Stool

In this category we look at digestion, absorbtion, gut immunology, gut metabolism, gut microbiology, beneficial bacteria and fecal fats.

Acetate

Optimal range: 44.5 - 72.4 %

Beneficial SCFAs

Optimal range: 13.6 - 50 micromol/g

Short chain fatty acids are saturated fatty acids consisting of no more than 6 carbons. The most common forms—acetate, propionate, and butyrate—are also helpful for colon and overall health. Thus, they are called beneficial SCFAs.

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Bilfidobacterium

Optimal range: 4 - 10 Units

Calprotectin

Optimal range: 0 - 50 mcg/g

Calprotectin is a protein that binds to both calcium and zinc. Fecal calprotectin levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation, thus it is useful for distinguishing between inflammatory and non-inflammatory diarrhea.

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Cholesterol (Stool)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 3.5 mg/g

Chymotrypsin

Optimal range: 0.9 - 26.8 U/g

Deoxycholic acid (DCA)

Optimal range: 0.67 - 6.76 mg/g

Eosinophil Protein X

Optimal range: 0 - 4.6 mcg/g

Eosinophil Protein X is a water-soluble protein that is found in eosinophils. Fecal Eosinophil Protein X levels are abnormally increased in people with intestinal inflammation where high concentrations of eosinophils may be found.

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Escherichia coli

Optimal range: 2 - 10 Units

Fecal Fat

Optimal range: 2.6 - 32.4 mg/g

A fecal fat test helps your doctor identify pancreatic or intestinal disorders. It can indicate your body isn’t creating enough enzymes or there is malabsorption.

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Lactobacillus species

Optimal range: 2 - 10 Units

LCA / DCA Ratio

Optimal range: 0.39 - 2.07 Ratio

Lithocholic acid (LCA)

Optimal range: 0.65 - 5.21 mg/g

Long Chain Fatty Acids (Stool)

Optimal range: 1.3 - 23.7 mg/g

n-Butyrate

Optimal range: 2.5 - 10 %

N-Butyrate is one of the short-chain fatty acids produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria in the colon. It becomes a food supply capable of providing up to 30% of the energy needed by colon cells. N-butyrate improves colon health.

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Pancreatic Elastase 1

Optimal range: 200 - 1000 mcg/g

Pancreatic elastase is an enzyme that digests protein. It’s only produced by the pancreas and when it is seen in the stool, it’s an excellent biomarker of how well the pancreas is performing.

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Phospholipids

Optimal range: 0.2 - 8.8 mg/g

The enzyme LCAT transesterifies cholesterol in the blood with fats from lecithin. When this happens as it should, HDL, VLDL and LDL lipoprotein particles are remodeled and cholesterol is moved out of the blood. The Phospholipid test looks for LCAT deficiency. 

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Propionate

Optimal range: 0 - 32.1 %

Putrefactive SCFAs

Optimal range: 1.3 - 8.6 micromol/g

Stool pH

Optimal range: 6.1 - 7.9 pH

Triglycerides (Stool)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 3.3 mg/g