GI Effects Stool Profile | Genova Diagnostics

The GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile can reveal important information about the root cause of many common gastrointestinal symptoms such as gas, bloating, indigestion, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. This stool analysis utilizes biomarkers such as fecal calprotectin to differentiate between Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)..

In addition, Genova's GI Effects test can be used to evaluate patients with a clinical history that suggests a gastrointestinal infection or dysbiosis.

Gut microbes are codependent with one another and with their human host, and the health of one affects the other. A sizeable volume of research associates a dysbiotic, or imbalanced gut microbiome with multiple disease states both within and outside of the GI tract.2,3 The diverse metabolic activities of the microbiome ultimately impact the human host, and the activities of the human host ultimately affect the health of their microbiome.


Optimal range: 48.1 - 69.2 %

Acetate is the most abundant SCFA in the colon and makes up more than half of the total SCFA detected in feces. These beneficial SCFA have anti-inflammatory properties, provide energy to nourish the colonic epithelial cells and intestinal microbiota, and exert numerous positive effects on gut homeostasis.


Akkermansia muciniphila

Optimal range: 8500 - 100000000000 CFU/g stool

Akkermansia muciniphila may represent 3–5% of the microbial composition in the healthy human intestinal tract, and have a crucial role in the regulation of the gut barrier and other homeostatic and metabolic functions.


Anaerotruncus colihominis

Optimal range: 0 - 20000000 CFU/g stool

Anaerotruncus colihomonis (pronounced “an-AERO-trunk-us colly-HOM-in-iss”) is a newly described bacterial genus and species isolated from the stool specimens of children. Its clinical significance, however, is unknown.

The species is found only relatively infrequently in the human gut. It comes from the genus Anaerotruncus, which contains just this one species. The genus name comes from the Greek words “an” and “aero”, meaning respectively “without” and “air”, and the Latin word “truncus”, which means “stick”—making the overall name “a stick that lives without air”, since the cells of this bacterial genus are rod-like in shape and live in the absence of oxygen. The species name “colihominis” means “of the gut of man”.


Anaerotruncus colihominis/massiliensis

Optimal range: 0 - 20000000 CFU/g stool

The genus Anaerotruncus includes species Anaerotruncus colihominis and Anaerotruncus massiliensis.

A. colihominis hominis is a butyrate and acetate producer.

Abundance is associated with higher bacterial gene richness in the gut a.

A. colihominis is increased in healthy individuals and presumed to be anti-inflammatory.

There is an inverse correlation with high BMI and elevated serum triglycerides in older Amish adults.

There is an inverse relationship with A. colihominis abundance and cognitive function scores in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Anaerotruncus massiliensis is a newly identified strain similar to A. colihominis. They both ferment amino acids and carbohydrates and are mucin degraders.


Ascaris lumbricoides

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Bacteroides uniformis

Optimal range: 0 - 950000000 CFU/g stool

Bacteroides uniformis is a fiber-degrading bacteria. It colonizes the gut in early infancy and is promoted by breast feeding.

Thought to enhance the gut barrier through the production of butyrate and GABA. Also produces beta glucuronidase, degrades mucin, and produces folate.

Studied in preclinical trials as a potential probiotic for use in inflammatory and metabolic disorders.

B. uniformis was found to be decreased in obese patients as compared to healthy or lean groups. It was higher in healthy controls as compared to patients with ulcerative colitis.

Enriched in healthy individuals versus colorectal cancer patients.

Associated with degradation of the isoflavone genistein, which then becomes less bioavailable to the human.


Bacteroides vulgatus

Optimal range: 0 - 830000000 CFU/g stool

Bacteroides vulgatus is among the most commonly isolated microbes from the human gastrointestinal tract, and it has been found to constitute part of the core gut microbiota in healthy humans.


Bacteroides-Prevotella group

Optimal range: 3400000 - 1500000000 CFU/g stool

The predominant genera in the human colonic microbiota are Bacteroides and Prevotella, which belong to the major phyla Bacteroidetes.


Barnesiella spp.

Optimal range: 3000000 - 290000000 CFU/g stool

Barnesiella ssp. is a small group of two species of bacteria that are usually only found at reasonably low levels in the gut.



Optimal range: 368 - 6266 U/g

Beta-glucuronidase is an enzyme produced by certain unfriendly gut bacteria. A proper balance of beta-glucuronidase is essential for good health and disease prevention.


Bifidobacterium longum

Optimal range: 0 - 130000000 CFU/g stool

Bifidobacterium longum is a specific species of microscopic non-pathogenic bacteria found naturally in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans as well as in most other animals.


Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum

Optimal range: 0 - 130000000 CFU/g stool

Bifidobacterium longum is comprised of multiple subspecies that beneficially modulate the immune system. It is found in probiotic supplements and fermented foods. Lactate producer; acetate producer. 

Utilizes diet-derived carbohydrates. 


Bifidobacterium spp.

Optimal range: 460000 - 260000000 Units

A common component of the microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract and in particular are amongst the first bacterial colonizers of the intestine.


Blastocystis spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

What is Blastocystis spp.?

Blastocystis is a common microscopic organism that inhabits the intestine and is found throughout the world. A full understanding of the biology of Blastocystis and its relationship to other organisms is not clear, but is an active area of research. Infection with Blastocystis is called blastocystosis.

What are the symptoms of infection with Blastocystis?

Watery or loose stools, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anal itching, weight loss, constipation, and excess gas have all been reported in persons with Blastocystis infection. Many people have no symptoms at all. The organism can be found in both well and sick persons.

How long will I be infected?

Blastocystis can remain in the intestine for weeks, months, or years.


Butyrivibrio crossotus

Optimal range: 0 - 33000000 CFU/g stool

Butyrivibrio‘ is a genus of bacteria in Class Clostridia. Butyrivibrio crossotus are often found in the human gut and inversely associated with obesity.



Optimal range: 0 - 50 mcg/g

Calprotectin is a protein that binds to both calcium and zinc. Fecal calprotectin levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation, thus it is useful for distinguishing between inflammatory and non-inflammatory diarrhea.


Candida albicans/dubliniensis

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Candida spp. have commonly been identified as part of the healthy human mycobiome. Host defense interruption, or immunocompromise, is required for them to act as pathogens.

Candida albicans is the most prevalent among the Candida spp.

Fungi, including Candida, are ubiquitous in our environment and are part of natural foods and industrial processes, including antibiotic production, bread, cheese, alcoholic beverages, decomposing natural debris, fruits, and soil nutrients.

Candida is present in the gut of up to 70% of healthy adults, but certain factors, including diabetes, antibiotics, antacid, and steroid inhaleruse, promote overgrowth.



Optimal range: 0.4 - 4.8 mg/g

Citrobacter species

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

- Citrobacter are Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, facultatively anerobic bacilli.

- Citrobacter fall within the Enterobacteriaceae family.

- Citrobacter is considered a commensal bacteria; however, depending on the clinical picture, it is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen.

- Citrobacter species are found in water, soil, food, and commonly in the human intestinal tract.

- Citrobacter infections can also be nosocomial.

- Although considered a commensal, some Citrobacter isolates have virulent toxins, such as Shiga-like toxins, heat-stable toxins, and cholera B toxin B subunit homologs.

- Citrobacter is most often asymptomatic but can cause diarrhea.


Clostridium spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 15000000 CFU/g stool

Clostridium spp. is a genus belonging to the phylum Firmicutes. While interpreting the literature, careful attention should be paid to the phylogenetic classification of this group due to minor spelling differences between the taxonomic levels. Beyond the phylum level, it is broken down as follows: Class: Clostridia, Order: Clostridiales, Family: Clostridiaceae, and finally, Genus: Clostridium. 

The Clostridium genus contains more than 100 species, most of which are commensal, however it does include pathogens. The literature discusses Clostridial clusters, which may include other species belonging to Eubacterium, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Butyrivibrio, Faecalibacterium and other genera. These clusters exist due to historic issues with classification, where unclassified species would be moved into the Clostridium category.


Collinsella aerofaciens

Optimal range: 0 - 130000000 CFU/g stool

- Possibly proinflammatory, may play a role in altering intestinal barrier integrity.

- Produces H2, ethanol, short-chain fatty acids including butyrate, and lactate and is a major utilizer of lactose.

- Contains bile salt hydrolases to metabolize bile, and along with Bifidobacterium, can modify bile acids to modulate the virulence and pathogenicity of enteric pathogens. 

- Consumes oligosaccharides and simple sugars


Coprococcus eutactus

Optimal range: 0 - 120000000 CFU/g stool

The abundance of Coprococcus eutactus is associated with greater bacterial gene richness in the gut.

Coprococcus is a genus of anaerobic cocci which are all part of the human faecal flora. Coprococcus includes those gram-positive, anaerobic cocci that actively ferment carbohydrates, producing butyric and acetic acids with formic or propionic and/or lactic acids. Fermentable carbohydrates are either required or are highly stimulatory for growth and continued subculture. The genus is bio-chemically closely related to Ruminococcus.


Desulfovibrio piger

Optimal range: 0 - 54000000 CFU/g stool

Desulfovibrio piger is part of a group called Sulfate-reducing bacteria (=SRB). SRBs are normal inhabitants of the intestine in humans. This group of bacteria can “breathe” sulfate rather than oxygen. SRBs have been suspected to contribute to gastrointestinal disease due to the production of hydrogen sulfide, which can be considered toxic to the gut epithelium.


Dientamoeba fragilis

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Enterobacter cloacae

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

E. cloaceae is a Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, enteric bacilli belonging to the Enterobacteriaceaefamily. Enterobacteriaceae are not considered primary human pathogens, but are capable of causing opportunistic infections.

Enterobacter have a ubiquitous environmental distribution (trees, plants, crops, soil, water, and foods). They are also part of the normal flora of the GI tract. It can also be a common nosocomial infection.

Enterobacter’s ability to form biofilms and to secrete various cytotoxins, such as enterotoxins and hemolysins, contribute to its pathogenicity.

Most patients with an E. cloaceae infection are asymptomatic. However, when present, symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.


Eosinophil Protein X

Optimal range: 0 - 4.6 mcg/g

Eosinophil Protein X is a water-soluble protein that is found in eosinophils. Fecal Eosinophil Protein X levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation where high concentrations of eosinophils may be found.


Escherichia coli

Optimal range: 0 - 7500000 CFU/g stool

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that normally live in the intestines of people and animals.


Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

Optimal range: 1100000 - 1100000000 CFU/g stool

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most important bacteria in the human gut flora and makes up to 5-10% of the total number of bacteria detected in stool samples from healthy humans. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has a crucial role in maintaining gut physiology and host wellbeing.


Fecal Color

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Fecal Consistency

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Fecal Fat, Total

Optimal range: 3.2 - 38.6 mg/g

When you eat fat, a small amount of the fat passes out the body through the colon. Some of the different types of fats in the feces include phospholipids, sterols, sphingolipids, cholesteryl esters, glycolipids, soaps and glycerides.  

A fecal fat test helps your doctor identify pancreatic or intestinal disorders. It can indicate your body isn’t creating enough enzymes or there is malabsorption.


Fecal Occult Blood

Optimal range: 0 - 0.0001 Units

The fecal occult blood test (=FOBT) looks for blood in your feces. “Occult” (=hidden) means that the blood amount is so small that it cannot be seen with the naked eye. The bleeding does not change the color of the stool or result in visible bright red blood. Therefore, the blood is found only by testing the stool for blood in the laboratory.


Fecal secretory IgA

Optimal range: 0 - 680 mcg/g

Fecal Secretory IgA is a marker of gut secretory immunity and barrier function.


Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B Ratio)

Optimal range: 12 - 620 Ratio

The F/B ratio provides an estimate of the predominance of two major phyla of commensal organisms, which has been associated with a number of metabolic disorders.


Fusobacterium spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 180000 CFU/g stool

Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).

Fusobacterium is very rarely found among the usual gut bugs, but it appears to flourish in colon cancer cells.



Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Klebsiella oxytoca

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Klebsiella are non-motile, Gramnegative rods that belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family.

Klebsiella bacteria are considered commensal but act as opportunistic bacteria in the GI tract.

Klebsiellais a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections.

Klebsiella is part of the normal intestinal flora.


Klebsiella species

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Klebsiella are non-motile, Gramnegative rods that belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Klebsiella bacteria are considered commensal but act as opportunistic bacteria in the GI tract. Klebsiellais a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections.

Klebsiella is part of the normal intestinal flora. The environment likely acts as a reservoir for human acquisition, either as colonization or infection. It is frequently found in water, sewage, soil, and plant surfaces.


Lactobacillus spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 1600000 Units

Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus.

Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”, and in fact may contribute to good health, often being included in probiotic supplements. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a byproduct of glucose metabolism.


Long-Chain Fatty Acids

Optimal range: 1.2 - 29.1 mg/g

Long chain fatty acids are a fecal fat. Fecal fats also include triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids. They are derived predominately from the dietary ingestion of fat, and provide important clues about digestion and absorption.


Methanobrevibacter smithii

Optimal range: 0 - 20000000 CFU/g stool

Methanobrevibacter smithii is highly prevalent in the human gut. Lower counts have been associated with obesity while higher amounts have been associated with anorexia.


n-Butyrate %

Optimal range: 11.8 - 33.3 %

N-Butyrate is one of the short-chain fatty acids produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in the colon. It becomes a food supply capable of providing up to 30% of the energy needed by colon cells. N-butyrate improves colon health.


n-Butyrate Concentration

Optimal range: 3.6 - 100 micromol/g

This short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) is produced as a result of the fermentation of dietary fiber, particularly gums and pectins, by certain bacteria that inhabit the intestines (particularly probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifodobacteria species).

An n-butyrate level within the reference range is first and foremost then, an indicator that such health promoting bacteria are present in sufficient amounts.


Odoribacter spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 95000000 CFU/g stool

The bacteria are found in the human gut where they are considered “commensal”, which means “eating from the same dish”. They exist in the human body without either helping or hindering us.


Oxalobacter formigenes

Optimal range: 0 - 11000000 CFU/g stool

Oxalobacter formigenes is a bacterium that colonizes the colon of a substantial proportion of the normal population and metabolizes dietary and endogenous oxalate and hence reducing the incidence of kidney stones.


Pancreatic Elastase 1

Optimal range: 200 - 1000 mcg/g

Pancreatic elastase is an enzyme that digests protein. It’s only produced by the pancreas and when it is seen in the stool, it’s an excellent biomarker of how well the pancreas is performing.


Phocaeicola vulgatus

Optimal range: 0 - 830000000 CFU/g stool

Generally considered a beneficial gut commensal, although is capable of attaching to and invading colonic epithelial cells and inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines.

- Produces beta-glucuronidase, succinate, lactate, acetate, formate, and propionate.

- Associated with insulin resistance.

- Contains bile salt hydrolases to metabolize bile.

- Formerly named Bacteroides vulgatus.



Optimal range: 0.2 - 6.9 mg/g

The enzyme LCAT transesterifies cholesterol in the blood with fats from lecithin. When this happens as it should, HDL, VLDL and LDL lipoprotein particles are remodeled and cholesterol is moved out of the blood. The Phospholipid test looks for LCAT deficiency. 


Prevotella spp.

Optimal range: 66000000 - 3800000000 CFU/g stool

Prevotella spp. is known for its ability to degrade complex plant polysaccharides (carbohydrates) and fiber.


Products of Protein Breakdown (Total)

Optimal range: 1.8 - 9.9 micromol/g

Products of Protein Breakdown, which includes isovalerate, valerate and isobutyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation of proteinaceous material (polypeptides and amino acids) in the distal colon.

Products of Protein Breakdown (Total) is a set of markers of undigested protein reaching the colon.



Optimal range: 0 - 29.3 %

Propionate is among the most common short-chain fatty acids produced in the human gut in response to indigestible carbohydrates (fiber) in the diet.


Proteus mirabilis

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Pseudoflavonifractor spp.

Optimal range: 13000 - 29000000 CFU/g stool

Pseudoflavonifractor spp. has been positively associated with weight loss.


Roseburia spp.

Optimal range: 360000 - 460000000 CFU/g stool

Roseburia is a genus (=group) of 5 species of bacteria named in the 1980s after American microbiologist Theodor Rosebury. Bacteria in this genus are notable for breaking down sugar, and producing a short-chain fatty acid called butyrate which is important as a food for the cells lining the colon.


Ruminococcus bromii

Optimal range: 0 - 1500000000 CFU/g stool

Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species, playing a large role in the digestion of resistant starches. It has been proposed that the primary role played by R. bromii is to release energy from resistant starch to other members of the microbial community, giving it an important role for maintaining microbial community balance. R. gnavus can efficiently cross-feed on starch degradation products released by R. bromii, even though it is normally a mucin degrading bacteria.


Ruminococcus spp.

Optimal range: 95000000 - 1600000000 CFU/g stool

The Ruminococcus bacteria in our gut microbiomes play a major role in helping us digest resistant starches - the complex carbohydrates found in high fiber foods such as lentils, beans, and unprocessed whole grains.


Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA), Total

Optimal range: 23.3 - 200 micromol/g

SCFAs are produced from the fermentation of fibre and protein by certain components of the gut microflora. The SCFAs produced from the fermentation of fibre by probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli have a range of beneficial effects from serving as a fuel for cells lining the intestine (and the rest of the body) to creating an acidic intestinal environment that is unfavourable to potential pathogens.



Optimal range: 0.3 - 2.8 mg/g

Fecal fats include triglycerides, long-chain fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids, and are derived primarily from the dietary ingestion of fat.

Most of the fats in our diet are in the form of triglycerides. These are broken down by an efficient digestive system into smaller fragments that can then be absorbed from the small intestine.


Veillonella spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 4100000 CFU/g stool

Veillonella are anaerobic, gram-negative cocci, part of the normal flora of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vaginal tract.


Zonulin Family Peptide

Optimal range: 22.3 - 161.1 ng/mL

Zonulin is a protein modulator of intestinal tight junctions and is used to assess intestinal permeability. It can be used for assessing impaired gut barrier function for several autoimmune and metabolic conditions including celiac disease, type 1 diabetes and insulin resistance.