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Anticardiolipin Ab,IgG,Qn

Optimal range: 0 - 14 GPL U/mL

- Anticardiolipins are antibodies produced by the immune system against the platelet membrane phospholipids responsible for the coagulation of blood clots. 

- Anticardiolipin antibodies are often responsible (with lupus anticoagulants and beta-2 glycoprotein antibodies) for the abnormal formation of clots in veins (phlebitis) and arteries (arterial thrombosis). 

- They are involved in antiphospholipid syndrome, which occurs, for example, through repeated miscarriages during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. 

There are three types of anticardiolipin antibodies: IgG, IgA and IgM.


Apolipoprotein B

Optimal range: 0 - 90 mg/dL

- Apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels are used to evaluate the risk for cardiovascular disease. 
- LDL and its major protein, apolipoprotein B, play an essential role in lipid transport and metabolism. 
- ApoB levels are higher in males than in females and tend to increase with age.
- ApoB plays a central role in carrying cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver and gut to utilization and storage sites.
- Incontestable data support the concept that apoB is a better tool to assess cardiovascular disease than LDL-C and non-DHL-C.


C difficile Toxins A+B, EIA

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Doctors often suspect C. difficile in anyone who has diarrhea and who has other risk factors for C. difficile. 

Clostridium difficile (klos-TRID-e-um dif-uh-SEEL), also known as Clostridioides difficile and often referred to as C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon.



Optimal range: 0 - 0.86 ng/mg

The F2-isoprostane/creatinine ratio is the "gold standard" for measuring oxidative stress and has utility in individuals who have lifestyle risks due to poor diet or smoking, a family history of cardiovascular disease, or hyperlipidemia.


Folate, Hemolysate

Optimal range: 0 - 1000 ng/mL

Folate is a water-soluble vitamin essential for cell growth and division. RBC folate determination is obtained by measuring the folate concentration in a whole blood (WB) hemolysate solution and dividing it by the patient’s hematocrit (Hct; %). 

This is an intermediary biomarker that is used to calculate Folate, RBC. There is no reference range provided by the laboratory, hence please refer to the actual "Folate, RBC" marker instead.


Folate, RBC

Optimal range: 498 - 2000 ng/mL

Folates are compounds of pteroylglutamic acid (PGA) that function as coenzymes in metabolic reactions involving the transfer of single-carbon units from a donor to a recipient compound. Folate, with vitamin B12, is essential for DNA synthesis, which is required for normal red blood cell maturation. Humans obtain folate from dietary sources including fruits, green and leafy vegetables, yeast, and organ meats. Folate is absorbed through the small intestine and stored in the liver.



Optimal range: 4.8 - 15.7 U/g Hb

This test measures the amount of G6PD in red blood cells to help diagnose a G6PD deficiency.

G6PD deficiency is an inherited condition. It is when the body doesn’t have enough of an enzyme called G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase).

This enzyme helps red blood cells work correctly. A lack of this enzyme can cause hemolytic anemia. This is when the red blood cells break down faster than they are made.



Optimal range: 0 - 22.2 ng/mL

- Aiding in the prognosis for people diagnosed with heart failure
- Risk-stratification of heart failure people
- An early indication of treatment failure and as a therapeutic target

Galectin-3 can be used in conjunction with clinical evaluation as an aid in assessing the prognosis of people with chronic heart failure

Galectin-3 levels >17.8 ng/mL are present in a proportion of people with NYHA class II-IV. Such elevated levels are associated with a more progressive form of heart failure resulting in an increased hazard for death or hospitalization.


Histamine Determination, Blood

Optimal range: 12 - 127 ng/mL

This test measures the amount of histamine in the blood.

Histamine is a substance that is released from specialized cells called mast cells when they are activated, often as part of an allergic immune response.


Interleukin-8, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 66.1 pg/mL

Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a promising marker for many clinical conditions and currently being applied by various subspecialties of medicine either for the purpose of rapid diagnosis or as a predictor of prognosis. Nevertheless, IL-8 level increased as a result of many inflammatory conditions, so careful interpretation of IL-8 level is required to make correlation with desired clinical condition's diagnosis or prognosis.


Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Optimal range: 0 - 40 pg/mL

Melanocyte-Stimulating hormone (MSH) characterizes a group of hormones made by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and skin cells. MSH is essential for preserving the skin from ultraviolet rays, the development of pigmentation, and controlling appetite. 


MMP-9 (Matrix Metalloproteinase-9)

Optimal range: 0 - 984 ng/mL

MMP-9 is a marker of inflammation, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and mobilization of tissue-bound growth factors and cytokines.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the progression of tumour cells and the invasion of inflammatory cells by degrading the extracellular matrix. In the MMP family, MMP-9 gelatinase is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory arteritis by disrupting the elastic lamina. 

MMP-9 contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous clinical disease states, including rheumatic arthritis, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and cancer. Current research is exploring the role of this enzyme as a potential drug target.



Optimal range: 0 - 210 pg/mL

NT-proBNP is a diagnostic screening tool to differentiate between people with normal and reduced left ventricular systolic function.


Testost., F+W Bound

Optimal range: 40 - 250 ng/dL

The marker “Testost., F+W Bound” stands for Testosterone Free and Weakly Bound. Free and weakly bound testosterone, also referred to as bioavailable testosterone, is thought to reflect an individual’s biologically active, circulating testosterone. It includes free testosterone and testosterone that is bound to albumin. It does not include sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone.