Comprehensive Stool Analysis / Parasitology (The Great Plains Laboratory)

The Comprehensive Stool Analysis detects the presence of pathogenic microorganisms such as yeast, parasites, and bacteria that contribute to chronic illness and neurological dysfunction. It provides helpful information about prescription and natural products effective against specific strains detected in the sample. The test also evaluates beneficial bacteria levels, intestinal immune function, overall intestinal health, and inflammation markers.

Many chronic disorders come from digestive problems and inadequate nutrient absorption. Proper gastrointestinal function is needed to eliminate toxic substances, pathogenic microbes, and undigested food particles from the body to prevent health problems. Nutrients require a specific internal environment to be properly digested and transported throughout the body.

Abnormal intestinal microorganisms in the GI tract are widely known to cause disease. Research shows a relationship between the GI tract and the neurological, hepatic, and immune systems. For example, excessive yeast produces toxic substances that can pass through the blood-brain barrier and alter neurological functioning causing “brain fog,” behavior problems, and learning difficulties.

Acetate

Optimal range: 50 - 72 %

Acetate is the most abundant SCFA in the colon and makes up more than half of the total SCFA detected in feces. These beneficial SCFA have anti-inflammatory properties, provide energy to nourish the colonic epithelial cells and intestinal microbiota, and exert numerous positive effects on gut homeostasis.

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Butyrate

Optimal range: 11 - 32 %

N-Butyrate is one of the short-chain fatty acids produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in the colon. It becomes a food supply capable of providing up to 30% of the energy needed by colon cells. N-butyrate improves colon health.

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Butyrate (mg/ml)

Optimal range: 0.8 - 4 mg/ml

This short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) is produced as a result of the fermentation of dietary fiber, particularly gums and pectins, by certain bacteria that inhabit the intestines (particularly probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifodobacteria species).

An n-butyrate level within the reference range is first and foremost then, an indicator that such health promoting bacteria are present in sufficient amounts.

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Calprotectin

Optimal range: 0 - 50 µg/g

Calprotectin is a protein that binds to both calcium and zinc. Fecal calprotectin levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation, thus it is useful for distinguishing between inflammatory and non-inflammatory diarrhea.

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Elastase

Optimal range: 200 - 1000 µg/mL

Pancreatic elastase is an enzyme that digests protein. It’s only produced by the pancreas and when it is seen in the stool, it’s an excellent biomarker of how well the pancreas is performing.

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Lactoferrin

Optimal range: 0 - 7.3 µg/mL

Lactoferrin and Calprotectin are reliable markers for differentiating organic inflammation (IBD) from function symptoms (IBS) and for management of IBD. Monitoring levels of fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin can play an essential role in determining the effectiveness of therapy, are good predictors of IBD remission, and can indicate a low risk of relapse.

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Lysozyme

Optimal range: 0 - 500 ng/mL

Lysozyme is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of specific glycosidic bonds in mucopolysaccharides that constitute the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. Lysozyme is an antibacterial defense present in the G.I. tract and is secreted by granulocytes, macrophages, Paneth cells, and Brunner's Glands as well as normal colonic crypt cells. The main source for fecal lysozyme is the intestinal granulocytes.

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pH (stool)

Optimal range: 5.8 - 7 pH

Fecal pH is largely dependent on the fermentation of fiber by the beneficial flora of the gut.

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Propionate

Optimal range: 11 - 25 %

Propionate is among the most common short-chain fatty acids produced in the human gut in response to indigestible carbohydrates (fiber) in the diet.

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Secretory IgA

Optimal range: 30 - 275 mg/dL

As the most abundant class of antibody found in the human intestinal lumen, secretory IgA (sIgA) is recognized as a first line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from enteric pathogens and toxins. It is used to assess gastrointestinal barrier function.

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Total SCFA's

Optimal range: 5 - 16 mg/ml

SCFAs are produced from the fermentation of fibre and protein by certain components of the gut microflora. The SCFAs produced from the fermentation of fibre by probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli have a range of beneficial effects from serving as a fuel for cells lining the intestine (and the rest of the body) to creating an acidic intestinal environment that is unfavourable to potential pathogens.

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Valerate

Optimal range: 0.8 - 5 %

Valerate is a Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA). It is derived from bacterial fermentation of protein in the distal colon.

SCFAs are the end product of the bacterial fermentation process of dietary fiber by beneficial flora in the gut and play an important role in the health of the GI as well as protecting against intestinal dysbiosis.

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