Organic Acids (VibrantWellness)

- Organic acids panels test for the organic acids in urine that are byproducts of daily cellular metabolism

- Based on known metabolic pathways and enzyme-cofactor requirements, these organic acid markers can provide great insights in discovering underlying causes of chronic symptoms

- Organic acids testing can aid advanced providers in the detection of imbalances, toxicity, and inflammation in chronically or acutely ill patients with complex illnesses

- Alongside other diagnostic testing, organic acids profiles complete the clinical picture of root causes and guide practitioners in developing the most individual and effective interventions

2-Hydroxyhippuric acid

Optimal range: 0 - 1.42 mmol/mol

2-Hydroxyhippuric acid is a conjugate of hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid) and glycine.


2-Hydroxyisocaproic acid

Optimal range: 0 - 0.88 mmol/mol

2-Hydroxyisocaproic acid (aka Leucic acid / α-hydroxyisocaproic acid / HICA) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine.


3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid

Optimal range: 0 - 2.6 mmol/mol

3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid is an abnormal metabolite that arises from the incomplete breakdown of branched-chain amino acids. 

Moderate increase may result from lactic acidosis, episodic ketosis, or thiamine/lipoic acid deficiency. Significant elevations are associated with genetic issues, MSUD, and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

- Slight elevations may be due to deficiencies of the vitamins thiamine or lipoic acid.

- Elevated values are also associated with the genetic diseases maple syrup urine disease or pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.



Optimal range: 0 - 30 mmol/mol

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in certain foods.


Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)

Optimal range: 12.2 - 179.25 mmol/mol

Ascorbic Acid is a natural water-soluble vitamin (Vitamin C). Ascorbic acid is a potent reducing and antioxidant agent that functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen in fibrous tissue, teeth, bones, connective tissue, skin, and capillaries.


Citric acid

Optimal range: 0 - 498.8 mmol/mol

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 



Optimal range: 0 - 1.82 mmol/mol

Furancarbonylglycine is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus and possibly other fungal species in the GI tract.



Optimal range: 250.2 - 599.2 mcg/g

γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain. Its major precursor is L-glutamate, which is converted to GABA via the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD).

GABA has also been detected in other peripheral tissues including intestines, stomach, Fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, testes, kidneys, urinary bladder, the lungs and liver, albeit at much lower levels than in neurons or insulin- producing β-cells.

GABA's principial role:

GABA's principal role is reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone. In addition, GABA controls the mood, sleep, blood pressure while preventing anxiety.

GABA is sold as a dietary supplement. GABA is found ubiquitously among plants. GABA is prevalent in foods such as Adzuki bean, barley, broccoli, buckwheat, chestnut, common bean, kale, lupin, maypop, mouse-ear hawkweed, oat, pea, pokeroot, potato, rice, shiitake, soya bean, spinach, St John’s wort, sweet potato, tea, tomato, valerian, wheat, wild celery.


Glyceric acid

Optimal range: 0.74 - 7.4 mmol/mol

Glyceric acid is an organic acid that stems from the catabolism of the amino acid serine. Severe elevations in glyceric acid are an indication of a rare inborn error of metabolism known as glyceric aciduria. One form of glyceric aciduria is the result of a defect in the enzyme glycerate kinase which removes glyceric acid from the system.



Optimal range: 2.6 - 8.3 Ratio

HVA and DOPAC are the major metabolites of dopamine. HVA stands for Homovanillic acid and DOPAC stands for Dihydroxyphenylacetic.



Optimal range: 0.74 - 1.88 Ratio

The Organic Acids Test measures levels of HVA (homovanillic acid) and VMA (vanillylmandelic acid), the metabolites of the neurotransmitters, dopamine and epinephrine/norepinephrine. It also measures the ratio of the two metabolites.


Lactic acid

Optimal range: 0 - 50.4 mmol/mol

Lactic acid is a microbial metabolite, urinary lactic acid is produced by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter frundii, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus group B, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Rhizopus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lactic acid is a good marker distinguishing lower urinary tract infection (cystitis) from upper urinary tract urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis). Excess of exercise, bacterial overgrowth in the GI tract, B-vitamin deficiency have been shown to be contributing factors. The possibility of an inborn error of metabolism increases when the lactic acid value exceeds 300 mmol/mol creatinine. There are many inborn errors of metabolism that are present with elevated lactic acid, including disorders of sugar metabolism, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, and mitochondrial disorders.


Methylmalonic acid (Vitamin B12)

Optimal range: 0 - 2.21 mmol/mol

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a substance produced in very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production.



Optimal range: 6.7 - 12.8 mcg/g

The Norepinephrine / Epinephrine ratio is an indicator of epinephrine (adrenaline) conversion (epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine). Anxiety, burnout, and poor blood sugar control are associated with a relative epinephrine depletion, and thus an elevated Norepi:Epi ratio.


Quinolinic acid/5-HIAA

Optimal range: 0.32 - 1.1 Ratio

A high ratio of quinolinic acid to the tryptophan metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, indicates excessive inflammation due to recurrent infections, excessive tryptophan intake, immune overstimulation, excessive adrenal production of cortisol, or excessive exposure to phthalates.


Quinolinic acid/5-HIAA Ratio

Optimal range: 0.32 - 1.1 Ratio

Suberic acid

Optimal range: 0.16 - 2.18 mmol/mol

- Suberic acid is present in the urine of people with fatty acid oxidation disorders.

- A metabolic breakdown product derived from oleic acid.

- Elevated levels of this unsaturated dicarboxylic acid are found in individuals with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD).

- Elevated in Schizophrenics

- People with metabolic syndrome or diabetes had significantly elevated adipic acid, suberic acid, lactic acid, and fumaric acid.

- Ketosis is sometimes accompanied by excessive excretion of adipic and suberic acid.