Neurotransmitter Metabolites (Urine) - DUTCH


Performed by: Precision Analytical

Biomarkers included in this panel:

5-Hydroxyindoleacetate (5HIAA)

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels

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8-OHdG (Waking)

8-OHdG measures the effect of endogenous oxidative damage to DNA. The marker is used to estimate the risk for various cancers and degenerative diseases. Adjusting treatments and lifestyle to minimize the presence of 8-OHdG is a productive step t

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Homovanillate (HVA) (DUTCH)

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite. Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Melatonin (Waking)

Melatonin is not technically an adrenal or sex hormone however it is highly involved in the entire endocrine system. It is made in small amounts in the pineal gland in response to darkness and stimulated by Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH). A low

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Quinolinate is a neurotoxin derived from tryptophan. Elevated quinolinate is seen in brain and nerve tissue damage, especially in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, motor neuron disease

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Vanilmandelate (VMA)

Vanilmandelate is a metabolite of epinephrine and norepinephrine (also known as adrenaline and noradrenaline).

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