Hippuric acid is a conjugate (=a compound formed by the joining of two or more compounds) of glycine and benzoic acid formed in the liver.
Most hippuric acid in urine is derived from microbial breakdown of chlorogenic acid to benzoic acid.
Chlorogenic acid is a common substance in beverages and in many fruits and vegetables, including apples, pears, tea, coffee, sunflower seeds, carrots, blueberries, cherries, potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, sweet potatoes, and peaches. Benzoic acid is present in high amounts in cranberry juice and is a food preservative.
The workplace is the most common source of toluene exposure, but toluene may be absorbed from outgassing of new carpets and other building materials, or absorbed during recreational abuse of solvents such as glue-sniffing.
How to treat bacterial overgrowth?
Bacterial overgrowth can be treated with natural anti-bacterial agents and/or probiotics (30-50 billion cfu’s) that include Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
Because most hippuric acid in urine is from GI sources, this marker is a poor indicator of toluene exposure and is being replaced by other markers in occupational safety testing.
High hippuric acid may derive from food, GI bacterial activity, or exposure to the solvent toluene.
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