Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
Other names: Comp. Metabolic Panel (14)
What is a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?
A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a blood sample test that measures 18 different markers in your blood. It provides important information about your body's chemical balance and metabolism (how your body transforms the food you eat into energy).
Biomarkers that are included in this test:
Glucose, BUN, Creatinine, eGFR, BUN/Creatinine Ratio, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Carbon Dioxide, Calcium, Protein, Total, Albumin, Globulin, Total, A/G Ratio, Bilirubin, Total, Alkaline Phosphatase, AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT).
What is a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) used for?
Healthcare providers often use a CMP as a routine blood test and to help diagnose, screen for or monitor certain health conditions.
Healthcare providers often use a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) to get a broad assessment of your overall physical health. With 14 individual measurements, it can check several body functions and processes, including:
- Your liver and kidney health.
- Your blood sugar levels.
- The acid and base balance in your blood.
- Your fluid and electrolyte balance.
Depending on the situation, your provider can have you undergo a CMP for the following reasons:
Diagnosis: A CMP can help your provider diagnose certain medical conditions.
Screening: Screening means attempting to find health issues before you have symptoms. Routine screening helps find certain conditions in their early stages. Since it contains 14 different measurements, providers often use a CMP as a part of routine health checkups.
Monitoring: If you have a certain medical condition, a CMP can help your provider determine if your treatment is working. CMPs can also help check for side effects of certain medications, especially those that can affect your liver or kidneys.
What tests are in a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?
A CMP measures the following substances in your blood:
Glucose: This is a type of sugar that provides energy for your body and brain. Glucose is also known as blood sugar. Elevated fasting blood glucose is often a sign of Type 2 diabetes. Very high glucose levels, whether fasting or not, usually indicate Type 1 diabetes.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen): This is a measurement of urea nitrogen, which is a waste product that your kidneys help remove from your blood.
Creatinine: This is a byproduct of muscle activity. It’s a waste product that your kidneys filter and remove from your blood.
eGFR: GFR is a blood test that measures how much blood your kidneys filter each minute, which is known as your glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
BUN/Creatinine Ratio: The Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): Creatinine Ratio [BUN/Creatinine Ratio] is a renal (related to kidneys) function indicator, commonly used to diagnose acute or chronic renal (kidney) disease or damage.
Sodium: Most of your sodium comes from the food you eat, and your kidneys help regulate your body’s sodium levels.
Potassium: Potassium comes from the food you eat and is present in all tissues of your body.
Chloride: Chloride functions along with sodium, potassium and bicarbonate to control many processes in your body.
Carbon Dioxide, Total: Carbon Dioxide indicates the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in your blood.
Calcium: Calcium is one of the most important and common minerals in your body. While most of your calcium is stored in your bones, you need calcium in your blood as well. Blood calcium is essential for proper functioning of your nerves, muscles and heart.
Total Protein: This is a measurement of the total amount of albumin and globulins, which are proteins in your blood.
Albumin: This is a protein that your liver makes. It transports important substances through your bloodstream and keeps fluid from leaking out of your blood vessels.
Globulin: Globulin is a protein and is made in the liver. High levels may indicate autoimmune disease, infections or cancer. A low globulin reading may be a sign of liver or kidney disease.
A/G Ratio: The major proteins seen in the serum are albumin and globulin-the latter being primarily alpha 1 and alpha 2 globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin. Albumin accounts for more than 50% of the total serum proteins.
Bilirubin, Total: This is a waste product that’s made from the breakdown of red blood cells. Your liver is in charge of removing bilirubin from your body.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme (= enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts by accelerating chemical reactions) found in the blood that helps break down proteins and that plays a role in numerous processes in the human body.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) are both produced by the liver and serve in functions throughout the human body. Aspartate-aminotransferase is most commonly related to liver health. Blood tests for AST and ALT are often ordered together to identify the source of damage in our organs.
Alanine transaminase (ALT): Alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme produced by the liver and is used to facilitate chemical reactions in the body. A high level of ALT in the blood is typically an indication of liver damage. ALT tests are frequently run along side other tests (such as an alkaline phosphatase test) to determine the source of liver damage.
What do the results of a comprehensive metabolic panel mean?
Blood test reports, including comprehensive metabolic panel test reports, usually provide the following information:
→ The name of the blood test or what was measured in your blood.
→ The number or measurement of your blood test result.
→ The normal measurement range for that test.
Information that indicates if your result is normal or abnormal, or high or low.
If any single CMP result or a combination of results are not normal, it may indicate — but not guarantee — many different health conditions, including:
→ Liver disease.
→ Kidney disease.
→ High blood pressure (hypertension).
If one of your CMP results is abnormal, it doesn't necessarily mean that you have a medical condition. Other factors, such as diet, certain medications and health conditions can affect your test results. There could’ve also been an error in the collection, transport or processing of the test.
Biomarkers included in this panel:
Alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme produced by the liver and is used to facilitate chemical reactions in the body. A high level of ALT in the blood is typically an indication of liver damage. ALT tests are frequently run along side other tesLearn more
What is a serum Albumin test? You need a proper balance of albumin to keep fluid from leaking out of blood vessels (= oncotic pressure). It also carries vital nutrients and hormones. Albumin also gives your body the proteins it needs toLearn more
The major proteins seen in the serum are albumin and globulin-the latter being primarily alpha 1 and alpha 2 globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin. Albumin accounts for more than 50% of the total serum proteins. The albumin to globulin (A/GLearn more
What is Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)? Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme (= enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts by accelerating chemical reactions) found in the blood that helps break down proteins and that plays a role in numLearn more
Aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) are both produced by the liver and serve in functions throughout the human body. Aspartate-aminotransferase is most commonly related to liver health. Blood tests for AST and ALT areLearn more
What is Bilirubin Bilirubin is a yellowish substance. Bilirubin is made in the body when the hemoglobin protein in old red blood cells is broken down. The breakdown of old cells is a normal, healthy process. Bilirubin is found in bile, a fluid youLearn more
BUN, or blood urea nitrogen, is used predominantly to measure kidney function. BUN reflects the ratio between the production and clearance of urea in the body. Urea is formed almost entirely by the liver from both protein metabolism and protein digesLearn more
What is the BUN/Creatinine Ratio? The Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): Creatinine Ratio [BUN/Creatinine Ratio] is a renal (related to kidneys) function indicator, commonly used to diagnose acute or chronic renal (kidney) disease or damage. Blood UreaLearn more
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and one of the most important. Our bodies use calcium to build and fix bones and teeth, help nerves work, make muscles contract, aid in blood clotting, and to help our heart beat. That being said, almoLearn more
What is Carbon Dioxide? Your body produces Carbon Dioxide (CO2) gas as a byproduct. It's carried by the bloodstream to your lungs, primarily in a bicarbonate (HCO3) form, and then exhaled out while breathing. In a healthy individual, the preseLearn more
Chloride is a molecule found in the body and belongs to the electrolyte group, indicating that it possesses an electrical charge. Electrolytes work to maintain the pH of our body fluids, help our cells to keep the amount of fluid inside and outside tLearn more
Creatinine is formed by the breakdown of creatine, a key molecule in muscular metabolism. Our kidneys are responsible for removing creatinine from the blood and expelling it in urine. Therefore, blood creatinine levels are a good indicator of how welLearn more
eGFR stands for estimated glomerular filtration rate. Your eGFR score is a reflection of your blood test for creatinine, a waste product formed in muscular metabolism. It estimates how well your kidneys are working.Learn more
Alternative Names: GFR; Estimated GFR; eGFR What is GFR? GFR is a blood test that measures how much blood your kidneys filter each minute, which is known as your glomerular filtration rate (GFR). You have two kidneys. Their main job is toLearn more
What is globulin? Globulin is a protein and is made in the liver. High levels may indicate autoimmune disease, infections or cancer. A low globulin reading may be a sign of liver or kidney disease. About 40% of the proteins in your bloodLearn more
What is Glucose? A blood sugar test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose (also known as blood sugar) is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. Glucose is a building bLearn more
Glucose Non-Fasting tests are an essential tool in the ongoing monitoring and management of blood sugar levels, crucial for individuals with diabetes or those at risk. Unlike traditional glucose tests that require fasting, these non-fasting tests offLearn more
Intestinal isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase are biomarkers that indicate the presence of specific forms of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme within the intestine. This biomarker is significant in assessing the health and function of the intestinal syLearn more
What is potassium? Potassium (K+) helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out of cells. Potassium, an essential nutrient found throughout the body, is necessary for healthy cell activity.Learn more
What is a Sodium test? This test measures the levels of sodium in your blood and is usually done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel blood test. The sodium test may also be ordered separately if you have: eaten large amountLearn more