A healthy result should fall into the range 0 - 3.1 mmol/mol creatinine.
Ketones, such as 3-hydroxybutyric and acetoacetic acids, are the end-products of rapid or excessive fatty acid breakdown.
3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a typical partial-degradation product of branched-chain amino acids (primarily valine) released from muscle for hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis. This acid is metabolized by 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. The enzyme functions in nervous tissues and muscles, enabling the use of circulating hydroxybutyrate as a fuel. In the liver mitochondrial matrix, the enzyme can also catalyze the reverse reaction, a step in ketogenesis. Like the other ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetone), levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate in blood and urine are raised in ketosis. In humans, 3-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA and can be used as an energy source by the brain when blood glucose is low.
Blood levels of 3-hydroxybutyric acid levels may be monitored in diabetic patients to look for diabetic ketoacidosis. Persistent mild hyperketonemia is a common finding in newborns. Ketone bodies serve as an indispensable source of energy for extrahepatic tissues, especially the brain and lung of developing mammals. Another important function of ketone bodies is to provide acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and complex lipids. During the early postnatal period, acetoacetate (AcAc) and beta-hydroxybutyrate are preferred over glucose as substrates for the synthesis of phospholipids and sphingolipids in accord with requirements for brain growth and myelination.
Common causes of elevated ketones, such as 3-hydroxybutyric and acetoacetic acids, are:
- prolonged fasting
- protein malnutrition
- high fat diet
- vitamin B12 defciency
- severe GI Candida overgrowth
- pulmonary infections.
Potential treatment option (please discuss with your doctor):
Regardless of cause, supplementation with L-carnitine or acetyl-L-carnitine (500-1000mg per day) may be beneficial.
$15 per month
$59 per year
$250 single payment
Health is not exactly rocket science. You just have to know what your body needs and doesn't need. Your medical tests contain that information. Upload them to our service and we’ll help you understand, organize, and act on them.Get Started
"I was really concerned about my lab results and my GP was not able to see me for another week. Through HealthMatters I was able to interpret my results instantly."
"I've been keeping all my lab results in a spreadsheet, covering approximately 20 years. The HealthMatters team helped me upload that info into the cloud. I can show this data to my family and doctors now easily."
"I had no idea what my lab results meant. Here I found all the biomarkers that I was looking for online. Finally, I have not only organized them all neatly in one place, but I am also grateful to be able to understand what they mean."