3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)Optimal range: 360 - 1800 ug/g creat
Dopac (aka 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine serves as the reward and pleasure center in the brain. DOPAC and HVA (Homovanillic Acid) are dopamine metabolites.
DOPAC levels, when viewed in conjunction with dopamine levels, may provide insight into how the body processes neurotransmitters.LEARN MORE
5-HIAAOptimal range: 800 - 13000 ug/g creat
5-HIAA is the primary metabolite of serotonin, a chemical substance (neurotransmitter) that transmits messages between nerve cells. After it is used by the body, serotonin is broken down in the liver, and its metabolites, including 5-HIAA, are excreted in the urine.LEARN MORE
DopamineOptimal range: 64 - 261 ug/g creat
Dopamine is a chemical found naturally in the human body. It is a neurotransmitter, meaning it sends signals from the body to the brain. Dopamine plays a part in controlling the movements a person makes, as well as their emotional responses. The right balance of dopamine is vital for both physical and mental wellbeing.LEARN MORE
EpinephrineOptimal range: 4.7 - 20.8 ug/g creat
Epinephrine is commonly known as adrenaline. Your body naturally produces it during times of stress. The hormone is also necessary for maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system — it makes the heart beat more strongly, and diverts blood to tissues during times of stress.LEARN MORE
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)Optimal range: 2.4 - 12.7 uMol/gCr
GABA stands for Gamma-aminobutyric acid (γ-Aminobutyric Acid) and is a nonessential protein amino acid. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.LEARN MORE
GlutamateOptimal range: 6.9 - 71.8 uMol/gCr
Glutamate functions as the major excitatory neurotransmitter and metabolic fuel throughout the body. Glutamate is produced in your body, and is also found in many foods.LEARN MORE
GlycineOptimal range: 182 - 2225 uMol/gCr
Glycine plays an important role in the body’s ability to detoxify itself as well as in wound healing. It is also important in the creation of nucleic acids and bile acids.LEARN MORE
NorepinephrineOptimal range: 19 - 76 ug/g creat
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is important for mental focus and emotional stability.
Norepinephrine functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that regulates the “fight or flight” response and elevates blood pressure and heart rate, stimulates wakefulness, and reduces digestive activity.LEARN MORE
NormetanephrineOptimal range: 0 - 145 pg/mL
Normetanephrine, a metabolite of norepinephrine, is at normally low levels in the plasma. Certain tumors increase the levels and will increase the levels of nor-metanephrine. The Normetanephrine test, when normal, means these tumors are not present.LEARN MORE
PEAOptimal range: 15 - 167 uMol/gCr
PEA stands for Beta-phenylethylamine and is an excitatory neurotransmitter made from phenylalanine and it modulates neuron voltage potentials to favor glutamate activity and neurotransmitter firing.LEARN MORE
SerotoninOptimal range: 57 - 306 ug/g creat
Serotonin plays important roles in the resolution of mood, sleep, and appetite.
Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter synthesized by enzymes that act on tryptophan and/or 5-HTP.LEARN MORE
TaurineOptimal range: 52 - 1025 uMol/gCr
Taurine important for proper heart function, healthy sleep and promoting calmness.
Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid, but it is often referred to as an amino acid, a chemical that is a required building block of protein. Taurine is found in large amounts in the brain, retina, heart, and blood cells called platelets.LEARN MORE