In this category we look at digestion, absorbtion, gut immunology, gut metabolism, gut microbiology, beneficial bacteria and fecal fats.
AstrovirusOptimal range: 0 - 99 Units
Astrovirus can cause diarrheal illness (gastroenteritis). Infants and young children are most likely to have diarrhea caused by astroviruses, but the infection also occurs in the elderly and those with compromised immune systems.LEARN MORE
Beneficial SCFAsOptimal range: 13.6 - 150 micromol/g
Short chain fatty acids are saturated fatty acids consisting of no more than 6 carbons. The most common forms—acetate, propionate, and butyrate—are also helpful for colon and overall health. Thus, they are called beneficial SCFAs.LEARN MORE
BilfidobacteriumOptimal range: 4 - 10 Units
ChymotrypsinOptimal range: 0.9 - 26.8 U/g
Chymotrypsin is a protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas. It is useful in monitoring if you have moderate to severe pancreatic dysfunction. When you have symptoms such as persistent diarrhea; foul-smelling, bulky, greasy stools; malnutrition; malabsorption; and vitamin deficiency and pancreatic insufficiency is suspected.LEARN MORE
Deoxycholic acid (DCA)Optimal range: 0.67 - 6.76 mg/g
Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a secondary bile acid and part of the metabolic category of the Genova test panel. Bile acids are end products of hepatic cholesterol metabolism that play an important role in fat emulsion and detoxification.LEARN MORE
Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)Optimal range: 0 - 99 Units
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are quite heterogeneous category of an emerging enteric pathogen associated with cases of acute or persistent diarrhea worldwide in children and adults, and over the past decade has received increasing attention as a cause of watery diarrhea, which is often persistent. EAEC infection is an important cause of diarrhea in outbreak and non-outbreak settings in developing and developed countries. Recently, EAEC has been implicated in the development of irritable bowel syndrome, but this remains to be confirmed.LEARN MORE
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)Optimal range: 0 - 99 Units
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that adheres to intestinal epithelial cells, causing diarrhea.LEARN MORE
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) It/stOptimal range: 0 - 99 Units
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli), or ETEC, is an important cause of bacterial diarrheal illness. Infection with ETEC is the leading cause of travelers’ diarrhea and a major cause of diarrheal disease in lower-income countries, especially among children.LEARN MORE
Escherichia coliOptimal range: 2 - 10 Units
FluoroquinolonesOptimal range: 0 - 0.0001 Units
Lactobacillus speciesOptimal range: 2 - 10 Units
Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”, and in fact may contribute to good health, often being included in probiotic supplements. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a byproduct of glucose metabolism.LEARN MORE
LCA / DCA RatioOptimal range: 0.39 - 2.07 Ratio
LCA and DCA are secondary bile acids. These secondary bile acids are associated with disease. An LCA:DCA ratio greater than 1 is associated with increased risk of gallstones, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer.LEARN MORE
Lithocholic acid (LCA)Optimal range: 0.65 - 5.21 mg/g
M2 Pyruvate KinaseOptimal range: 0 - 4 U/mL
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (avium)Optimal range: 0 - 4999 Units
Plesiomonas shigelloidesOptimal range: 0 - 999 Units
Plesiomonas shigelloides is a Gram-negative bacillus found in aquatic environments that has been primarily associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrheal disease.LEARN MORE
Prevotella copriOptimal range: 0 - 9999999 Units
Prevotella copri is a gut bacteria that may cause rheumatoid arthritis. Studies consistently find different bacterial patterns in people with inflammatory arthritis vs controls.LEARN MORE
Putrefactive SCFAsOptimal range: 1.3 - 8.6 micromol/g
Valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate constitute the putrefactive short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).
Valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate are produced exclusively by fermentation of protein. These SCFAs are putrefactive, and suggest underlying protein maldigestion, malabsorption, or BOSI.LEARN MORE
RotavirusOptimal range: 0 - 99 Units
Rotavirus affects the intestines and causes vomiting and diarrhea. This infection is especially common in young children, but it can affect adults, too. A rotavirus infection causes a condition called viral gastroenteritis.LEARN MORE
Stool pHOptimal range: 6.1 - 7.9 pH
A fecal pH test is one where a specimen of feces is tested for acidity in order to diagnose a medical condition.
- Human feces is normally acidic.
- The average pH for a healthy person is a pH of 6.6.
Stool pH is dependent in part on fermentation of sugars. Colonic fermentation of normal amounts of carbohydrate sugars and production of fatty acids accounts for the normally slightly acidic pH.LEARN MORE
Vibrio (parahaemolyticus, vulnificus and cholerae)Optimal range: 0 - 99999 Units
Vibrios are inhabitants of estuarine and fresh waters and some species are pathogenic to humans, and marine vertebrates and invertebrates. In humans, some species of vibrios can cause gastroenteritis following ingestion of contaminated food or water and septicemia when pre-existing cuts or abrasions on skin come in contact with contaminated water or seafoods.LEARN MORE