Metabolic Analysis Markers (Urine)

The Metabolic Analysis Profile (Urine) measures four critical areas of metabolism: gastrointestinal function and dysbiosis markers, cellular and mitochondrial energy metabolites, neurotransmitter metabolites, and functionally important organic acid metabolites of amino acids.

2-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 0.76 mmol/mol creatinine

Metabolite of phenylalanine via phenyl pyruvate.

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3-Hydroxyisovaleric Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 29 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Hydroxyisovaleric acid is a normal human metabolite excreted in the urine.

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3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 8.1 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is a rutin metabolite and an antioxidant.

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3-Hydroxypropionic Acid

Optimal range: 5 - 22 mmol/mol creatinine

Metabolite of propionic acid, precursor of methylmalonic acid via both biotin and Mg.

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3-Methyl-4-OH-phenylglycol

Optimal range: 0.02 - 0.22 mmol/mol creatinine

3-Methyl-4-OH-phenylglycol is the breakdown product from norepinephrine, but it may also be produced from epinephrine to a lesser extent.

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4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 29 mmol/mol creatinine

A tyrosine metabolic product of GI bacteria.

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5-OH-indoleacetic Acid

Optimal range: 3.8 - 12.1 mmol/mol creatinine

5-OH-indoleacetic Acid is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5-OH-indoleacetic Acid are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

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a-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (from MTBE)

Optimal range: 0 - 6.7 mmol/mol creatinine

a-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (from MTBE) is a toxic breakdown product.

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a-Keto-b-Methylvaleric Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 2.1 mmol/mol creatinine

a-Keto-b-Methylvaleric Acid is a B-Complex Vitamin Marker. Vitamins are compounds that your body needs to be healthy. Vitamins are “essential” for proper function, which means that they are not made inside your body and must be consumed in the diet.

A metabolites of isoleucine.

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a-Ketoadipic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 1.7 mmol/mol creatinine

Alpha-Ketoadipic acid (or 2-oxoadipate) is an intermediate in the metabolism of lysine.

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a-Ketoglutaric Acid (AKG)

Optimal range: 4 - 52 mmol/mol creatinine

Alpha-Ketoglutarate is an organic acid that is important for the proper metabolism of all essential amino acids. It is formed in the Krebs cycle, the energy-producing process that occurs in most body cells.

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a-Ketoisocaproic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 0.89 mmol/mol creatinine

a-Ketoisocaproic Acid is a B-Complex Vitamin Marker (Leucine catabolism).

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a-Ketoisovaleric Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 0.97 mmol/mol creatinine

Alpha-Ketoisovalerate (together with Alpha-Ketoisocaproate and Alpha-Keto-Beta-methylvalerate) requires Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5 and lipoic acid to be metabolized.

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a-Ketophenylacetic Acid (from Styrene)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.46 mmol/mol creatinine

a-Ketophenylacetic Acid (from Styrene) is a toxic breakdown product.

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Adipic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 2.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Adipic Acid, together with Suberate and Ethylmalonate are all functional markers for deficiency of carnitine.

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Arabinose

Optimal range: 0 - 96 mmol/mol creatinine

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in certain foods.

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B-OH-B-Methylglutaric Acid (HMG)

Optimal range: 0 - 15 mmol/mol creatinine

Hydroxymethylglutarate (HMG) is the precursor to Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) production, and when it is elevated it may indicate that the body is trying to increase its production of CoQ10.

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Benzoic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 0.05 mmol/mol creatinine

Benzoic Acid was one of the compounds first found to be elevated in urine from patients with intestinal bacterial overgrowth of various origins.

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Beta-OH-Butyric Acid (BHBA)

Optimal range: 0 - 2.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Ketone formed from acetyl CoA.

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Cis-Aconitic Acid

Optimal range: 10 - 36 mmol/mol creatinine

Cis-Aconitic Acid is involved in both energy production and removal of toxic ammonia.

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Citramalic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 5.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Metabolite of yeast or anaerobic bacteria, including Clostridia.

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Citric Acid

Optimal range: 40 - 520 mmol/mol creatinine

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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Dihydroxyphenylpropionic Acid (DHPPA)

Optimal range: 0 - 5.3 mmol/mol creatinine

Produced when Clostridia acts upon unabsorbed tryptophan, tyrosine or phenylalanine.

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Formiminoglutamic Acid (FIGlu)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.5 mmol/mol creatinine

Formiminoglutamic Acid (FIGlu) is a functional marker of insufficiency of folic acid, another B-vitamin, and is a compound made from the amino acid histidine.

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Glutaric Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 0.51 mmol/mol creatinine

Glutaric acid is a breakdown product of lysine and/or tryptophan.

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Hippuric Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 603 mmol/mol creatinine

Microbes resident in the large intestine of the human body help to break down complex aromatic compounds in dietary plant matter (polyphenols), freeing up benzoic acid, which enters the bloodstream. The liver can add the amino acid glycine to benzoic acid to form hippuric acid, which re-enters the blood and is absorbed by the kidneys. As a result, the kidneys excrete hundreds of milligrams of hippuric acid into the urine every day.

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Homogentisic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 19 mmol/mol creatinine

Homogentisic acid is a breakdown product of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic Acid (4-HPPA).

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Homovanillic Acid

Optimal range: 1.2 - 5.3 mmol/mol creatinine

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite.

Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)

Optimal range: 0 - 4.2 mmol/mol creatinine

Produced from bacterial degradation of unabsorbed tryptophan.

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Isocitric Acid

Optimal range: 22 - 65 mmol/mol creatinine

Citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, and isocitric acid are the first three metabolites in the Krebs Citric Acid energy production cycle, which operates in the mitochondria of your cells. 

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Isovalerylglycine

Optimal range: 0 - 3.7 mmol/mol creatinine

Isovalerylglycine is a breakdown product of leucine. 

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Kynurenic / Quinolinic Ratio

Optimal range: 0.44 - 5 Ratio

Kynurenic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 7.1 mmol/mol creatinine

Kynurenic Acid is product of the metabolism of L-Tryptophan and appears in urine in Vitamin B6 deficiencies. Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein.

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Lactic Acid

Optimal range: 1.9 - 19.8 mmol/mol creatinine

Formed from pyruvate in anaerobic or oxygen-starved (hypoxic) conditions to allow for ongoing production of ATP.

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Malic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 3 mmol/mol creatinine

Malic Acid is involved in the citric acid cycle (aka. Krebs cycle). The citric acid cycle is a series of reactions that occur in the mitochondrion to generate chemical energy that fuels the metabolism.

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Methylmalonic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 1.9 mmol/mol creatinine

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a substance produced in very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production.

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Orotic Acid

Optimal range: 0.33 - 1.01 mmol/mol creatinine

Orotic Acid is a sensitive marker of your liver’s capacity to convert toxic ammonia to non-toxic urea that you can excrete. That capacity can be increased by additional arginine. Ammonia toxicity can also be reduced by supplementation with α-ketoglutarate, magnesium, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. Ammonia impairs brain function, causing difficulty with thinking, fatigue, headaches, and increased food sensitivities.

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Phenylacetic Acid (PAA)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.12 mmol/mol creatinine

Produced from bacterial degradation of unabsorbed phenylalanine.

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Pyroglutamic Acid

Optimal range: 16 - 34 mmol/mol creatinine

Pyroglutamate (or Pyroglutamic acid) is an intermediate in the glutathione metabolism and a marker of glutathione deficiency.

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Pyruvic Acid

Optimal range: 7 - 32 mmol/mol creatinine

Pyruvic Acid feeds into the citric acid cycle & converts into acetyl CoA. Pyruvate is formed from carbohydrate via glucose or glycogen & secondarily from fats (glycerol) & glycogenic amino acids.

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Quinolinic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 9.1 mmol/mol creatinine

Quinolinic acid is a neurotoxic substance produced by our own bodies and a metabolite of tryptophan.

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Suberic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 2.1 mmol/mol creatinine

Suberic Acid, Adipate, and Ethylmalonate elevations can indicate that you may need additional carnitine and/or vitamin B2 to assist your cells in converting fats into energy efficiently.

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Succinic Acid

Optimal range: 0.4 - 4.6 mmol/mol creatinine

Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body.

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Tartaric Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 15 mmol/mol creatinine

Breakdown product of hyaluronic acid; also found in some foods.

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Vanilmandelic Acid

Optimal range: 0.4 - 3.6 mmol/mol creatinine

Vanilmandelic Acid is a breakdown product from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission.

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Xanthurenic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 0.96 mmol/mol creatinine

Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein. Inadequate vitamin B6 is one factor that leads to increased concentrations of kynurenate and xanthurenate in urine.

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