In this category we look at digestion, absorbtion, gut immunology, gut metabolism, gut microbiology, beneficial bacteria and fecal fats.


Optimal range: 0 - 99 Units

Astrovirus can cause diarrheal illness (gastroenteritis). Infants and young children are most likely to have diarrhea caused by astroviruses, but the infection also occurs in the elderly and those with compromised immune systems.


Beneficial SCFAs

Optimal range: 13.6 - 150 micromol/g

Short chain fatty acids are saturated fatty acids consisting of no more than 6 carbons. The most common forms—acetate, propionate, and butyrate—are also helpful for colon and overall health. Thus, they are called beneficial SCFAs.



Optimal range: 4 - 10 Units


Optimal range: 0.9 - 26.8 U/g

Chymotrypsin is a protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas. It is useful in monitoring if you have moderate to severe pancreatic dysfunction. When you have symptoms such as persistent diarrhea; foul-smelling, bulky, greasy stools; malnutrition; malabsorption; and vitamin deficiency and pancreatic insufficiency is suspected.


Deoxycholic acid (DCA)

Optimal range: 0.67 - 6.76 mg/g

Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a secondary bile acid and part of the metabolic category of the Genova test panel. Bile acids are end products of hepatic cholesterol metabolism that play an important role in fat emulsion and detoxification. 


Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)

Optimal range: 0 - 99 Units

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are quite heterogeneous category of an emerging enteric pathogen associated with cases of acute or persistent diarrhea worldwide in children and adults, and over the past decade has received increasing attention as a cause of watery diarrhea, which is often persistent. EAEC infection is an important cause of diarrhea in outbreak and non-outbreak settings in developing and developed countries. Recently, EAEC has been implicated in the development of irritable bowel syndrome, but this remains to be confirmed. 


Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)

Optimal range: 0 - 99 Units

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that adheres to intestinal epithelial cells, causing diarrhea.


Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) It/st

Optimal range: 0 - 99 Units

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli), or ETEC, is an important cause of bacterial diarrheal illness. Infection with ETEC is the leading cause of travelers’ diarrhea and a major cause of diarrheal disease in lower-income countries, especially among children.


Escherichia coli

Optimal range: 2 - 10 Units


Optimal range: 0 - 0.0001 Units

Lactobacillus species

Optimal range: 2 - 10 Units

Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus.

Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”, and in fact may contribute to good health, often being included in probiotic supplements. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a byproduct of glucose metabolism.


LCA / DCA Ratio

Optimal range: 0.39 - 2.07 Ratio

LCA and DCA are secondary bile acids. These secondary bile acids are associated with disease. An LCA:DCA ratio greater than 1 is associated with increased risk of gallstones, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. 


Lithocholic acid (LCA)

Optimal range: 0.65 - 5.21 mg/g

M2 Pyruvate Kinase

Optimal range: 0 - 4 U/mL

Plesiomonas shigelloides

Optimal range: 0 - 999 Units

Plesiomonas shigelloides is a Gram-negative bacillus found in aquatic environments that has been primarily associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrheal disease.


Prevotella copri

Optimal range: 0 - 9999999 Units

Prevotella copri is a gut bacteria that may cause rheumatoid arthritis. Studies consistently find different bacterial patterns in people with inflammatory arthritis vs controls.


Putrefactive SCFAs

Optimal range: 1.3 - 8.6 micromol/g

Valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate constitute the putrefactive short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). 

Valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate are produced exclusively by fermentation of protein. These SCFAs are putrefactive, and suggest underlying protein maldigestion, malabsorption, or BOSI.



Optimal range: 0 - 99 Units

Rotavirus affects the intestines and causes vomiting and diarrhea. This infection is especially common in young children, but it can affect adults, too. A rotavirus infection causes a condition called viral gastroenteritis. 


Stool pH

Optimal range: 6.1 - 7.9 pH

A fecal pH test is one where a specimen of feces is tested for acidity in order to diagnose a medical condition.

  • Human feces is normally acidic.
  • The average pH for a healthy person is a pH of 6.6.

Stool pH is dependent in part on fermentation of sugars. Colonic fermentation of normal amounts of carbohydrate sugars and production of fatty acids accounts for the normally slightly acidic pH.


Vibrios are inhabitants of estuarine and fresh waters and some species are pathogenic to humans, and marine vertebrates and invertebrates. In humans, some species of vibrios can cause gastroenteritis following ingestion of contaminated food or water and septicemia when pre-existing cuts or abrasions on skin come in contact with contaminated water or seafoods.