GI Effects Stool Profile

Stool

Performed by: Genova Diagnostics

Biomarkers included in this panel:

Acetate

Acetate is the most abundant SCFA in the colon and makes up more than half of the total SCFA detected in feces. These beneficial SCFA have anti-inflammatory properties, provide energy to nourish the colonic epithelial cells and intestinal microbiota,

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Akkermansia muciniphila

Akkermansia muciniphila may represent 3–5% of the microbial composition in the healthy human intestinal tract, and have a crucial role in the regulation of the gut barrier and other homeostatic and metabolic functions.

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alpha haemolytic Streptococcus

Human microflora is influenced by environmental factors and the competitive ecosystem of the organisms in the GI tract. Pathogenic significance should be based upon clinical symptoms. Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus refers to a group of gram-positiv

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Anaerotruncus colihominis

Anaerotruncus colihomonis (pronounced “an-AERO-trunk-us colly-HOM-in-iss”) is a newly described bacterial genus and species isolated from the stool specimens of children. Its clinical significance, however, is unknown. The species is f

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Anaerotruncus colihominis/massiliensis

The genus Anaerotruncus includes species Anaerotruncus colihominis and Anaerotruncus massiliensis. A. colihominis hominis is a butyrate and acetate producer. Abundance is associated with higher bacterial gene richness in the gut a. A. c

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Ancylostoma/Necator (Hookworm)

Ascaris lumbricoides

Bacteroides uniformis

Bacteroides uniformis is a fiber-degrading bacteria. It colonizes the gut in early infancy and is promoted by breast feeding. Thought to enhance the gut barrier through the production of butyrate and GABA. Also produces beta glucuronidase, degrade

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Bacteroides vulgatus

Bacteroides vulgatus is among the most commonly isolated microbes from the human gastrointestinal tract, and it has been found to constitute part of the core gut microbiota in healthy humans.

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Bacteroides-Prevotella group

The predominant genera in the human colonic microbiota are Bacteroides and Prevotella, which belong to the major phyla Bacteroidetes.

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Barnesiella spp.

Barnesiella ssp. is a small group of two species of bacteria that are usually only found at reasonably low levels in the gut.

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Beta-glucuronidase

Beta-glucuronidase is an enzyme which is produced by colonocytes and by some intestinal bacteria (particularly E. coli, but also Ruminococcus, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Clostridium). Beta-glucuronidase break

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Bifidobacterium longum

Bifidobacterium longum is a specific species of microscopic non-pathogenic bacteria found naturally in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans as well as in most other animals.

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Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum

Bifidobacterium longum is comprised of multiple subspecies that beneficially modulate the immune system. It is found in probiotic supplements and fermented foods. Lactate producer; acetate producer.  Utilizes diet-derived carbohydrates. 

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Bifidobacterium spp.

A common component of the microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract and in particular are amongst the first bacterial colonizers of the intestine.

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Blastocystis spp.

What is Blastocystis spp.? Blastocystis is a common microscopic organism that inhabits the intestine and is found throughout the world. A full understanding of the biology of Blastocystis and its relationship to other organisms

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Butyrivibrio crossotus

‘Butyrivibrio‘ is a genus of bacteria in Class Clostridia. Butyrivibrio crossotus are often found in the human gut and inversely associated with obesity.

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Calprotectin

Calprotectin is a protein that binds to both calcium and zinc. Fecal calprotectin levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation, thus it is useful for distinguishing between inflammatory and non-inflammatory diarrhea.

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Candida albicans/dubliniensis

Candida spp. have commonly been identified as part of the healthy human mycobiome. Host defense interruption, or immunocompromise, is required for them to act as pathogens. Candida albicans is the most prevalent among the Candida spp. Fungi, in

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Capillaria philippinensis

Cholesterol

Citrobacter species

- Citrobacter are Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, facultatively anerobic bacilli. - Citrobacter fall within the Enterobacteriaceae family. - Citrobacter is considered a commensal bacteria; however, depending on the clinical picture, it is also

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Clostridium spp.

Clostridium spp. is a genus belonging to the phylum Firmicutes. While interpreting the literature, careful attention should be paid to the phylogenetic classification of this group due to minor spelling differences between the taxonomic levels. Beyon

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Collinsella aerofaciens

- Possibly proinflammatory, may play a role in altering intestinal barrier integrity. - Produces H2, ethanol, short-chain fatty acids including butyrate, and lactate and is a major utilizer of lactose. - Contains bile salt hydrolases to metabol

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Coprococcus eutactus

The abundance of Coprococcus eutactus is associated with greater bacterial gene richness in the gut. Coprococcus is a genus of anaerobic cocci which are all part of the human faecal flora. Coprococcus includes those gram-positi

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Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis

Cryptosporidiosis is a disease that causes watery diarrhea. Crypto is caused by a microscopic parasite called Cryptosporidium. Anyone can get sick with Crypto, but people with weakened immune systems are more likely to have severe and poten

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Cyclospora cayetanensis

Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian (= intestinal) parasite that causes a diarrheal disease known as cyclosporiasis in humans and possibly in other primates. It belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa and the genus Cyclospora. The species name,

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Desulfovibrio piger

Desulfovibrio piger is part of a group called Sulfate-reducing bacteria (=SRB). SRBs are normal inhabitants of the intestine in humans. This group of bacteria can “breathe” sulfate rather than oxygen. SRBs have been suspect

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Dientamoeba fragilis

Dientamoeba fragilis is a parasite that lives in the large intestine of people. This protozoan parasite produces trophozoites; cysts have not been identified. The intestinal infection may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic.

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Entamoeba histolytica

Epidemiology: → Fecal contamination of ingested foods or water → Pets may be a source of exposure → Sexual contact may be a source of exposure Clinical Implications: → Symptoms include diarrhea,

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Enterobacter cloacae

E. cloaceae is a Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, enteric bacilli belonging to the Enterobacteriaceaefamily. Enterobacteriaceae are not considered primary human pathogens, but are capable of causing opportunistic infections. Enterobacter have a ub

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Enterobius vermicularis

Enterococcus faecalis

Eosinophil Protein X

Eosinophil Protein X is a water-soluble protein that is found in eosinophils. Fecal Eosinophil Protein X levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation where high concentrations of eosinophils may be found.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that normally live in the intestines of people and animals.

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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most important bacteria in the human gut flora and makes up to 5-10% of the total number of bacteria detected in stool samples from healthy humans. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has a crucial role in maintain

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Fecal Color

Fecal color analysis on a GI Effects panel is a significant component in the evaluation of gastrointestinal health. The color of stool can provide meaningful insights into digestive processes and potential issues within the gastrointestinal tract. St

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Fecal Consistency

Fecal consistency analysis on a GI Effects panel is a crucial aspect of assessing an individual's gastrointestinal health. The appearance and texture of stool can provide valuable insights into the functioning of the digestive system and may indi

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Fecal Fat, Total

When you eat fat, a small amount of the fat passes out the body through the colon. Some of the different types of fats in the feces include phospholipids, sterols, sphingolipids, cholesteryl esters, glycolipids, soaps and glycerides.   A feca

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Fecal Occult Blood

The fecal occult blood test (=FOBT) looks for blood in your feces. “Occult” (=hidden) means that the blood amount is so small that it cannot be seen with the naked eye. The bleeding does not change the color of the stool or result in visi

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Fecal secretory IgA

Fecal Secretory IgA is a marker of gut secretory immunity and barrier function.

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Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B Ratio)

The F/B ratio provides an estimate of the predominance of two major phyla of commensal organisms, which has been associated with a number of metabolic disorders.

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Fusobacterium spp.

Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn&rsquo

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Giardia

Giardia infection (giardiasis) is one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States.

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HpSA - H. pylori

Stool

Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that causes peptic ulcer disease and plays a role in the development of gastric cancer. Direct stool testing of the antigen (HpSA) is highly accurate and is appropriate for diagnosis and follow-up of infection.

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Klebsiella oxytoca

Klebsiella are non-motile, Gramnegative rods that belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Klebsiella bacteria are considered commensal but act as opportunistic bacteria in the GI tract. Klebsiellais a leading cause of hospital-acquired infecti

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Klebsiella species

Klebsiella are non-motile, Gramnegative rods that belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Klebsiella bacteria are considered commensal but act as opportunistic bacteria in the GI tract. Klebsiellais a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections.

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Lactobacillus spp.

Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus. Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”

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Long-Chain Fatty Acids

Long chain fatty acids are a fecal fat. Fecal fats also include triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids. They are derived predominately from the dietary ingestion of fat, and provide important clues about digestion and absorption.

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Methanobrevibacter smithii

Methanobrevibacter smithii is highly prevalent in the human gut. Lower counts have been associated with obesity while higher amounts have been associated with anorexia.

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n-Butyrate %

N-Butyrate is one of the short-chain fatty acids produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in the colon. It becomes a food supply capable of providing up to 30% of the energy needed by colon cells. N-butyrate improves colon health.

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n-Butyrate Concentration

This short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) is produced as a result of the fermentation of dietary fiber, particularly gums and pectins, by certain bacteria that inhabit the intestines (particularly probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifodobacteria s

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Odoribacter spp.

The bacteria are found in the human gut where they are considered “commensal”, which means “eating from the same dish”. They exist in the human body without either helping or hindering us.

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Oxalobacter formigenes

Oxalobacter formigenes is a bacterium that colonizes the colon of a substantial proportion of the normal population and metabolizes dietary and endogenous oxalate and hence reducing the incidence of kidney stones.

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Pancreatic Elastase 1

Pancreatic elastase is an enzyme that digests protein. It’s only produced by the pancreas and when it is seen in the stool, it’s an excellent biomarker of how well the pancreas is performing.

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Phocaeicola vulgatus

Generally considered a beneficial gut commensal, although is capable of attaching to and invading colonic epithelial cells and inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines. - Produces beta-glucuronidase, succinate, lactate, acetate, formate, and propionate

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Phospholipids

The enzyme LCAT transesterifies cholesterol in the blood with fats from lecithin. When this happens as it should, HDL, VLDL and LDL lipoprotein particles are remodeled and cholesterol is moved out of the blood. The Phospholipid test looks for LCAT de

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Prevotella spp.

Prevotella spp. is known for its ability to degrade complex plant polysaccharides (carbohydrates) and fiber.

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Products of Protein Breakdown (Total)

Products of Protein Breakdown, which includes isovalerate, valerate and isobutyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation of proteinaceous material (polypeptides and amino acids) in the distal colon. Products of Protein Breakdown (Total) is a set

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Propionate

Propionate is among the most common short-chain fatty acids produced in the human gut in response to indigestible carbohydrates (fiber) in the diet.

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Proteus mirabilis

Pseudoflavonifractor spp.

Pseudoflavonifractor spp. has been positively associated with weight loss.

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Roseburia spp.

Roseburia is a genus (=group) of 5 species of bacteria named in the 1980s after American microbiologist Theodor Rosebury. Bacteria in this genus are notable for breaking down sugar, and producing a short-chain fatty acid called butyrate which is impo

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Ruminococcus bromii

Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species, playing a large role in the digestion of resistant starches. It has been proposed that the primary role played by R. bromii is to release energy from resistant starch to other members of the microbial commun

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Ruminococcus spp.

The Ruminococcus bacteria in our gut microbiomes play a major role in helping us digest resistant starches - the complex carbohydrates found in high fiber foods such as lentils, beans, and unprocessed whole grains.

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Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA), Total

SCFAs are produced from the fermentation of fibre and protein by certain components of the gut microflora. The SCFAs produced from the fermentation of fibre by probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli have a range of beneficial effe

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Triglycerides

Fecal fats include triglycerides, long-chain fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids, and are derived primarily from the dietary ingestion of fat. Most of the fats in our diet are in the form of triglycerides. These are broken down by an

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Veillonella spp.

Veillonella are anaerobic, gram-negative cocci, part of the normal flora of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vaginal tract.

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Yersinia enterocolitica

Y. enterocolitica is a gram-negative, bacillus-shaped bacterium. Y. entrocolitica can be short-lived as an infection. However, even if the infection is treated successfully, due to the action of various bacterial toxins and mimicry with human tissue,

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Zonulin Family Peptide

Zonulin is a protein modulator of intestinal tight junctions and is used to assess intestinal permeability. It can be used for assessing impaired gut barrier function for several autoimmune and metabolic conditions including celiac disease, type 1 di

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