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Antistreptolysin O AbOptimal range: 0 - 200 IU/ml
The ASO test is primarily used to help determine whether a recent strep infection with group A Streptococcus:
C difficile Toxins A+B, EIAOptimal range: 0 - 0 %
Doctors often suspect C. difficile in anyone who has diarrhea and who has other risk factors for C. difficile.
Clostridium difficile (klos-TRID-e-um dif-uh-SEEL), also known as Clostridioides difficile and often referred to as C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon.LEARN MORE
Cold Agglutinin Titer, QuantOptimal range: 0 - 0 %
A cold agglutinin test may be used to help detect cold agglutinin disease and determine the cause of a person’s hemolytic anemia. It may be used as a follow-up test after a complete blood count (CBC) shows a decrease in a person’s red blood cell (RBC) count and hemoglobin, especially if these findings are linked to an exposure to cold temperatures.
Cold agglutinin disease is a rare autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies produced by a person’s immune system mistakenly target and destroy RBCs, causing hemolytic anemia. These autoantibodies are cold-reacting and can cause signs and symptoms related to anemia after an affected person is exposed to cold temperatures. This disease may be classified as either primary or secondary, triggered by an infection or other condition.LEARN MORE
Copper, RBCOptimal range: 0.5 - 1 ug/ml
Copper is part of enzymes, which are proteins that help biochemical reactions occur in every cell. Copper is involved in the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron. The symptoms of a copper deficiency are similar to iron deficiency anemia. The liver makes a special protein, ceruloplasm, to transport copper and help convert iron to a form that can be used by other tissues.LEARN MORE
F2-Isoprostane/CreatinineOptimal range: 0 - 0.86 ng/mg
The F2-isoprostane/creatinine ratio is the "gold standard" for measuring oxidative stress and has utility in individuals who have lifestyle risks due to poor diet or smoking, a family history of cardiovascular disease, or hyperlipidemia.LEARN MORE
Folate, HemolysateOptimal range: 0 - 1000 ng/mL
Folate is a water-soluble vitamin essential for cell growth and division. RBC folate determination is obtained by measuring the folate concentration in a whole blood (WB) hemolysate solution and dividing it by the patient’s hematocrit (Hct; %).
This is an intermediary biomarker that is used to calculate Folate, RBC. There is no reference range provided by the laboratory, hence please refer to the actual "Folate, RBC" marker instead.LEARN MORE
Folate, RBCOptimal range: 498 - 2000 ng/mL
Folates are compounds of pteroylglutamic acid (PGA) that function as coenzymes in metabolic reactions involving the transfer of single-carbon units from a donor to a recipient compound. Folate, with vitamin B12, is essential for DNA synthesis, which is required for normal red blood cell maturation. Humans obtain folate from dietary sources including fruits, green and leafy vegetables, yeast, and organ meats. Folate is absorbed through the small intestine and stored in the liver.LEARN MORE
G6PDOptimal range: 4.8 - 15.7 U/g Hb
This test measures the amount of G6PD in red blood cells to help diagnose a G6PD deficiency.
G6PD deficiency is an inherited condition. It is when the body doesn’t have enough of an enzyme called G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase).
This enzyme helps red blood cells work correctly. A lack of this enzyme can cause hemolytic anemia. This is when the red blood cells break down faster than they are made.LEARN MORE
Galectin-3Optimal range: 0 - 22.2 ng/mL
- Aiding in the prognosis for people diagnosed with heart failure
- Risk-stratification of heart failure people
- An early indication of treatment failure and as a therapeutic target
Galectin-3 can be used in conjunction with clinical evaluation as an aid in assessing the prognosis of people with chronic heart failure.
Galectin-3 levels >17.8 ng/mL are present in a proportion of people with NYHA class II-IV. Such elevated levels are associated with a more progressive form of heart failure resulting in an increased hazard for death or hospitalization.LEARN MORE
Histamine Determination, BloodOptimal range: 12 - 127 ng/mL
This test measures the amount of histamine in the blood.
Histamine is a substance that is released from specialized cells called mast cells when they are activated, often as part of an allergic immune response.LEARN MORE
Interleukin-8, SerumOptimal range: 0 - 66.1 pg/mL
Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a promising marker for many clinical conditions and currently being applied by various subspecialties of medicine either for the purpose of rapid diagnosis or as a predictor of prognosis. Nevertheless, IL-8 level increased as a result of many inflammatory conditions, so careful interpretation of IL-8 level is required to make correlation with desired clinical condition's diagnosis or prognosis.LEARN MORE
M-SpikeOptimal range: 0 - 0.001 g/dL
M-protein is an abnormal protein produced by myeloma cells that accumulates in and damages bone and bone marrow.LEARN MORE
M207-IgG Aspergillus nigerOptimal range: 0 - 1.9 ug/ml
Aspergillus species are ubiquitous environmental molds that grow on organic matter and aerosolized conidia (conidia is a spore produced by various fungi at the tip of a specialized hypha).
Aspergillus is a genus of molds that includes several hundred species that grow in nutrient-depleted environments.
Humans inhale hundreds of conidia per day without adverse consequences, except for a small minority of people for whom infection with Aspergillus causes significant morbidity (the condition of suffering from a disease or medical condition).
The clinical manifestations of aspergillosis are determined by the host immune response to exposure with the spectrum ranging from a simple allergic response to local lung disease with mycelial balls to catastrophic systemic Aspergillus infection.LEARN MORE
Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH)Optimal range: 0 - 40 pg/mL
Melanocyte-Stimulating hormone (MSH) characterizes a group of hormones made by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and skin cells. MSH is essential for preserving the skin from ultraviolet rays, the development of pigmentation, and controlling appetite.LEARN MORE
Myeloperoxidase (MPO)Optimal range: 0 - 469 pmol/L
MPO levels are associated with an increased risk for:
- Cardiovascular disease
- Myocardial infarctionLEARN MORE
NT-proBNPOptimal range: 0 - 210 pg/mL
NT-proBNP is a diagnostic screening tool to differentiate between people with normal and reduced left ventricular systolic function.LEARN MORE
Testost., F+W BoundOptimal range: 40 - 250 ng/dL
The marker “Testost., F+W Bound” stands for Testosterone Free and Weakly Bound. Free and weakly bound testosterone, also referred to as bioavailable testosterone, is thought to reflect an individual’s biologically active, circulating testosterone. It includes free testosterone and testosterone that is bound to albumin. It does not include sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone.LEARN MORE
Thyroxine Binding GlobulinOptimal range: 13 - 39 ug/ml
Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) is produced in the liver and is the primary circulating (transport) protein that binds thyroid hormones3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and carries them in the bloodstream.LEARN MORE
Toxoplasma gondii Ab, IgGOptimal range: 0 - 7.2 IU/ml
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that is capable of infecting a variety of intermediate hosts including humans. Infected definitive hosts (cats) shed oocysts in feces that rapidly mature in the soil and become infectious.LEARN MORE
Valproic Acid (Depakote), SerumOptimal range: 50 - 100 ug/ml
Valproate is an alternative drug in the treatment of complex partial seizures but may be considered for initial therapy in patients with partial and secondarily generalized seizures.
Valproic acid is used as an anticonvulsant to treat certain types of seizures, to prevent migraine headaches and to treat various psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorder and aggression. Drugs that compete for protein-binding sites with valproic acid can increase the concentration of valproic acid. Therapeutic drug monitoring is useful to optimize dose. Measurement of the free concentration is useful if toxicity is suspected.LEARN MORE