Biomarkers included in this panel:


Astrovirus can cause diarrheal illness (gastroenteritis). Infants and young children are most likely to have diarrhea caused by astroviruses, but the infection also occurs in the elderly and those with compromised immune systems.

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Beneficial SCFAs

Short chain fatty acids are saturated fatty acids consisting of no more than 6 carbons. The most common forms—acetate, propionate, and butyrate—are also helpful for colon and overall health. Thus, they are called beneficial SCFAs.

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Chymotrypsin is a protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas. It is useful in monitoring if you have moderate to severe pancreatic dysfunction. When you have symptoms such as persistent diarrhea; foul-smelling, bulky, greasy stools; malnutriti

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Deoxycholic acid (DCA)

Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a secondary bile acid and part of the metabolic category of the Genova test panel. Bile acids are end products of hepatic cholesterol metabolism that play an important role in fat emulsion and detoxification. 

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Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are quite heterogeneous category of an emerging enteric pathogen associated with cases of acute or persistent diarrhea worldwide in children and adults, and over the past decade has received increas

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Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that adheres to intestinal epithelial cells, causing diarrhea.

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Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) It/st

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli), or ETEC, is an important cause of bacterial diarrheal illness. Infection with ETEC is the leading cause of travelers’ diarrhea and a major cause of diarrheal disease in lower-income countries, es

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Escherichia coli


Lactobacillus species

Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus. Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”

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LCA / DCA Ratio

LCA and DCA are secondary bile acids. These secondary bile acids are associated with disease. An LCA:DCA ratio greater than 1 is associated with increased risk of gallstones, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. 

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Lithocholic acid (LCA)

M2 Pyruvate Kinase

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (avium)

Pancreatic Elastase-1

Pancreatic Elastase is an enzyme produced by exocrine tissue in the pancreas. Fecal pancreatic elastase is a non-invasive marker of exocrine pancreatic function. In the digestive tract, elastase is not broken down by other enzymes and is eventually e

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Plesiomonas shigelloides

Plesiomonas shigelloides is a Gram-negative bacillus found in aquatic environments that has been primarily associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrheal disease.

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Prevotella copri

Prevotella copri is a gut bacteria that may cause rheumatoid arthritis. Studies consistently find different bacterial patterns in people with inflammatory arthritis vs controls.

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Putrefactive SCFAs

Valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate constitute the putrefactive short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  Valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate are produced exclusively by fermentation of protein. These SCFAs are putrefactive, and suggest underlyin

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Rotavirus affects the intestines and causes vomiting and diarrhea. This infection is especially common in young children, but it can affect adults, too. A rotavirus infection causes a condition called viral gastroenteritis. 

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Stool pH

A fecal pH test is one where a specimen of feces is tested for acidity in order to diagnose a medical condition. Human feces is normally acidic. The average pH for a healthy person is a pH of 6.6. Stool pH is dependent in part on ferment

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Vibrio (parahaemolyticus, vulnificus and cholerae)

Vibrios are inhabitants of estuarine and fresh waters and some species are pathogenic to humans, and marine vertebrates and invertebrates. In humans, some species of vibrios can cause gastroenteritis following ingestion of contaminated food or water

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