Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Markers (RBCs)

The Essential & Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis (EMFA) assesses the critical balance between essential Omega-6/Omega-3 fatty acids, as well as additional key fatty acids important in metabolism and cellular function. Fatty acid imbalances can be a causative factor in a variety of chronic health conditions. The Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis can indicate the need for fatty acid supplementation and/or dietary modification.

% Omega 3s

Optimal range: 3.8 - 20 %

Essential fatty acids are classified into fat "families": omega 3 fats and omega 6 fats.

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% Omega 6s

Optimal range: 30.5 - 39.7 %

% Omega 9s

Optimal range: 13.3 - 16.6 %

% Saturated Fats

Optimal range: 39.8 - 43.6 %

8-OHdG (urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 15 mcg/g Creat.

a-Linolenic

Optimal range: 0.09 - 1 wt %

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is plant-based essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained through the diet.

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AA / EPA

Optimal range: 12 - 125 Ratio

Arachidic

Optimal range: 0.22 - 0.35 wt %

Arachidic acid (also called eicosanoic acid) is a long-chain saturated fatty acid. It is the elongation product of stearic acid and can be utilized as an energy source to build membranes.

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Arachidonic

Optimal range: 15 - 21 wt %

Arachidonic acid is an inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Our bodies produce this nutrient, and its excess may lead to inflammatory diseases and mood disorders.

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Arsenic (whole blood)

Optimal range: 0 - 13.7 mcg/L

Behenic

Optimal range: 0.92 - 1.68 wt %

Behenic acid is a saturated fatty acids, in particular it is part of the group of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs).

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Cadmium (whole blood)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.22 mcg/L

Coenzyme Q10, Ubiquinone (serum)

Optimal range: 0.43 - 1.49 mcg/mL

Copper (plasma)

Optimal range: 75.3 - 192 mcg/dL

Copper is part of enzymes, which are proteins that help biochemical reactions occur in every cell. Copper is involved in the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron. The symptoms of a copper deficiency are similar to iron deficiency anemia. The liver makes a special protein, ceruloplasm, to transport copper and help convert iron to a form that can be used by other tissues.

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Dihomo-g-linolenic

Optimal range: 1.19 - 10 wt %

Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA) is the elongation product of Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).

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Docosahexaenoic

Optimal range: 2.1 - 10 wt %

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the omega-3 fatty acids.

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Docosapentaenoic

Optimal range: 1.14 - 3 wt %

Docosapentaenoic acid, or DPA, is a lesser known member of the omega-3 family.

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Docosatetraenoic

Optimal range: 1.5 - 4.2 wt %

Docosatetraenoic acid is also known as Adrenic acid / Adrenate.

Docosatetraenoic acid is a member of the class of compounds known as very long-chain fatty acids.

Fatty acids belong to one of three types or families: saturatedmonounsaturated and polyunsaturated. These names describe the structure of the fatty acid in terms of whether it is fully loaded with hydrogen.

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Eicosadienoic

Optimal range: 0 - 0.26 wt %

Eicosadienoic acid is the elongation product of Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and the direct precursor of Dihomogamma Linolenic (DGLA).

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Eicosapentaenoic

Optimal range: 0.16 - 5 wt %

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) is a Polyunsaturated Omega-3 Fatty Acid and is involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and prevention of blood clots.

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Elaidic

Optimal range: 0 - 0.59 wt %

Elaidic acid is the most commonly found trans fatty acid found in cell membranes.

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g-Linolenic

Optimal range: 0.03 - 0.13 wt %

Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) is the precursor of both Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA), an anti-inflammatory fatty acid, and Arachidonic Acid (AA), a pro-inflammatory fatty acid. It can be produced in human tissues by action of desaturase enzymes on LA.

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Glutathione (whole blood)

Optimal range: 669 - 5000 micromol/L

Lead (whole blood)

Optimal range: 0 - 2.81 mcg/dL

Lignoceric

Optimal range: 2.1 - 3.8 wt %

Lignoceric Acid is a saturated fatty acids, in particular it is part of the group of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs).

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Linoleic

Optimal range: 10.5 - 16.9 wt %

Linoleic acid is by far the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in most human tissues. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid, and low levels indicate dietary insufficiency.

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Linoleic / DGLA

Optimal range: 6 - 12.3 Ratio

Lipid Peroxides (urine)

Optimal range: 0 - 10 micromol/g Creat.

Magnesium (RBC)

Optimal range: 30.1 - 56.5 mcg/g

Manganese (whole blood)

Optimal range: 3 - 16.5 mcg/L

Margaric

Optimal range: 0.22 - 0.37 wt %

Margaric acid or Heptadecanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Mercury (whole blood)

Optimal range: 0 - 4.35 mcg/L

Nervonic

Optimal range: 2.1 - 3.5 wt %

Nervonic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. Nervonic acid has the longest carbon chain of all monounsaturated fatty acids. It is found in highest concentrations in nerve membranes, particularly in myelin sheaths, which are sleeves of fatty tissue that protect your nerve cells.

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Oleic

Optimal range: 10 - 13 wt %

Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid in human cells.

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Omega 3 Index

Optimal range: 4 - 16 index

Omega 6s / Omega 3s

Optimal range: 3.4 - 10.7 Ratio

Palmitic

Optimal range: 18 - 23 wt %

Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid.

Palmitic and stearic acids are significant markers for high consumption of saturated fats.

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Palmitoleic

Optimal range: 0 - 0.64 wt %

Palmitoleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. Palmitoleic acid is the desaturation product of palmitic acid. Since palmitic acid is predominant in human tissues where desaturase enzyme activity is present, one might expect relatively high levels of palmitoleic acid.

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Pentadecanoic

Optimal range: 0.07 - 0.15 wt %

Pentadecanoic acid is an odd numbered fatty acid with a 15-carbon backbone (15:0) and widely considered as one biomarker to assess dairy consumption/intake. It is not normally synthesized by humans, but is found in trace amounts in dairy products (milk fat) and ruminant meat fat.

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Potassium (RBC)

Optimal range: 2220 - 3626 mcg/g

Selenium (whole blood)

Optimal range: 109 - 330 mcg/L

Stearic

Optimal range: 14 - 17 µmol/L

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is two carbon atoms longer than palmitic acid.

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Tin (whole blood)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.39 mcg/L

Tricosanoic

Optimal range: 0.12 - 0.18 wt %

Tricosanoic Acid is an odd chain fatty acid.

Fatty acids with odd numbers of carbon atoms are produced primarily by initiating the synthetic series with the three carbon compound, propionic acid.

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Vaccenic

Optimal range: 0 - 1.13 wt %

Vaccenic acid is a naturally occuring trans-fatty acid. Vaccenic acid is called this way as it is found in cow’s milk. The latin word vacca means cow.

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Zinc (plasma)

Optimal range: 64.3 - 159.4 mcg/dL