (protein) that is produced by the body in an immune response to an Epstein-Barr virus antigen.

More info


EBV Ab VCA, IgM

Optimal range:   0 - 35.9 U/mL

EBV-VCA, IgM is an antibody (protein) that is produced by the body in an immune response to an Epstein-Barr virus antigen.

More info


EBV Early Antigen Ab, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 8.9 U/mL

More info


EBV Nuclear Antigen Ab, IgG

Optimal range:   0 - 17.9 U/mL

More info


Epstein Barr Virus (EBNA) AB (IGG)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 index

The EBV (Epstein Barr) Nuclear Antigen Antibodies, IgG test looks for a type of antibody which the body typically develops in response to Epstein-Barr Virus.

EBNA antibodies usually appear 2-4 months after infection and persist for the life of the person.  This test is usually performed to establish a past infection with EBV.

More info


Epstein Barr Virus VCA AB (IGG)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 index

EBV-VCA, IgG is an antibody (protein) that is produced by the body in an immune response to an Epstein-Barr virus antigen.

More info


Epstein Barr Virus VCA AB (IGM)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 index

EBV-VCA, IgM is an antibody (protein) that is produced by the body in an immune response to an Epstein-Barr virus antigen.

More info


Monospot Heterophile antibody

Optimal range:   0 - 0 index

The mononuclear spot test or monospot test, a form of the heterophile antibody test, is a rapid test for infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).

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Mycoplasma

To detect an active or recent mycoplasma (type of bacteria) infection.


Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgG Abs

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 U/mL

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Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM Abs

Optimal range:   0 - 769 U/mL

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Cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family of viruses and usually causes asymptomatic infection after which it remains latent, primarily within bone marrow derived cells. Can be similar to primary Epstein-Barr virus infection, with fever, malaise and lymphadenopathy.


Cytomegalovirus Antibody (IGG)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.89 Units

More info


Cytomegalovirus Antibody (IGM)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.8 Units

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Parvovirus

Fifth disease is a mild rash illness caused by parvovirus B19. It is more common in children than adults. A person usually gets sick with fifth disease within four to 14 days after getting infected with parvovirus B19. This disease, also called erythema infectiosum, got its name because it was fifth in a list of historical classifications of common skin rash illnesses in children.

Signs & Symptoms

The symptoms of fifth disease are usually mild and may include

You can get a rash on your face and body

You may get a red rash on your face called “slapped cheek” rash. This rash is the most recognized feature of fifth disease. It is more common in children than adults.

Some people may get a second rash a few days later on their chest, back, buttocks, or arms and legs. The rash may be itchy, especially on the soles of the feet. It can vary in intensity and usually goes away in seven to 10 days, but it can come and go for several weeks. As it starts to go away, it may look lacy.

You may also have painful or swollen joints

People with fifth disease can also develop pain and swelling in their joints. This is called polyarthropathy syndrome. It is more common in adults, especially women. Some adults with fifth disease may only have painful joints, usually in the hands, feet, or knees, and no other symptoms. The joint pain usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks, but it can last for months or longer. It usually goes away without any long-term problems.

 


Parvovirus B19 Antibody (IGG)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.89 Units

The presence of IgG antibodies only is indicative of past exposure to Parvovirus.

More info


Parvovirus B19 Antibody (IGM)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.89 Units

The presence of IgM class antibodies suggests recent infection.

More info



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Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)

What is small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)?

SIBO is the accumulation of excessive amount of gut bacteria in the small intestine (at least 100,000 bacteria per ml of fluid). While bacterium naturally exist throughout the digestive tract, with highest concentrations of bacteria in the colon, a healthy individual should have relatively low levels of bacteria present in the small intestine. Any condition which impairs the normal transit or motion of the small intestine can increase the likelihood of getting SIBO, including lack of adequate stomach acid, damage to the intestine by toxins, or a decrease in the speed at which the small intestine transfers waste to the colon. In the U.S., some research studies have demonstrated that up to 80% of the IBS population, or 36 million individuals, suffer from SIBO.

What is the small bowel?

The small bowel, also known as the small intestine, is the part of the gastrointestinal tract that connects the stomach with the colon. The main purpose of the small intestine is to digest and absorb food into the body. The small intestine is approximately 21 feet in length.

What is a hydrogen and methane breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth?

The Hydrogen and Methane Breath Test for SIBO is a non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify SIBO, and can be administered in the comfort of a patient’s own home. Patients are given a substrate solution to drink, which is a mixture of water and a carbohydrate substrate (lactulose or glucose). After drinking the substrate solution, the patient will collect a series of breath samples by simply breathing into a test tube using a straw. In a healthy individual, one would not expect to see any hydrogen or methane in the breath samples for approximately 90 minutes – 2 hours, the approximate time it would take for the substrate to travel to the small intestine to the colon where, in a healthy system, the substrate would be fed upon by bacteria, thus releasing the hydrogen and methane gas. After ingesting a substrate solution, the patient collects breath samples every 15 minutes over a 2 hour and 15 minute (135 minutes) period. During the hydrogen and methane breath test for SIBO, the presence of elevated levels of hydrogen or methane gas, or both, identified within 90 minutes of ingesting the substrate solution provides evidence of bacteria in the upper region of the digestive tract, i.e. at the level of the small intestine. This excessive build up bacteria is often diagnosed as SIBO. Our SIBO breath test can be administered in-office or in the comfort of the patient’s own home.


Peak Combined Gas Production

Optimal range:   0 - 19.99 ppm

More info


Peak Hydrogen (H2) Production

Optimal range:   0 - 19.99 ppm

More info


Peak Methane (CH4) Production

Optimal range:   0 - 2.99 ppm

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Organix Comprehensive Profile - Urine

The Organix Comprehensive Profile is a nutritional test providing insights into organic acids and a view into the body's cellular metabolic processes. 

Organic acids are metabolic intermediates that are produced in pathways of central energy production, detoxification, neurotransmitter breakdown, or intestinal microbial activity. Marked accumulation of specific organic acids detected in urine often signals a metabolic inhibition or block. The metabolic block may be due to a nutrient deficiency, an inherited enzyme deficit, toxic build-up or drug effect. Several of the biomarkers are markers of intestinal bacterial or yeast overgrowth.

The Organix Comprehensive nutritional test profile provides vital patient information from a single urine specimen. This organic acids nutritional test is valuable for determining:


2-Methylhippurate

Optimal range:   0 - 0.192 mcg/mg creatinine

2-Methylhippurate is a byproduct of detoxification of the common solvent xylene. Urinary excretion of 2-methylhippurate is a sensitive and specific marker for xylene exposure which increases oxidative stress.

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3,4 Dihydroxyphenylpropionate

Optimal range:   0 - 0.05 mcg/mg creatinine

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylpropionate seems to be strongly associated with a troublesome type of bacteria called Clostridia.

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5-Hydroxyindoleacetate

Optimal range:   1.6 - 9.8 mcg/mg creatinine

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

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8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

Optimal range:   0 - 7.6 ng/mg creatinine

8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine measures the oxidative impact to DNA. 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine levels will be high if your total antioxidant protection is inadequate.

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Adipate

Optimal range:   0 - 11.1 mcg/mg creatinine

Adipate, together with Suberate and Ethylmalonate are all functional markers for deficiency of carnitine.

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Alpha-Hydroxybutyrate

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 mcg/mg creatinine

Alpha-Hydroxybutyrate is a by-product of glutathione production. Levels of alpha-hydroxybutyrate in the urine may reflect levels of glutathione production.

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Alpha-Keto-Beta-Methylvalerate

Optimal range:   0 - 1.1 mcg/mg creatinine

Alpha-Keto-Beta-Methylvalerate is a B-Complex Vitamin Marker. Vitamins are compounds that your body needs to be healthy. Vitamins are “essential” for proper function, which means that they are not made inside your body and must be consumed in the diet.

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Alpha-Ketoglutarate

Optimal range:   0 - 35 mcg/mg creatinine

Alpha-Ketoglutarate is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids. It is formed in the Krebs cycle, the energy-producing process that occurs in most body cells.

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Alpha-Ketoisocaproate

Optimal range:   0 - 0.52 mcg/mg creatinine

Alpha-Ketoisocaproate is a B-Complex Vitamin Marker (Leucine catabolism).

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Alpha-Ketoisovalerate

Optimal range:   0 - 0.49 mcg/mg creatinine

Alpha-Ketoisovalerate (together with Alpha-Ketoisocaproate and Alpha-Keto-Beta-methylvalerate) requires Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5 and lipoic acid to be metabolized.

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Benzoate

Optimal range:   0 - 9.3 mcg/mg creatinine

Benzoate, was one of the compounds first found to be elevated in urine from patients with intestinal bacterial overgrowth of various origins.

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Beta-Hydroxybutyrate

Optimal range:   0 - 9.9 mcg/mg creatinine

ß-Hydroxybutyrate is a metabolic marker of blood sugar utilization and insulin function.

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Beta-Hydroxyisovalerate

Optimal range:   0 - 11.5 mcg/mg creatinine

Beta-Hydroxyisovalerate is a sensitive indicator of biotin deficiency and is a metabolite of the amino acid isoleucine.

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cis-Aconitate

Optimal range:   18 - 78 mcg/mg creatinine

cis-Aconitate is involved in both energy production and removal of toxic ammonia.

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Citrate

Optimal range:   56 - 987 mcg/mg creatinine

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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D-Arabinitol

Optimal range:   0 - 73 mcg/mg creatinine

D-Arabinitol is a marker for intestinal yeast overgrowth.

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D-Lactate

Optimal range:   0 - 4.1 mcg/mg creatinine

D-Lactate is produced by bacteria residing in the colon when carbohydrates are not completely absorbed in the small intestine. This by-product is excreted in the urine.

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Ethylmalonate

Optimal range:   0 - 6.3 mcg/mg creatinine

Ethylmalonate, together with Adipate and Suberate, gives information about your ability to process fatty acids.

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Formiminoglutamate

Optimal range:   0 - 2.2 mcg/mg creatinine

Formiminoglutamate (FIGLU) is a functional marker of insufficiency of folic acid, another B-vitamin, and is a compound made from the amino acid histidine.

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Fumarate

Optimal range:   0 - 1.35 mcg/mg creatinine

Fumarate (together with Succinate and Malate) is used in the body’s metabolic pathway that generates cellular energy – the Citric Acid Cycle.

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Glucarate

Optimal range:   0 - 10.7 mcg/mg creatinine

Glucarate helps your liver perform its important role in removing from your body many types of toxins such as pesticidesprescription drugsfood components, and intestinal bacteria.

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Hippurate

Optimal range:   0 - 1070 mcg/mg creatinine

Microbes resident in the large intestine of the human body help to break down complex aromatic compounds in dietary plant matter (polyphenols), freeing up benzoic acid, which enters the bloodstream. The liver can add the amino acid glycine to benzoic acid to form hippuric acid, which re-enters the blood and is absorbed by the kidneys. As a result, the kidneys excrete hundreds of milligrams of hippuric acid into the urine every day.

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Histamine

Optimal range:   4 - 71 ug/g creat

Histamine is a compound that affects immune response and physiological function of the digestive tract, and also acts as a neurotransmitter.

Histamine helps control the sleep-wake cycle as well as energy and motivation.

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Homovanillate (Genova)

Optimal range:   1.4 - 7.6 mcg/mg creatinine

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite.

Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Hydroxymethylglutarate

Optimal range:   0 - 5.1 mcg/mg creatinine

Hydroxymethylglutarate (HMG) is the precursor to Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) production, and when it is elevated it may indicate that the body is trying to increase its production of CoQ10.

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Indican

Optimal range:   0 - 90 mcg/mg creatinine

Indican is an indole produced when bacteria in the intestine act on the amino acid, tryptophan. Most indoles are excreted in the feces. The remainder is absorbed, metabolized by the liver, and excreted as indicanin the urine.

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Isocitrate

Optimal range:   39 - 143 mcg/mg creatinine

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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Ketoisovalerate

Optimal range:   0 - 0 mcg/mg creatinine

Alpha-Ketoisovalerate requires Vitamin B1, B5, lipoic acid, B2, and B3 (in descending order of significance) to be metabolized. As your food is broken down, specific compounds are formed at steps that require B vitamin assistance. a-Ketoisovalerateis one of these compounds. If these nutrients are insufficient, the keto acids may build up in the urine.

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Kynurenate

Optimal range:   0 - 1.5 mcg/mg creatinine

Kynurenate is product of the metabolism of L-Tryptophan and appears in urine in Vitamin B6 deficiencies. Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein.

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L-Lactate

Optimal range:   0.6 - 16.4 mcg/mg creatinine

L-Lactate is a product of muscle use, so it is constantly produced in normal daily activity.

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Malate

Optimal range:   0 - 3.1 mcg/mg creatinine

Malate is involved in the citric acid cycle (aka. Krebs cycle). The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that occur in the mitochondrion to generate chemical energy that fuels the metabolism.

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Methylmalonate (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 2.3 mcg/mg creatinine

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a substance produced in very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production.

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Orotate

Optimal range:   0 - 1.01 mcg/mg creatinine

Orotate is a sensitive marker of your liver’s capacity to convert toxic ammonia to non-toxic urea that you can excrete. That capacity can be increased by additional arginine. Ammonia toxicity can also be reduced by supplementation with α-ketoglutarate, magnesium, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. Ammonia impairs brain function, causing difficulty with thinking, fatigue, headaches, and increased food sensitivities.

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p-Hydroxybenzoate

Optimal range:   0 - 1.8 mcg/mg creatinine

The presence of organic compounds such as p-Hydroxybenzoate in the urine may point towards significant dysbiosis (=impaired microbiota).

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p-Hydroxyphenylacetate

Optimal range:   0 - 34 mcg/mg creatinine

Associated with small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) due to its production by C. di cile, C. stricklandii, C. lituseburense, C. subterminale, C. putrefaciens, and C. propionicum.

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p-Hydroxyphenyllactate

Optimal range:   0 - 0.66 mcg/mg creatinine

p-hydroxyphenyllactate is a marker of cell turnover. It is also a metabolite in tyrosine degradation and may be useful for studying disorders of tyrosine metabolism.

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Phenylacetate

Optimal range:   0 - 0.18 mcg/mg creatinine

Produced from bacterial degradation of unabsorbed phenylalanine.

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Phenylpropionate

Optimal range:   0 - 0.06 mcg/mg creatinine

Phenylpropionate is a intestinal microbial balance marker. Phenylpropionate is formed from bacterial action on phenylalanine and it should only be present at very low levels.

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Picolinate

Optimal range:   2.8 - 13.5 mcg/mg creatinine

Picolinate is a neurotransmitter metabolism marker and is produced under inflammatory conditions.

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Pyroglutamate (Genova)

Optimal range:   28 - 88 mcg/mg creatinine

Pyroglutamate (or Pyroglutamic acid) is an intermediate in the glutathione metabolism and a marker of glutathione deficiency.

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Pyruvate (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 6.4 mcg/mg creatinine

Pyruvate feeds into the citric acid cycle & converts into acetyl CoA. Pyruvate is formed from carbohydrate via glucose or glycogen & secondarily from fats (glycerol) & glycogenic amino acids.

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Quinolinic acid (Quinolinate) (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 5.8 mcg/mg creatinine

Quinolinic acid is a neurotoxic substance produced by our own bodies and a metabolite of tryptophan.

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Suberate

Optimal range:   0 - 4.6 mcg/mg creatinine

Suberate, Adipate, and Ethylmalonate elevations can indicate that you may need additional carnitine and/or vitamin B2 to assist your cells in converting fats into energy efficiently.

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Succinate

Optimal range:   0 - 20.9 mcg/mg creatinine

Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body.

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Sulfate

Optimal range:   690 - 2988 mcg/mg creatinine

Sulfate is associated with your body’s use of glutathione, an amino acid critical for removing toxins that is also a powerful antioxidant.

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Tricarballylate

Optimal range:   0 - 1.41 mcg/mg creatinine

Tricarballylate is produced by a strain of aerobic bacteria. It binds to magnesium which results in magnesium deficiency.

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Vanilmandelate (Genova)

Optimal range:   1.2 - 5.3 mcg/mg creatinine

Vanilmandelate (VMA) and Homovanillate (HVA) are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Xanthurenate (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.46 mcg/mg creatinine

Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein. Inadequate vitamin B6 is one factor that leads to increased concentrations of kynurenate and xanthurenate in urine.

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Neurotransmitters


3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

Optimal range:   360 - 1800 ug/g creat

Dopac (aka 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine serves as the reward and pleasure center in the brain. DOPAC and HVA (Homovanillic Acid) are dopamine metabolites.

DOPAC levels, when viewed in conjunction with dopamine levels, may provide insight into how the body processes neurotransmitters.

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5-HIAA

Optimal range:   800 - 13000 ug/g creat

5-HIAA is the primary metabolite of serotonin, a chemical substance (neurotransmitter) that transmits messages between nerve cells. After it is used by the body, serotonin is broken down in the liver, and its metabolites, including 5-HIAA, are excreted in the urine.

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Dopamine

Optimal range:   64 - 261 ug/g creat

Dopamine is a chemical found naturally in the human body. It is a neurotransmitter, meaning it sends signals from the body to the brain. Dopamine plays a part in controlling the movements a person makes, as well as their emotional responses. The right balance of dopamine is vital for both physical and mental wellbeing.

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Epinephrine

Optimal range:   4.7 - 20.8 ug/g creat

Epinephrine is commonly known as adrenaline. Your body naturally produces it during times of stress. The hormone is also necessary for maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system — it makes the heart beat more strongly, and diverts blood to tissues during times of stress.

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Optimal range:   2.4 - 12.7 uMol/gCr

GABA stands for Gamma-aminobutyric acid (γ-Aminobutyric Acid) and is a nonessential protein amino acid. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

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Glutamate

Optimal range:   6.9 - 71.8 uMol/gCr

Glutamate functions as the major excitatory neurotransmitter and metabolic fuel throughout the body. Glutamate is produced in your body, and is also found in many foods.

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Glycine

Optimal range:   182 - 2225 uMol/gCr

Glycine plays an important role in the body’s ability to detoxify itself as well as in wound healing. It is also important in the creation of nucleic acids and bile acids.

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Norepinephrine

Optimal range:   19 - 76 ug/g creat

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is important for mental focus and emotional stability.

Norepinephrine functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that regulates the “fight or flight” response and elevates blood pressure and heart rate, stimulates wakefulness, and reduces digestive activity.

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PEA

Optimal range:   15 - 167 uMol/gCr

PEA stands for Beta-phenylethylamine and is an excitatory neurotransmitter made from phenylalanine and it modulates neuron voltage potentials to favor glutamate activity and neurotransmitter firing.

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Serotonin

Optimal range:   57 - 306 ug/g creat

Serotonin plays important roles in the resolution of mood, sleep, and appetite.

Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter synthesized by enzymes that act on tryptophan and/or 5-HTP.

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Taurine

Optimal range:   52 - 1025 uMol/gCr

Taurine important for proper heart function, healthy sleep and promoting calmness.

Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid, but it is often referred to as an amino acid, a chemical that is a required building block of protein. Taurine is found in large amounts in the brain, retina, heart, and blood cells called platelets. 

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Full Interpretation
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  • Instant interpretations
  • We upload 10 reports for you
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Genova Diagnostics

Genova Diagnostics is a global clinical laboratory, pioneering a systems approach that supports healthcare providers in the personalized treatment and prevention of chronic disease.


11-Eicosenoic

Optimal range:   3.7 - 18.1 µmol/L

Eicosenoic acid has recently been reported as one of the five biomarkers for diagnosis of schizophrenia.

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25-Hydroxyvitamin D

Optimal range:   50 - 80 ng/mL

Vitamin D is well known for the role it plays in regulating calcium and phosphorus to maintain bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder, neurological autoimmune processes, and in preventing on-going inflammation that damages tissue.

Vitamin D, frequently called the “sun vitamin,” is an essential component of the systems that our bodies use to keep bones and teeth strong. It also has important, emerging roles in immune function and cancer prevention. We have natural processes that regulate vitamin D production from the sun so extremely high levels of it are rare. Deficiency can cause a number of issues including weak bones, called osteomalacia.

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AA/EPA

Optimal range:   1 - 57 Ratio

This test measures the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in plasma. This ratio of the principle omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is a measure of the body’s eicosanoid balance. Balancing these eicosanoids in the body is an excellent way
for managing heart disease and other chronic and inflammatory processes.

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Alpha Linolenic

Optimal range:   13 - 80 µmol/L

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is plant-based essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained through the diet.

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alpha-Tocopherol

Optimal range:   6.8 - 31.7 mg/L

Naturally occurring vitamin E exists in eight chemical forms (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) that have varying levels of biological activity.

Alpha- (or α-) tocopherol is the only form that is recognized to meet human requirements. Alpha-tocopherol (body’s main form of vitamin E) functions as an antioxidant, regulates cell signaling, influences immune function and inhibits coagulation.

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Aluminum

Optimal range:   0 - 113 ppb

The major tissue sites of aluminum toxicity are the nervous system, immune system, bone, liver, and red blood cells. Aluminum may also interfere with heme (porphyrin) synthesis.

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Arachidic

Optimal range:   1.3 - 4.7 µmol/L

Arachidic acid (also called eicosanoic acid) is a long-chain saturated fatty acid. It is the elongation product of stearic acid and can be utilized as an energy source to build membranes.

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Arachidonic

Optimal range:   158 - 521 µmol/L

Arachidonic acid is an inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Our bodies produce this nutrient, and its excess may lead to inflammatory diseases and mood disorders.

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Arsenic

Optimal range:   0 - 10 ppb

Arsenic is a natural component of the earth’s crust and is widely distributed throughout the environment in the airwater and land. It is highly toxic in its inorganic form and considered a carcinogenic heavy metal.

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Behenic

Optimal range:   0.6 - 2.9 µmol/L

Behenic acid is a saturated fatty acids, in particular it is part of the group of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs).

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Beta-Carotene

Optimal range:   0.1 - 2.71 mg/L

Beta-Carotene is an oxidative stress marker.

– Beta-Carotene is involved in antioxidant protection.

– Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in the liver.

– Beta-carotene & other carotenoids are converted to vitamin A (retinol), involved in vision, antioxidant & immune function, gene expression & cell growth.

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Cadmium

Optimal range:   0 - 1.1 ppb

The principal organs most vulnerable to cadmium toxicity are your kidney and lung. Environmental cadmium exposure is associated with renal tubular damage and high blood pressure. Cadmium toxicity impacts the kidney, where damage to proximal tubules has been described. Also, cadmium compounds are classified as carcinogenic to humans.

Cadmium, a common environmental pollutant and a major constituent of tobacco smoke, has been identified as a new class of endocrine disruptors with a wide range of detrimental effects on reproduction.

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Calcium

Optimal range:   24 - 65 ppm

Calcium is essential for bones and teethheartnervesmuscles, and blood clotting.

Calcium is the most abundant mineral element in your body, because it is the major element in bones. Serum and red blood cell calcium, however, do not represent bone mineral content or dietary adequacy.

Although most of the body’s calcium is stored in bones, some circulates in the blood. About 40% of the calcium in blood is attached to proteins in blood, mainly albumin. Protein-bound calcium acts as a reserve source of calcium for the cells but has no active function in the body.

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Capric

Optimal range:   0.8 - 6.2 µmol/L

Capric acid (also known as Decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid (=MCFA) abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goatcow, and human. The MCFAs are virtually nonexistent in meats because animals oxidize them very rapidly from plants consumed, and do not accumulate in the tissues.

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Coenzyme Q10 (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.48 - 3.04 mg/L

CoEnzyme Q10 is an essential component of the mitochondria of the energy producing unit of the cell.

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Copper

Optimal range:   753 - 1920 ppb

Copper is part of enzymes, which are proteins that help biochemical reactions occur in every cell. Copper is involved in the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron.

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Dihomogamma Linolenic (Genova)

Optimal range:   27 - 140 µmol/L

Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA) is the elongation product of Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).

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Docosadienoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 2 µmol/L

Docosadienoic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid. Omega-6 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds.

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Docosahexaenoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   31 - 213 µmol/L

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the omega-3 fatty acids.

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Docosapentaenoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   11 - 50 µmol/L

Docosapentaenoic acid, or DPA, is a lesser known member of the omega-3 family.

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Docosatetraenoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   2.6 - 18.1 µmol/L

Docosatetraenoic acid is also known as Adrenic acid / Adrenate.

Docosatetraenoic acid is a member of the class of compounds known as very long-chain fatty acids.

Fatty acids belong to one of three types or families: saturatedmonounsaturated and polyunsaturated. These names describe the structure of the fatty acid in terms of whether it is fully loaded with hydrogen.

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Eicosadienoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   5.2 - 22.5 µmol/L

Eicosadienoic acid is the elongation product of Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and the direct precursor of Dihomogamma Linolenic (DGLA).

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Eicosapentaenoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   5 - 210 µmol/L

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) is a Polyunsaturated Omega-3 Fatty Acid and is involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and prevention of blood clots.

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EPA/DGLA (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.07 - 5.98 Ratio

The fatty acid profile shows the balance of fats and their metabolites in plasma. Your overall balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fats is represented by the ratios of AA/EPA(arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid) and EPA/DGLA.

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Gamma Linolenic (Genova)

Optimal range:   5 - 46 µmol/L

Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) is the precursor of both Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA), an anti-inflammatory fatty acid, and Arachidonic Acid (AA), a pro-inflammatory fatty acid. It can be produced in human tissues by action of desaturase enzymes on LA.

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gamma-Tocopherol (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.06 - 2.99 mg/L

Gamma-tocopherol is part of the Vitamin E classification group.

The term vitamin E refers to a group of eight naturally occurring compounds, all with different potencies:

– alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol and

– alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol.

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Heneicosanoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.74 µmol/L

Heneicosanoic acid is an odd-numbered saturated fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid. Vitamin B12 is required for the conversion of propionate into succinate for oxidation in the central energy pathways. Deficiency of vitamin B12 results in accumulation of propionate and subsequent buildup of the odd numbered fatty acids, such as heneicosanoic acid.

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Heptadecanoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 24.4 µmol/L

Heptadecanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Hexacosanoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.43 µmol/L

Hexacosanoic acid is a saturated fatty acid. It is a very long-chain fatty acid. Accumulation of certain very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) is associated with degenerative diseases of the central nervous system.

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LA/DGLA

Optimal range:   11 - 46 Ratio

LA/DGLA is a fatty acid ratio.

LA/DGLA stands for linolenic acid (=LA) and dihomogammalinolenic acid (=DGLA).

The LA/DGLA ratio is a biomarker that can indicate functional zinc deficiency.

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Lauric (Genova)

Optimal range:   2.2 - 27.3 µmol/L

Lauric acid is a saturated fat and one of the medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) together myristic and capric acid.

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Lead (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 29 ppb

Lead toxicity causes paralysis and pain in the extremities due to effects on demyelinization, axonal degeneration, and presynaptic block.

Lead toxicity commonly affects sensory, visual, auditory, and cerebellar (coordination) functions, reflecting its impact on the nervous system. Normocytic, sideroblastic anemia is the consequence of lead’s inhibiting effects on enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway.

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Lignoceric (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.63 - 2.45 µmol/L

Lignoceric Acid is a saturated fatty acids, in particular it is part of the group of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs).

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Linoleic (Genova)

Optimal range:   821 - 2032 µmol/L

Linoleic acid is by far the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in most human tissues. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid, and low levels indicate dietary insufficiency.

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Lipid Peroxides (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 2.6 nmol/ML

Lipid peroxides are oxidative degradation products of lipids, generated by a free radical chain reaction. Because of their abundance of reactive hydrogens, polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid peroxidation, which compromises the integrity and function of the cell membrane in which they reside.

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Magnesium (Genova)

Optimal range:   34 - 63 ppm

Measuring mineral concentrations inside your erythrocytes (red blood cells) is one of the best ways to determine their adequacy. Minerals are important catalysts that spark many of the chemical reactions in your body. The most extensively required mineral element in your body is magnesium. Erythrocyte magnesium is a measure of magnesium adequacy.

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Mead (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 8.3 µmol/L

Mead Acid (plasma) is a marker for overall, essential fatty acid status. 

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Mercury (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 9.8 ppb

Mercury is an element that is found all over the earth, in soil, rocks, and water. The issue with mercury is that if humans are exposed to it, depending on the amount, route, and duration of exposure, mercury can be toxic to humans.

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Myristic (Genova)

Optimal range:   15 - 139 µmol/L

Myristic acid is a medium chain fatty acid (=MCFA). It is present in palm kernel oil, coconut oil, butterfat, milk and to some extent in animal fats.

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Myristoleic (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.8 - 9.7 µmol/L

Myristoleic acid is one of the monounsaturated fatty acids.

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Nervonic (Genova)

Optimal range:   1.1 - 2.7 µmol/L

Nervonic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. Nervonic acid has the longest carbon chain of all monounsaturated fatty acids. It is found in highest concentrations in nerve membranes, particularly in myelin sheaths, which are sleeves of fatty tissue that protect your nerve cells.

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Nonadecanoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.89 µmol/L

Nonadecanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Oleic (Genova)

Optimal range:   466 - 1470 µmol/L

Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid in human cells.

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Palmitelaidic

Optimal range:   0 - 1.8 µmol/L

Palmitelaidic acid is a trans fat.

Trans fatty acids are prevalent in most diets because of the widespread use of hydrogenated oils used by manufacturers of margarines, bakery products, and peanut butters.

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Palmitic (Genova)

Optimal range:   667 - 2526 µmol/L

Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid.

Palmitic and stearic acids are significant markers for high consumption of saturated fats.

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Palmitoleic (Genova)

Optimal range:   30 - 256 µmol/L

Palmitoleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. Palmitoleic acid is the desaturation product of palmitic acid. Since palmitic acid is predominant in human tissues where desaturase enzyme activity is present, one might expect relatively high levels of palmitoleic acid.

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Pentadecanoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 20.6 µmol/L

Pentadecanoic acid is an odd numbered fatty acid with a 15-carbon backbone (15:0) and widely considered as one biomarker to assess dairy consumption/intake. It is not normally synthesized by humans, but is found in trace amounts in dairy products (milk fat) and ruminant meat fat.

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Potassium (Genova)

Optimal range:   2303 - 3374 ppm

Erythrocyte potassium levels uniquely reveal your total body potassium status. Potassium is an abundant mineral that helps keep normal water balance between the cells and body fluids. Muscle contractions, nerve impulses and blood pressure rely on availability of potassium.

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Selenium (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.13 - 0.32 ppm

Selenium is a mineral found in soil, water, and some foods. We need trace amounts for normal health, and selenium is an essential element in several metabolic pathways. It also has antioxidant properties that help prevent cellular damage from free radicals.

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Stearic (Genova)

Optimal range:   250 - 629 µmol/L

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is two carbon atoms longer than palmitic acid.

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Total C:18 Trans

Optimal range:   0 - 59 µmol/L

The total C18 trans isomers include elaidic acid, petroselaidic, and transvaccenic acids. The presence of these eighteen-carbon long trans fatty acids in human tissue can disrupt or impair cell membrane function. A person with high levels of total C18 trans isomers should avoid hydrogenated oils.

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Tricosanoic (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.78 µmol/L

Tricosanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Triene/Tetraene (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.023 Ratio

The Triene/Tetraene (T/T) ratio is another marker for essential fatty acid status. It is calculated as the ratio of Mead acid to arachidonic acid. This ratio, combined with measurements of the essential fatty acids and Mead acid, gives a more complete picture of the degree and nature of fatty acid deficiency. An elevated ratio shows a relative excess of triene (3 double bonds) compared to tetraene (4 double bonds), which results from essential fatty acid deficiency.

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Vaccenic

Optimal range:   40 - 122 µmol/L

Vaccenic acid is a naturally occuring trans-fatty acid. Vaccenic acid is called this way as it is found in cow’s milk. The latin word vacca means cow.

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Vitamin A (Retinol) (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.29 - 1.05 mg/L

Vitamin A is an antioxidant in the membranes of your cells where it serves a protective function. Every day you lose some vitamin A, because it is used in the replacement of old tissues.

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Zinc (Genova)

Optimal range:   643 - 1594 ppb

Zinc plays a vital role in immunity, protein metabolism, heme synthesis, growth & development, reproduction, digestion and antioxidant function.

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Genova: Amino Acids 40 Profile - Plasma

This test determines essential amino acid imbalances that affect both physical and mental function


1-Methylhistidine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 9.8 µmol/L

It is a component of the dietary peptide anserine. Anserine is beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, and it is known to come from chicken, turkey, duck, rabbit, tuna and salmon.

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3-Methylhistidine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 52 µmol/L

3-Methylhistidine is an amino acid which is excreted in human urine.

The measurement of 3-methylhistidine provides an index of the rate of muscle protein breakdown. 3-Methylhistidine is a biomarker for meat consumption, especially chicken. It is also a biomarker for the consumption of soy products.

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Alanine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   230 - 681 µmol/L

Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and helps the body convert the simple sugar glucose into energy and eliminate excess toxins from the liver.

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Alpha-Amino-n-butyric acid (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 39 µmol/L

Alpha-Amino-n-butyric acid (A-ANB/α-Amino-N-butyric acid) is an intermediate occurring in the catabolism of two essential amino acids, methionine and threonine.

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Alpha-Aminoadipic Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.5 µmol/L

Alpha-aminoadipic acid (a-Aminoadipic acid) is an intermediary metabolite of lysine (primarily) and of tryptophan.

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Alpha-ANB/Leucine

Optimal range:   0 - 0.22 Ratio

Alcohol consumption can result in elevations of the plasma Alpha-ANB/Leucine ratio. But to see this biomarker as a conclusive marker for alcoholism is not proven. The increase in the plasma Alpha-ANB/Leucine ratio does not appear to be specific for alcoholism because it was found elevated in nonalcoholic liver disease.

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Anserine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 43 µmol/L

Anserine is part of a group of Beta-Amino Acids and Derivatives. Anserine is beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, and it is known to come from chicken, turkey, duck, rabbit, tuna and salmon.

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Arginine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   29 - 137 µmol/L

Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is critical for your cardiovascular health and detoxification functions. The amino acid, arginine, is used to make the powerful blood vessel regulator, nitric oxide. Nitric oxide acts to lower blood pressure.

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Asparagine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   31 - 90 µmol/L

Asparagine is a protein amino acid. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it.

Asparagine is synthesized from aspartate and glutamine. Asparagine has three major functions:

  1. incorporation into amino acid sequences of proteins
  2. storage form for aspartate (is a required precursor for synthesis of DNA, RNA and ATP)
  3. source of amino groups for production of other dispensable amino acids via Transaminases.

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Aspartic Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range:   2.9 - 12.6 µmol/L

Aspartic acid is a nonessential protein amino acid. Aspartic Acid, also known as aspartate, is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brainstem and spinal cord. Aspartic acid is the excitatory counterpart to glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

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Beta-Alanine

Optimal range:   0 - 5 µmol/L

Beta-alanine is is a non-essential amino acid.

What are amino acids?

Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body, so they don’t have to be provided by food. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

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Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 3.2 µmol/L

Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) is an amino acid end product of the pyrimidine metabolism. It is excreted in small quantities into the urine in almost all human beings. Thymine, released when RNA and DNA are degraded, enters a catabolic pathway that leads to Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid.

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Carnosine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 6.3 µmol/L

Carnosine is a dietary peptide related marker that consists of histidine and beta-alanine. Carnosine is an incompletely digested peptide that is derived primarily from beef and pork.

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Citrulline

Optimal range:   18 - 57 µmol/L

The amino acid citrulline gets its name from its high concentration in the watermelon Citrullus vulgaris. In human kidneys, citrulline and aspartic acid are united by argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) to produce arginosuccinate. The degradation of arginosuccinate to fumarate and arginine is a primary mechanism for sustaining plasma levels of arginine. The same enzyme acts in liver cells to complete the urea cycle.

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Cystathionine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.3 µmol/L

Cystathionine is an intermediary metabolite that is formed in the sequential enzymatic conversion of methionine to cysteine. Cystathionine is normally detected at very low levels in plasma. It is found between homocysteine and cysteine and is formed by the enzyme cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS).

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Cystine

Optimal range:   0.8 - 27.5 µmol/L

Cystine is the oxidized disulfide form of cysteine (Cys) and is the predominant form of cysteine in the blood due to its greater relative stability. Cystine is derived from dietary protein and, end formed endogenously from cysteine.

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Ethanolamine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 11.6 µmol/L

Ethanolamine is a metabolite of the nonessential amino acid serine. In the presence of adequate levels of functional B-6 (P-5-P) serine is enzymatically converted to ethanolamine.

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g-Aminobutyric Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.5 µmol/L

GABA is a neurotransmitter that inhibits nervous system activity, producing a relaxation effect.

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Glutamic Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range:   24 - 214 µmol/L

Glutamic acid (or Glutamate) is a major mediator of excitatory signals in the brain and is involved in most aspects of normal brain function including cognition, memory and learning.

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Glutamic Acid/Glutamine (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.06 - 0.23 Ratio

The Glutamic Acid/Glutamine Ratio is used to identify specimen handling issues that cause spontaneous degradation of glutamine to glutamate, and can reveal the origin of difficulty maintaining systemic pH balance.

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Glutamine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   372 - 876 µmol/L

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and is an important source of energy for many tissues in the body. It is derived from the amino acids histidine and glutamic acid.

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Glycine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   155 - 518 µmol/L

Glycine is an amino acid with various important functions within your body, including detoxification, DNA formation, the synthesis of hemoglobin, and as a part of brain neurotransmission pathways. Glycine and serine are interchangeable.

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Histidine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   57 - 114 µmol/L

Histidine is the amino acid most necessary during stress. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein in our bodies.

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Homocysteine (Genova)

Optimal range:   3 - 14 nmol/ML

Homocysteine is a sulphur-containing amino acid and is an intermediate metabolite of methionine metabolism. Homocysteine is a well-known cardiovascular disease risk factor.

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Homocystine (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.6 µmol/L

Homocystine is a common amino acid in your blood. You get it mostly from eating meat. High levels of it are linked to early development of heart disease.

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Hydroxylysine (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.6 µmol/L

Hydroxylysine is an amino acid related to collagen.

What is collagen?

Collagen is the most abundant protein in your body. It is the major component of connective tissues that make up several body parts, including tendons, ligaments, skin and muscles.

More info


Hydroxyproline (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 26 µmol/L

Hydroxyproline is a collagen related amino acid. Hydroxyproline is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver. Hydroxyproline is necessary for the construction of the body’s major structural protein, collagen. Hydroxyproline is present in essentially all tissues and all genetic types of collagen.

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Hydroxyproline/Proline (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.152 Ratio

The Hydroxyproline to Proline Ratio describes the relationship between Proline and Hydroxyproline and can be looked at in relation to your collagen metabolism.

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Isoleucine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   35 - 104 µmol/L

Isoleucine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) alongside both leucine and valine.

Isoleucine is a common component of proteins, peptides and hormones. Leucine is catabolized as a source of carbon for energy production during exercise in skeletal muscle.

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Leucine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   74 - 196 µmol/L

Leucine, together with isoleucine and valine, are essential amino acids that are referred to as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs).

Leucine is nutritionally essential and is required for formation of body proteins, enzymes and some hormones. Leucine itself has a hormone-like activity which is stimulation of pancreatic release of insulin. The branched-chain structure of leucine makes it very important for the formation of flexible collagen tissues, particularly elastin in ligaments. Leucine is relatively abundant in all protein foods.

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Lysine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   120 - 318 µmol/L

Lysine is found in great quantities in muscle tissues, stimulates calcium absorption, carnitine synthesis, and growth and repair of muscle tissue.

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Methionine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   14 - 48 µmol/L

Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning we need to get it from our diet as our body does not produce it. Methionine is a unique sulfur-containing amino acid that can be used to build proteins and produce many molecules in the body.

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Ornithine (Genova)

Optimal range:   28 - 117 µmol/L

Ornithine is a urea cycle metabolite.

Ornithine can stimulate the release of growth hormone. Growth hormone is necessary for tissue repair and growth. Growth hormone is often low in patients with fibromyalgia.

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Phenylalanine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   42 - 95 µmol/L

Phenylalanine is a precursor for the amino acid tyrosine, which is essential for making neurotransmitters (e.g. epinephrinenorepinephrinedopamine) and thyroid hormone. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that communicate between nerve cells in the brain. It can relieve pain, alleviate depression, and suppress the appetite. Low levels may indicate a stressful lifestyle, leading to memory loss, fatigue, and depression.

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Phenylalanine/Tyrosine (Genova)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.1 Ratio

The Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ratio evaluates the body’s ability to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine; Conversion enzyme requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), niacin (B3), and iron as cofactors.

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Phosphoethanolamine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 7.4 µmol/L

Phosphoethanolamine together with Ethanolamine and Phosphoserine are amino acids that are closely related structurally and they share principal roles in phospholipid metabolism.

Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are important components of cell membranes. Phospholipids are found in high concentrations in the membrane of practically every cell of the body.

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Phosphoserine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.8 µmol/L

Phosphoserine is a product of glycolysis and is formed by amino group transfer from glutamic acid to phosphohydroxypyruvic acid.

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Proline (Plasma)

Optimal range:   99 - 363 µmol/L

Proline is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.

Proline is the precursor to hydroxyproline, which is a major amino acid found in the connective tissue of the body – collagen.

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Sarcosine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   0 - 19.5 µmol/L

Sarcosine is also known as N-methylglycine. It is an intermediate and byproduct in the glycine synthesis and degradation. Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase, while glycine-N-methyl transferase generates sarcosine from glycine.

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Serine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   60 - 172 µmol/L

Serine can be used as an energy source. Formed from threonine and phosphoserine (requiring B6, manganese, and magnesium), serine is necessary for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter used in memory function.

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Taurine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   29 - 136 µmol/L

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid required for bile formation.

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Threonine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   73 - 216 µmol/L

Threonine is an essential amino acid, i.e., it is vital for your health, but it cannot be synthesized by your body and therefore has to be obtained from a diet.

More info


Tryptophan (Plasma)

Optimal range:   31 - 83 µmol/L

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid required for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

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Tryptophan/LNAA (Genova)

Optimal range:   0.09 - 0.102 Ratio

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, a subunit in protein molecules and a precursor to serotonin. The brain uses tryptophan to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter largely responsible for feelings of happiness and well-being.

Tryptophan cannot be synthesised by the body and must be obtained through diet.

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Tyrosine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   38 - 110 µmol/L

Tyrosin is the non-essential amino acid precursor for dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. Tyrosine hydroxylase converts tyrosine into the dopamine precursor L-DOPA; BH4, Vitamin D and iron are cofactors for that enzymatic activity.

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Valine (Plasma)

Optimal range:   146 - 370 µmol/L

Valine, together with Isoleucine and Leucine are essential amino acids and are collectively referred to as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs).

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Sjögren's Syndrome

Sjögren's Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly reacts to the tissue in glands that produce moisture, such as tear and salivary glands. Sjögren's Syndrome can affect anyone at any age, but the majority of those afflicted are older than 40, and women are nine times more likely than men to have the disorder. It is estimated to be the second most common autoimmune disease, after lupus. 

Criteria for diagnosis include, for example, signs and symptoms and positive tests for ANA, anti-SSA and anti-SSB, and/or Rheumatoid factor (RF) as well as a positive salivary gland biopsy.

anti-SSA antibodies are often found together with anti-SSB. However, anti-SSA antibodies alone are often found in lupus, particularly in limited forms of the disease. anti-SSA often appears before anti-SSB.

Specific biomarkers to look at:

SS-A (or Ro) and SS-B (or La): These are the marker antibodies for Sjögren's and the most common antibodies associated with Sjogren’s syndrome. Seventy percent of Sjögren’s patients are positive for SS-A and 40% are positive for SS-B (these may also be found in lupus patients).

ANA (Anti-Nuclear Antibody): ANAs are a group of antibodies that react against normal components of a cell nucleus. About 70% of Sjögren’s patients have a positive ANA test result. (you find this marker in our Immune system category)

RF (Rheumatoid Factor): This antibody test is indicative of a rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus and Sjögren’s. It doesn’t, however, specify which rheumatic disease a person has. In Sjögren’s patients, 60-70% have a positive RF. (you find this marker in our Immune system category)

ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate): This test measures inflammation. An elevated ESR indicates the presence of an inflammatory disorder, including Sjögren’s. (you find this marker in our Immune system category)

IGs (Immunoglobulins): These are normal blood proteins that participate in immune reactions and are usually elevated in Sjögren’s patients. (you find this marker in our Immune system category)


Anti-SS-A (anti-Ro)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 AI

Anti-Ro (SS-A) is an autoantibody associated with SLE or Sjögren’s syndrome. Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly reacts to the tissue in glands that produce moisture, such as tear and salivary glands.

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Anti-SS-B (anti-La)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.9 AI

Anti-SS-B (anti-La) is an autoantibody associated with SLE or Sjögren’s syndrome. Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly reacts to the tissue in glands that produce moisture, such as tear and salivary glands.

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Cortisol Awakening Response + DHEA (Genova) (Saliva)

Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR):

- CAR represents the momentum of rising cortisol levels that begins several hours prior to awakening and an additional
transient increase.

- CAR reflects a person’s ability to cope with anticipated challenges and the perceptions of control around chronic stress.

Elevated levels of CAR:

- Elevated levels may be due to stress, exercise, alcohol, and specific lifestyle stressors.

- Elevated evening salivary cortisol is linked to insomnia.

- High evening cortisol levels are also associated with various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hormonally driven cancers, and osteoporosis.

DHEA:

DHEA levels peak at around age 25, then decline steadily through the following decades. DHEA can be converted downstream in the steroidogenic pathway to create androgens and estrogens. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and can be protective against corticosterone’s neurotoxic effects.

- Lower levels of DHEA are seen with advancing age and have been associated with immune dysregulation, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, insomnia, declining cognition, depression, fatigue, and decreased libido.

-  Elevated levels of DHEA may reflect endogenous exposure and supplementation. Other considerations include Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS,) adrenal hyperplasia and adrenal tumors.

General recommendations include overall control of the cortisol response, HPA axis support using nutrition, adaptogens, and behavioral modification.


Cortisol (10PM-12AM)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.94 nmol/L

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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Cortisol (11AM-1PM)

Optimal range:   0.75 - 2.93 nmol/L

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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Cortisol (30 Minutes)

Optimal range:   0 - 0 nmol/L

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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Cortisol (3PM-5PM)

Optimal range:   0.36 - 1.88 nmol/L

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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Cortisol (7AM-9AM)

Optimal range:   2.68 - 9.3 nmol/L

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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Cortisol (Waking)

Optimal range:   0 - 0 nmol/L

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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DHEA

Optimal range:   0.25 - 2.22 nmol/L

DHEA levels peak at around age 25, then decline steadily through the following decades. DHEA can be converted downstream in the steroidogenic pathway to create androgens and estrogens. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and can be protective against corticosterone’s neurotoxic effects.

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DHEA: Cortisol Ratio

Optimal range:   0.05 - 0.32 Ratio

This calculation represents anabolic and catabolic balance. Since DHEA acts not only as an anabolic hormone, but appears to down-regulate the cellular effects of cortisol, this measurement can theoretically enhance the predictive value of HPA axis dysfunction.

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Lipoprotein Particles and Apolipoproteins

Lipoproteins are substances made of protein and fat that carry cholesterol through your bloodstream. 

 


Apoprotein B100 (ApoB 100)

Optimal range:   0 - 80 mg/dL

Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a building block of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). These related molecules all transport fats and cholesterol in the bloodstream.

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HDL-2

Optimal range:   10 - 100 mg/dL

More info


HDL-3

Optimal range:   30 - 100 mg/dL

More info


HDL-P

Optimal range:   30.5 - 100 umol/L

More info


LDL Size

Optimal range:   20.5 - 100 nm

More info


LDL-P

Optimal range:   0 - 1000 nmol/L

More info


LDL1 Pattern A

Optimal range:   0 - 57 mg/dL

More info


LDL2 Pattern A

Optimal range:   0 - 30 mg/dL

More info


LDL3 Pattern B

Optimal range:   0 - 6 mg/dL

More info


LDL4 Pattern B

Optimal range:   0 - 0 mg/dL

More info


Lipoprotein(a) / Lp(a)

Optimal range:   0 - 30 mg/dL

Lipoprotein(a) is a unique lipoprotein that has emerged as an independent risk factor for developing vascular disease.

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LP-IR Score

Optimal range:   0 - 45 Units

The LP-IR score assesses an individual’s insulin resistance level and diabetes risk.

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Small LDL-P

Optimal range:   0 - 527 nmol/L

These particles are associated with an increased risk of heart disease; more of these small particles lead to greater risk. Your Small LDL particle score can vary widely, with a lower score being much better. 

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VLDL

Optimal range:   2 - 36 mg/dL

VLDL stands for very low-density lipoprotein. VLDL carries triglycerides in the blood and, to a lesser extent, cholesterol. High levels of VLDL are associated with a type of blood vessel disease called atherosclerosis.

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VLDL-3

Optimal range:   0 - 10 mg/dL

More info



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IgG Subclass Deficiency

Antibodies are also called immunoglobulins. There are five types or classes of immunoglobulin: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE. Most of the antibodies in the blood and the fluid that surround the tissues and cells of the body are of the IgG class. The IgG class of antibodies is composed of four different subtypes of IgG molecules called the IgG subclasses. These are designated IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. 


IgG, Subclass 1

Optimal range:   422 - 1292 mg/dL

IgG is a combination of four slightly different types of IgG called IgG subclasses: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. When one or more of these subclasses is persistently low and total IgG is normal, a subclass deficiency is present.

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IgG, Subclass 2

Optimal range:   117 - 747 mg/dL

IgG is a combination of four slightly different types of IgG called IgG subclasses: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. When one or more of these subclasses is persistently low and total IgG is normal, a subclass deficiency is present.

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IgG, Subclass 3

Optimal range:   41 - 129 mg/dL

IgG is a combination of four slightly different types of IgG called IgG subclasses: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. When one or more of these subclasses is persistently low and total IgG is normal, a subclass deficiency is present.

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IgG, Subclass 4

Optimal range:   1 - 291 mg/dL

IgG is a combination of four slightly different types of IgG called IgG subclasses: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. When one or more of these subclasses is persistently low and total IgG is normal, a subclass deficiency is present.

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Metabolic Analysis Markers (Urine)

The Metabolic Analysis Profile (Urine) measures four critical areas of metabolism: gastrointestinal function and dysbiosis markers, cellular and mitochondrial energy metabolites, neurotransmitter metabolites, and functionally important organic acid metabolites of amino acids.


2-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 0.76 mmol/mol creatinine

Metabolite of phenylalanine via phenyl pyruvate.

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3-Hydroxyisovaleric Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 29 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Hydroxyisovaleric acid is a normal human metabolite excreted in the urine.

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3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 8.1 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is a rutin metabolite and an antioxidant.

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3-Hydroxypropionic Acid

Optimal range:   5 - 22 mmol/mol creatinine

Metabolite of propionic acid, precursor of methylmalonic acid via both biotin and Mg.

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3-Methyl-4-OH-phenylglycol

Optimal range:   0.02 - 0.22 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Methyl-4-OH-phenylglycol is the breakdown product from norepinephrine, but it may also be produced from epinephrine to a lesser extent.

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4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 29 mmol/mol creatinine

A tyrosine metabolic product of GI bacteria.

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5-OH-indoleacetic Acid

Optimal range:   3.8 - 12.1 mmol/mol creatinine

5-OH-indoleacetic Acid is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5-OH-indoleacetic Acid are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

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a-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (from MTBE)

Optimal range:   0 - 6.7 mmol/mol creatinine

a-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (from MTBE) is a toxic breakdown product.

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a-Keto-b-Methylvaleric Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 2.1 mmol/mol creatinine

a-Keto-b-Methylvaleric Acid is a B-Complex Vitamin Marker. Vitamins are compounds that your body needs to be healthy. Vitamins are “essential” for proper function, which means that they are not made inside your body and must be consumed in the diet.

A metabolites of isoleucine.

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a-Ketoadipic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 1.7 mmol/mol creatinine

Alpha-Ketoadipic acid (or 2-oxoadipate) is an intermediate in the metabolism of lysine.

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a-Ketoglutaric Acid (AKG)

Optimal range:   4 - 52 mmol/mol creatinine

Alpha-Ketoglutarate is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids. It is formed in the Krebs cycle, the energy-producing process that occurs in most body cells.

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a-Ketoisocaproic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 0.89 mmol/mol creatinine

a-Ketoisocaproic Acid is a B-Complex Vitamin Marker (Leucine catabolism).

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a-Ketoisovaleric Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 0.97 mmol/mol creatinine

Alpha-Ketoisovalerate (together with Alpha-Ketoisocaproate and Alpha-Keto-Beta-methylvalerate) requires Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5 and lipoic acid to be metabolized.

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a-Ketophenylacetic Acid (from Styrene)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.46 mmol/mol creatinine

a-Ketophenylacetic Acid (from Styrene) is a toxic breakdown product.

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Adipic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 2.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Adipic Acid, together with Suberate and Ethylmalonate are all functional markers for deficiency of carnitine.

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Arabinose

Optimal range:   0 - 96 mmol/mol creatinine

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in certain foods.

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B-OH-B-Methylglutaric Acid (HMG)

Optimal range:   0 - 15 mmol/mol creatinine

Hydroxymethylglutarate (HMG) is the precursor to Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) production, and when it is elevated it may indicate that the body is trying to increase its production of CoQ10.

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Benzoic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 0.05 mmol/mol creatinine

Benzoic Acid was one of the compounds first found to be elevated in urine from patients with intestinal bacterial overgrowth of various origins.

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Beta-OH-Butyric Acid (BHBA)

Optimal range:   0 - 2.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Ketone formed from acetyl CoA.

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Cis-Aconitic Acid

Optimal range:   10 - 36 mmol/mol creatinine

Cis-Aconitic Acid is involved in both energy production and removal of toxic ammonia.

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Citramalic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 5.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Metabolite of yeast or anaerobic bacteria, including Clostridia.

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Citric Acid

Optimal range:   40 - 520 mmol/mol creatinine

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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Dihydroxyphenylpropionic Acid (DHPPA)

Optimal range:   0 - 5.3 mmol/mol creatinine

Produced when Clostridia acts upon unabsorbed tryptophan, tyrosine or phenylalanine.

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Formiminoglutamic Acid (FIGlu)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.5 mmol/mol creatinine

Formiminoglutamic Acid (FIGlu) is a functional marker of insufficiency of folic acid, another B-vitamin, and is a compound made from the amino acid histidine.

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Glutaric Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 0.51 mmol/mol creatinine

Glutaric acid is a breakdown product of lysine and/or tryptophan.

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Hippuric Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 603 mmol/mol creatinine

Microbes resident in the large intestine of the human body help to break down complex aromatic compounds in dietary plant matter (polyphenols), freeing up benzoic acid, which enters the bloodstream. The liver can add the amino acid glycine to benzoic acid to form hippuric acid, which re-enters the blood and is absorbed by the kidneys. As a result, the kidneys excrete hundreds of milligrams of hippuric acid into the urine every day.

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Homogentisic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 19 mmol/mol creatinine

Homogentisic acid is a breakdown product of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic Acid (4-HPPA).

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Homovanillic Acid

Optimal range:   1.2 - 5.3 mmol/mol creatinine

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite.

Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)

Optimal range:   0 - 4.2 mmol/mol creatinine

Produced from bacterial degradation of unabsorbed tryptophan.

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Isocitric Acid

Optimal range:   22 - 65 mmol/mol creatinine

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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Isovalerylglycine

Optimal range:   0 - 3.7 mmol/mol creatinine

Isovalerylglycine is a breakdown product of leucine. 

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Kynurenic / Quinolinic Ratio

Optimal range:   0.44 - 5 Ratio

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Kynurenic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 7.1 mmol/mol creatinine

Kynurenic Acid is product of the metabolism of L-Tryptophan and appears in urine in Vitamin B6 deficiencies. Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein.

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Lactic Acid

Optimal range:   1.9 - 19.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Formed from pyruvate in anaerobic or oxygen-starved (hypoxic) conditions to allow for ongoing production of ATP.

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Malic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 3 mmol/mol creatinine

Malic Acid is involved in the citric acid cycle (aka. Krebs cycle). The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that occur in the mitochondrion to generate chemical energy that fuels the metabolism.

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Methylmalonic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 1.9 mmol/mol creatinine

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a substance produced in very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production.

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Orotic Acid

Optimal range:   0.33 - 1.01 mmol/mol creatinine

Orotic Acid is a sensitive marker of your liver’s capacity to convert toxic ammonia to non-toxic urea that you can excrete. That capacity can be increased by additional arginine. Ammonia toxicity can also be reduced by supplementation with α-ketoglutarate, magnesium, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. Ammonia impairs brain function, causing difficulty with thinking, fatigue, headaches, and increased food sensitivities.

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Phenylacetic Acid (PAA)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.12 mmol/mol creatinine

Produced from bacterial degradation of unabsorbed phenylalanine.

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Pyroglutamic Acid

Optimal range:   16 - 34 mmol/mol creatinine

Pyroglutamate (or Pyroglutamic acid) is an intermediate in the glutathione metabolism and a marker of glutathione deficiency.

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Pyruvic Acid

Optimal range:   7 - 32 mmol/mol creatinine

Pyruvic Acid feeds into the citric acid cycle & converts into acetyl CoA. Pyruvate is formed from carbohydrate via glucose or glycogen & secondarily from fats (glycerol) & glycogenic amino acids.

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Quinolinic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 9.1 mmol/mol creatinine

Quinolinic acid is a neurotoxic substance produced by our own bodies and a metabolite of tryptophan.

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Suberic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 2.1 mmol/mol creatinine

Suberic Acid, Adipate, and Ethylmalonate elevations can indicate that you may need additional carnitine and/or vitamin B2 to assist your cells in converting fats into energy efficiently.

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Succinic Acid

Optimal range:   0.4 - 4.6 mmol/mol creatinine

Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body.

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Tartaric Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 15 mmol/mol creatinine

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in some foods.

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Vanilmandelic Acid

Optimal range:   0.4 - 3.6 mmol/mol creatinine

Vanilmandelic Acid is a breakdown product from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission.

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Xanthurenic Acid

Optimal range:   0 - 0.96 mmol/mol creatinine

Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein. Inadequate vitamin B6 is one factor that leads to increased concentrations of kynurenate and xanthurenate in urine.

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Genova Amino Acids Analysis, Urine

Amino acid nutritional testing aids in the identification of the following:

- dietary protein adequacy

- amino acid balance

- gastrointestinal dysfunctions

- forms of protein intolerance

- vitamin and mineral deficiencies

- renal and hepatic dysfunction

- psychiatric abnormalities

- susceptibility to inflammatory response and oxidative stress

- reduced detoxification capacity

... and many other inherent and acquired disorders in amino acid metabolism.

Plasma vs. Urine Analysis:

Plasma is traditionally used to assess the status of essential amino acids while urine analysis provides more information regarding admino acid wasting and aberrant metabolism associated with co-factor insufficiencies.

Plasma amino acid nutritional testing measures what is being transported at the time of sampling. The specimen should be collected after an overnight fast to reduce the influence of dietary protein. Abnormalities are deduced by comparison of measured levels with an established reference range.

The 24-hour urine amino acid analysis has the highest probability of detecting abnormalities if renal function is normal. The 24-hour test indicates what is high and low over the course of a day, reflects blood and tissue amino acid pools, and is not affected by circadian rhythm. Healthy kidneys efficiently conserve essential amino acids. Therefore, urine levels of amino acids decrease first and tend to give an earlier indication of inadequacy than do plasma levels.

A first morning void urine (FMV) amino acid analysis, with results normalized per gram creatinine, provides an alternative when a complete 24-hour collection is not a viable option. The FMV analysis is excellent for identification of marked abnormalities, particularly with respect to gastrointestinal health, inherited disorders in amino acid metabolism and renal function, and can be used for protein challenge testing.


1-Methylhistidine (Urine)

Optimal range:   38 - 988 micromol/g creatinine

It is a component of the dietary peptide anserine. Anserine is beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, and it is known to come from chicken, turkey, duck, rabbit, tuna and salmon.

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3-Methylhistidine (Urine)

Optimal range:   44 - 281 micromol/g creatinine

3-Methylhistidine is an amino acid which is excreted in human urine.

The measurement of 3-methylhistidine provides an index of the rate of muscle protein breakdown. 3-Methylhistidine is a biomarker for meat consumption, especially chicken. It is also a biomarker for the consumption of soy products.

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a-Amino-N-butyric Acid (Urine)

Optimal range:   2 - 25 micromol/g creatinine

Alpha-Amino-n-butyric acid (A-ANB/α-Amino-N-butyric acid) is an intermediate occurring in the catabolism of two essential amino acids, methionine and threonine.

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a-Aminoadipic (Urine)

Optimal range:   2 - 47 micromol/g creatinine

Alpha-aminoadipic acid (a-Aminoadipic acid) is an intermediary metabolite of lysine (primarily) and of tryptophan.

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Alanine (Urine)

Optimal range:   63 - 356 micromol/g creatinine

Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and helps the body convert the simple sugar glucose into energy and eliminate excess toxins from the liver.

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Anserine (dipeptide)

Optimal range:   0.4 - 105.1 micromol/g creatinine

Anserine is part of a group of Beta-Amino Acids and Derivatives. Anserine is beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, and it is known to come from chicken, turkey, duck, rabbit, tuna and salmon.

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Arginine (Urine)

Optimal range:   3 - 43 micromol/g creatinine

Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is critical for your cardiovascular health and detoxification functions. The amino acid, arginine, is used to make the powerful blood vessel regulator, nitric oxide. Nitric oxide acts to lower blood pressure.

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Asparagine (Urine)

Optimal range:   25 - 166 micromol/g creatinine

Asparagine is a protein amino acid. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it.

Asparagine is synthesized from aspartate and glutamine.

Asparagine has three major functions:

  1. incorporation into amino acid sequences of proteins
  2. storage form for aspartate (is a required precursor for synthesis of DNA, RNA and ATP)
  3. source of amino groups for production of other dispensable amino acids via Transaminases.

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Aspartic Acid (Urine)

Optimal range:   0 - 14 micromol/g creatinine

Aspartic acid is a nonessential protein amino acid. Aspartic Acid, also known as aspartate, is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brainstem and spinal cord. Aspartic acid is the excitatory counterpart to glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

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b-Alanine (Urine)

Optimal range:   0 - 22 micromol/g creatinine

Beta-alanine is is a non-essential amino acid.

What are amino acids?

Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body, so they don’t have to be provided by food. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

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b-Aminoisobutyric Acid (Urine)

Optimal range:   11 - 160 micromol/g creatinine

Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) is an amino acid end product of the pyrimidine metabolism. It is excreted in small quantities into the urine in almost all human beings. Thymine, released when RNA and DNA are degraded, enters a catabolic pathway that leads to Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid.

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Carnosine (dipeptide)

Optimal range:   1 - 28 micromol/g creatinine

Carnosine is a dietary peptide related marker that consists of histidine and beta-alanine. Carnosine is an incompletely digested peptide that is derived primarily from beef and pork.

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Citrulline (Urine)

Optimal range:   0.6 - 3.9 micromol/g creatinine

The amino acid citrulline gets its name from its high concentration in the watermelon Citrullus vulgaris. In human kidneys, citrulline and aspartic acid are united by argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) to produce arginosuccinate. The degradation of arginosuccinate to fumarate and arginine is a primary mechanism for sustaining plasma levels of arginine. The same enzyme acts in liver cells to complete the urea cycle.

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Cystathionine (Urine)

Optimal range:   2 - 68 micromol/g creatinine

Cystathionine is an intermediary metabolite that is formed in the sequential enzymatic conversion of methionine (essential amino acid) to cysteine.

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Cysteine (FMV urine)

Optimal range:   8 - 74 micromol/g creatinine

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Cystine (FMV Urine)

Optimal range:   10 - 104 micromol/g creatinine

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Ethanolamine (Urine)

Optimal range:   50 - 235 micromol/g creatinine

Ethanolamine is a metabolite of the nonessential amino acid serine. In the presence of adequate levels of functional B-6 (P-5-P) serine is enzymatically converted to ethanolamine.

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g-Aminobutyric Acid (Urine)

Optimal range:   0 - 5 micromol/g creatinine

GABA is a neurotransmitter that inhibits nervous system activity, producing a relaxation effect.

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Glutamic Acid (Urine)

Optimal range:   4 - 27 micromol/g creatinine

Glutamic acid (or Glutamate) is a major mediator of excitatory signals in the brain and is involved in most aspects of normal brain function including cognition, memory and learning.

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Glutamine (Urine)

Optimal range:   110 - 632 micromol/g creatinine

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and is an important source of energy for many tissues in the body. It is derived from the amino acids histidine and glutamic acid.

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Glycine (Urine)

Optimal range:   95 - 683 micromol/g creatinine

Glycine is an amino acid with various important functions within your body, including detoxification, DNA formation, the synthesis of hemoglobin, and as a part of brain neurotransmission pathways. Glycine and serine are interchangeable.

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Histidine (Urine)

Optimal range:   124 - 894 micromol/g creatinine

Histidine is the amino acid most necessary during stress. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein in our bodies.

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Isoleucine (Urine)

Optimal range:   3 - 28 micromol/g creatinine

Isoleucine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) alongside both leucine and valine.

Isoleucine is a common component of proteins, peptides and hormones. Leucine is catabolized as a source of carbon for energy production during exercise in skeletal muscle.

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Leucine (Urine)

Optimal range:   4 - 46 micromol/g creatinine

Leucine, together with isoleucine and valine, are essential amino acids that are referred to as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs).

Leucine is nutritionally essential and is required for formation of body proteins, enzymes and some hormones. Leucine itself has a hormone-like activity which is stimulation of pancreatic release of insulin. The branched-chain structure of leucine makes it very important for the formation of flexible collagen tissues, particularly elastin in ligaments. Leucine is relatively abundant in all protein foods.

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Lysine (Urine)

Optimal range:   11 - 175 micromol/g creatinine

Lysine is found in great quantities in muscle tissues, stimulates calcium absorption, carnitine synthesis, and growth and repair of muscle tissue.

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Methionine (Urine)

Optimal range:   2 - 18 micromol/g creatinine

Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning we need to get it from our diet as our body does not produce it. Methionine is a unique sulfur-containing amino acid that can be used to build proteins and produce many molecules in the body.

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Ornithine (Urine)

Optimal range:   2 - 21 micromol/g creatinine

Ornithine is a urea cycle metabolite.

Ornithine can stimulate the release of growth hormone. Growth hormone is necessary for tissue repair and growth. Growth hormone is often low in patients with fibromyalgia.

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Phenylalanine (Urine)

Optimal range:   8 - 71 micromol/g creatinine

Phenylalanine is a precursor for the amino acid tyrosine, which is essential for making neurotransmitters (e.g. epinephrinenorepinephrinedopamine) and thyroid hormone. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that communicate between nerve cells in the brain. It can relieve pain, alleviate depression, and suppress the appetite. Low levels may indicate a stressful lifestyle, leading to memory loss, fatigue, and depression.

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Phosphoethanolamine (Urine)

Optimal range:   1 - 13 micromol/g creatinine

Phosphoethanolamine together with Ethanolamine and Phosphoserine are amino acids that are closely related structurally and they share principal roles in phospholipid metabolism.

Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are important components of cell membranes. Phospholipids are found in high concentrations in the membrane of practically every cell of the body.

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Phosphoserine (Urine)

Optimal range:   3 - 13 micromol/g creatinine

Phosphoserine is a product of glycolysis and is formed by amino group transfer from glutamic acid to phosphohydroxypyruvic acid.

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Proline (Urine)

Optimal range:   1 - 13 micromol/g creatinine

Proline is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.

Proline is the precursor to hydroxyproline, which is a major amino acid found in the connective tissue of the body – collagen.

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Sarcosine (Urine)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.1 micromol/g creatinine

Sarcosine is also known as N-methylglycine. It is an intermediate and byproduct in the glycine synthesis and degradation. Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase, while glycine-N-methyl transferase generates sarcosine from glycine.

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Serine (Urine)

Optimal range:   40 - 163 micromol/g creatinine

Serine can be used as an energy source. Formed from threonine and phosphoserine (requiring B6, manganese, and magnesium), serine is necessary for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter used in memory function.

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Taurine (Urine)

Optimal range:   21 - 424 micromol/g creatinine

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid required for bile formation.

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Threonine (Urine)

Optimal range:   17 - 135 micromol/g creatinine

Threonine is an essential amino acid, i.e., it is vital for your health, but it cannot be synthesized by your body and therefore has to be obtained from a diet.

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Tryptophan (Urine)

Optimal range:   5 - 53 micromol/g creatinine

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid required for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

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Tyrosine (Urine)

Optimal range:   11 - 135 micromol/g creatinine

Tyrosin is the non-essential amino acid precursor for dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. Tyrosine hydroxylase converts tyrosine into the dopamine precursor L-DOPA; BH4, Vitamin D and iron are cofactors for that enzymatic activity.

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Urea (Urine)

Optimal range:   168 - 465 mmol/g creatinine

Urea is the principal nitrogenous waste product of metabolism and is generated from protein breakdown.

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Valine (Urine)

Optimal range:   7 - 49 micromol/g creatinine

Valine, together with Isoleucine and Leucine are essential amino acids and are collectively referred to as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs).

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Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Markers (RBCs)

The Essential & Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis (EMFA) assesses the critical balance between essential Omega-6/Omega-3 fatty acids, as well as additional key fatty acids important in metabolism and cellular function. Fatty acid imbalances can be a causative factor in a variety of chronic health conditions. The Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis can indicate the need for fatty acid supplementation and/or dietary modification.


% Omega 3s

Optimal range:   3.8 - 20 %

Essential fatty acids are classified into fat "families": omega 3 fats and omega 6 fats.

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% Omega 6s

Optimal range:   30.5 - 39.7 %

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% Omega 9s

Optimal range:   13.3 - 16.6 %

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% Saturated Fats

Optimal range:   39.8 - 43.6 %

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8-OHdG (urine)

Optimal range:   0 - 15 mcg/g Creat.

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a-Linolenic

Optimal range:   0.09 - 1 wt %

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is plant-based essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained through the diet.

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AA / EPA

Optimal range:   12 - 125 Ratio

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Arachidic

Optimal range:   0.22 - 0.35 wt %

Arachidic acid (also called eicosanoic acid) is a long-chain saturated fatty acid. It is the elongation product of stearic acid and can be utilized as an energy source to build membranes.

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Arachidonic

Optimal range:   15 - 21 wt %

Arachidonic acid is an inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Our bodies produce this nutrient, and its excess may lead to inflammatory diseases and mood disorders.

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Arsenic (whole blood)

Optimal range:   0 - 13.7 mcg/L

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Behenic

Optimal range:   0.92 - 1.68 wt %

Behenic acid is a saturated fatty acids, in particular it is part of the group of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs).

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Cadmium (whole blood)

Optimal range:   0 - 1.22 mcg/L

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Coenzyme Q10, Ubiquinone (serum)

Optimal range:   0.43 - 1.49 mcg/mL

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Copper (plasma)

Optimal range:   75.3 - 192 mcg/dL

Copper is part of enzymes, which are proteins that help biochemical reactions occur in every cell. Copper is involved in the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron. The symptoms of a copper deficiency are similar to iron deficiency anemia. The liver makes a special protein, ceruloplasm, to transport copper and help convert iron to a form that can be used by other tissues.

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Dihomo-g-linolenic

Optimal range:   1.19 - 10 wt %

Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA) is the elongation product of Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).

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Docosahexaenoic

Optimal range:   2.1 - 10 wt %

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the omega-3 fatty acids.

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Docosapentaenoic

Optimal range:   1.14 - 3 wt %

Docosapentaenoic acid, or DPA, is a lesser known member of the omega-3 family.

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Docosatetraenoic

Optimal range:   1.5 - 4.2 wt %

Docosatetraenoic acid is also known as Adrenic acid / Adrenate.

Docosatetraenoic acid is a member of the class of compounds known as very long-chain fatty acids.

Fatty acids belong to one of three types or families: saturatedmonounsaturated and polyunsaturated. These names describe the structure of the fatty acid in terms of whether it is fully loaded with hydrogen.

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Eicosadienoic

Optimal range:   0 - 0.26 wt %

Eicosadienoic acid is the elongation product of Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and the direct precursor of Dihomogamma Linolenic (DGLA).

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Eicosapentaenoic

Optimal range:   0.16 - 5 wt %

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) is a Polyunsaturated Omega-3 Fatty Acid and is involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and prevention of blood clots.

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Elaidic

Optimal range:   0 - 0.59 wt %

Elaidic acid is the most commonly found trans fatty acid found in cell membranes.

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g-Linolenic

Optimal range:   0.03 - 0.13 wt %

Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) is the precursor of both Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA), an anti-inflammatory fatty acid, and Arachidonic Acid (AA), a pro-inflammatory fatty acid. It can be produced in human tissues by action of desaturase enzymes on LA.

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Glutathione (whole blood)

Optimal range:   669 - 5000 micromol/L

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Lead (whole blood)

Optimal range:   0 - 2.81 mcg/dL

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Lignoceric

Optimal range:   2.1 - 3.8 wt %

Lignoceric Acid is a saturated fatty acids, in particular it is part of the group of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs).

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Linoleic

Optimal range:   10.5 - 16.9 wt %

Linoleic acid is by far the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in most human tissues. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid, and low levels indicate dietary insufficiency.

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Linoleic / DGLA

Optimal range:   6 - 12.3 Ratio

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Lipid Peroxides (urine)

Optimal range:   0 - 10 micromol/g Creat.

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Magnesium (RBC)

Optimal range:   30.1 - 56.5 mcg/g

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Manganese (whole blood)

Optimal range:   3 - 16.5 mcg/L

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Margaric

Optimal range:   0.22 - 0.37 wt %

Margaric acid or Heptadecanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Mercury (whole blood)

Optimal range:   0 - 4.35 mcg/L

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Nervonic

Optimal range:   2.1 - 3.5 wt %

Nervonic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. Nervonic acid has the longest carbon chain of all monounsaturated fatty acids. It is found in highest concentrations in nerve membranes, particularly in myelin sheaths, which are sleeves of fatty tissue that protect your nerve cells.

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Oleic

Optimal range:   10 - 13 wt %

Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid in human cells.

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Omega 3 Index

Optimal range:   4 - 16 index

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Omega 6s / Omega 3s

Optimal range:   3.4 - 10.7 Ratio

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Palmitic

Optimal range:   18 - 23 wt %

Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid.

Palmitic and stearic acids are significant markers for high consumption of saturated fats.

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Palmitoleic

Optimal range:   0 - 0.64 wt %

Palmitoleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. Palmitoleic acid is the desaturation product of palmitic acid. Since palmitic acid is predominant in human tissues where desaturase enzyme activity is present, one might expect relatively high levels of palmitoleic acid.

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Pentadecanoic

Optimal range:   0.07 - 0.15 wt %

Pentadecanoic acid is an odd numbered fatty acid with a 15-carbon backbone (15:0) and widely considered as one biomarker to assess dairy consumption/intake. It is not normally synthesized by humans, but is found in trace amounts in dairy products (milk fat) and ruminant meat fat.

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Potassium (RBC)

Optimal range:   2220 - 3626 mcg/g

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Selenium (whole blood)

Optimal range:   109 - 330 mcg/L

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Stearic

Optimal range:   14 - 17 µmol/L

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is two carbon atoms longer than palmitic acid.

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Tin (whole blood)

Optimal range:   0 - 0.39 mcg/L

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Tricosanoic

Optimal range:   0.12 - 0.18 wt %

Tricosanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Vaccenic

Optimal range:   0 - 1.13 wt %

Vaccenic acid is a naturally occuring trans-fatty acid. Vaccenic acid is called this way as it is found in cow’s milk. The latin word vacca means cow.

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Zinc (plasma)

Optimal range:   64.3 - 159.4 mcg/dL

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