Your cardiovascular system is made up of your heart and blood vessels, and is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. A healthy cardiovascular system ensures a good balance of nutrients and optimal brain and body function.
Cardiovascular disease refers to several types of conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels, also known as the circulatory system. Some common cardiovascular diseases and conditions include:
- heart disease
- hypertension (i.e. high blood pressure)
Heart disease and stroke are two of the leading causes of death in the United States, major causes of disability and the principal causes of cardiovascular disease death.
Who’s at Risk?
Although cardiovascular disease affects people of all ages, races and backgrounds, there are certain chronic conditions and lifestyle factors that put people at a higher risk. For example: high blood pressure, diabetes and high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol), also known as “bad cholesterol,” are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition, unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use, a poor diet, physical inactivity, obesity and alcohol abuse can contribute to high blood pressure, heart disease and other vascular conditions. In some cases, people with a family history of cardiovascular disease share common environments and risk factors that increase their likelihood of having a heart attack or stroke. Combine those genetic factors with unhealthy lifestyle choices, and the risk of cardiovascular disease increases even more.
Can It Be Prevented?
There are several things people can do to prevent cardiovascular disease – and it starts with making healthy choices and managing medical conditions. This includes:
- Eating a healthy diet. Focus on foods low in sodium, added sugar, and saturated fats and trans fats.
- Maintaining a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese can increase the risk of heart disease.
- Regular Exercise. Physical activity helps maintain a healthy weight and lowers cholesterol and blood pressure.
- Not smoking. Cigarette smoking has a great impact on the risk for heart disease and stroke.
- Limiting Alcohol Use. Drinking too much alcohol can cause high blood pressure.
It is also important for individuals with existing medical conditions that affect cardiovascular health to manage and treat these conditions with the help of their doctor, nurse or other health care professional. Monitoring cholesterol levels, blood pressure and managing conditions such as diabetes can help lower the risk of heart disease and stroke.
- Cardiovascular health refers to the health of the heart and blood vessels, also known as the circulatory system
- Hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease and stroke are common cardiovascular conditions and diseases
- People of all ages and backgrounds are at risk for poor cardiovascular health
- Prevention of cardiovascular disease is possible and dependent on the control of various risk factors, including unhealthy lifestyle habits and preexisting medical conditions
- Genetic factors can also contribute to poor cardiovascular health
- It is important to have an open dialogue with health care providers about the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Atherogenic indexOptimal range: 0 - 5 ×100%
HDL-COptimal range: 39 - 80 mg/dL
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or “good” cholesterol is known to decrease the risk of heart attack and stroke by removing “bad” cholesterol from the blood. It is typically assessed through a lipid profile, which measures “good” cholesterol, “bad” cholesterol, and total cholesterol. A healthcare professional may order a lipid profile when an individual is at an increased risk for heart disease or routinely in healthy adults to monitor cardiovascular health.
HDL-C transports cholesterol from the peripheral tissues and vessel walls to the liver for processing and metabolism into bile salts. Unlike LDL-C, HDL-C is often referred to as “good cholesterol” — it is thought that the process of bringing cholesterol from the peripheral tissue to the liver protects against atherosclerosis.
- Decreased HDL-C levels are considered atherogenic.
- Increased HDL-C levels are considered to protect against atherosclerosis.LEARN MORE
hsCRPOptimal range: 0 - 1 mg/L
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a general indicator of inflammation in the body. The inflammation can be acute and caused by infection or injury. Inflammation can also be chronic, which typically points toward more serious diseases. High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) tests are commonly ordered to determine your risk of cardiovascular disease.LEARN MORE
IDL CholesterolOptimal range: 0 - 20 mg/dL
IDL Cholesterol is a plasma lipoprotein. Cholesterol and triglycerides are insoluble in water and therefore these lipids must be transported in association with proteins. Lipoproteins are complex particles with a central core containing cholesterol esters and triglycerides surrounded by free cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins, which facilitate lipoprotein formation and function.LEARN MORE
LDL-COptimal range: 0 - 99.1 mg/dL
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or “bad” cholesterol, is known to increase risk of heart attack and stroke when levels become elevated in the blood. LDL-C is measured as a part of a lipid profile, which is used to determine your risk for developing cardiovascular disease. LDL-C can usually be controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes.LEARN MORE
LDL/HDL Cholesterol RatioOptimal range: 0.5 - 3 Ratio
LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is the ratio of two types of lipids in the blood. LDL stands for low density lipoprotein or “bad cholesterol” and HDL stands for high density lipoprotein or “good cholesterol.”LEARN MORE
Non-HDL CholesterolOptimal range: 0 - 130 mg/dL
Your non-HDL cholesterol result refers to your total cholesterol value minus your HDL cholesterol. Your lipid panel results normally include four numbers:
- low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol;
- high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol;
- triglycerides; and
- total cholesterol.
OxLDLOptimal range: 0 - 60 U/L
Oxidized LDL is LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) that has been modified by oxidation. Oxidized LDL triggers inflammation leading to the formation of plaque in the arteries, also known as atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL may also play a role in increasing the amount of triglycerides the body produces, as well as increasing the amount of fat deposited by the body. In turn, fat tissue can enhance the oxidation of LDL, creating a vicious cycle.LEARN MORE
PLACOptimal range: 0 - 224 nmol/min/mL
The PLAC test is used to determine Lp-PLA2 in serum or plasma.
Lp-PLA2 stands for Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2.
The test is used to determine your cardiovascular risk disease, myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke associated with atherosclerosis. In recent years, a number of studies have been published pointing to Lp-PLA2 as a marker for determining cardiovascular risk.
Lp-PLA2 activity is to be used in conjunction with clinical evaluation and a risk assessment as an aid in predicting risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in people with no prior history of cardiovascular events.LEARN MORE
Total CholesterolOptimal range: 100 - 199 mg/dL
Your total cholesterol score is calculated using the following equation: HDL + LDL + 20 percent of your triglyceride level.
With HDL cholesterol, higher levels are better. Low HDL cholesterol puts you at a higher risk for heart disease. With LDL cholesterol, lower levels are better. High LDL cholesterol puts you at a higher risk for heart disease.LEARN MORE
Total Cholesterol/HDL RatioOptimal range: 0 - 5 Ratio
The total cholesterol /HDL ratio is the proportion of one type of cholesterol to all the other cholesterol in the blood. Total cholesterol includes three substances HDL, LDL, and VLDL.LEARN MORE
TriglyceridesOptimal range: 0 - 149 mg/dL
Triglycerides are a type of fat and the primary way our bodies store unused energy. While triglycerides are necessary for a healthy life, excessive amounts can put you at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Typically, a healthcare professional will look at triglyceride levels along with high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol to determine your risk of heart disease.LEARN MORE