Essential Elements - Urine 24 hour (Doctor's Data)

Many clinicians request the analysis of essential elements in urine specimens to evaluate nutritional status and the efficacy of mineral supplementation during metal detoxification therapy. Metal detoxification agents can significantly increase the excretion of specific nutrient elements such as zinc, copper, manganese and molybdenum.

Chromium metabolism authorities suggest that 24-hour chromium excretion likely provides the best assessment of chromium status. Early indication of renal dysfunction can be gleaned from urinary wasting of essential elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium and sodium in an unprovoked specimen.

Variability in urine volume can drastically affect the concentration of elements. To compensate for urine dilution variation, elements are expressed per unit creatinine for timed collections. For 24-hour collections, elements are reported as both units per 24 hours and units per creatinine.

Boron

Optimal range: 0.5 - 4 mEq/g creat

Calcium

Optimal range: 30 - 350 mEq/g creat

Chromium

Optimal range: 0.0003 - 0.0025 mEq/g creat

Chromium (Cr) is essential for proper metabolism of glucose in humans. It potentiates the action of insulin via glucose tolerance factor (GTF) which is Cr+3 bound in a dinicotinic acid-glutathione complex. Other functions of Cr include aiding in lipid metabolism and assisting with HDL/LDL cholesterol balance.

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Cobalt

Optimal range: 0 - 0.008 mEq/g creat

Copper

Optimal range: 0.007 - 0.06 mEq/g creat

Iron

Optimal range: 0 - 1 mEq/g creat

Lithium

Optimal range: 0.009 - 0.2 mEq/g creat

Magnesium

Optimal range: 25 - 230 mEq/g creat

Manganese

Optimal range: 0.0004 - 0.007 mEq/g creat

Molybdenum

Optimal range: 0.013 - 0.15 mEq/g creat

Molybdenum is an essential activator of some important enzymes in the body: sulfite oxidase (catalyzes formation of sulfate from sulfite), xanthine oxidase (formation of uric acid and superoxide ion from xanthine), and aldehyde oxidase (processes aldehydes). Over 50% of absorbed Mo is normally excreted in urine; the remainder is excreted via bile to the feces or is excreted in sweat.

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Phosphorus

Optimal range: 180 - 1100 mEq/g creat

Potassium

Optimal range: 20 - 110 µg/mg creat

Selenium

Optimal range: 0.03 - 0.25 mEq/g creat

Sodium

Optimal range: 45 - 200 mEq/g creat

Strontium

Optimal range: 0.045 - 0.5 mEq/g creat

Sulfur

Optimal range: 275 - 1200 mEq/g creat

Vanadium

Optimal range: 0.0001 - 0.0017 mEq/g creat

Dietary vanadium is found in black pepper, mushrooms, dill seed, parsley, soy, corn, olive oil, radishes and other root vegetables, lettuces, nuts and strawberries. A balanced diet may provide 10 to 30 mcg of Vanadium per day. This trace element is important in cellular metabolism, bone and tooth formation, reproduction and growth. Also, Vanadium appears to be involved in glucose metabolism.

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Zinc

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.5 mEq/g creat