Immune System

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by “foreign” invaders. These are primarily microbes—tiny organisms such as bacteria, parasites, and fungi that can cause infections.

Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Antibody

Optimal range: 0 - 0.45 nmol/L

At the normal neuromuscular junction, a nerve cell tells a muscle cell to contract by releasing the chemical acetylcholine (ACh). ACh attaches to the ACh receptor — a pore or “channel” in the surface of the muscle cell — twisting it open and allowing an inward flux of electrical current that triggers muscle contraction.

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Antinuclear Antibodies Direct (ANA Direct)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.99 Units

Antinuclear antibodies or ANAs are autoantibodies that react to substances within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies can react to almost anything with the nucleus including DNA, centromeres, histones, ribosomes, and other nuclear proteins.

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CCP Antibodies IgG/IgA

Optimal range: 0 - 19 Units

Complement C3

Optimal range: 90 - 180 mg/dL

Investigation of renal/joint/connective tissue disorders and their symptoms.

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Complement C4, Serum

Optimal range: 14 - 44 mg/dL

Complement C4a

Optimal range: 0 - 650 ng/mL

ds-DNA Antibody, IgG

Optimal range: 0 - 29.9 IU/ml

Histamine, Plasma

Optimal range: 0 - 0.99 ng/mL

Histamine is a substance that is produced by the body as part of an allergic reaction.

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Immature Grans (Abs)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.1 x10E3/µL

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.

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Immature Granulocytes (%)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.5 %

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.

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Immunoglobulin A, Qn, Serum

Optimal range: 87 - 352 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin D, Quant, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 14.11 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin E, Total

Optimal range: 0 - 100 IU/ml

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) are antibodies produced by the immune system. 

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Immunoglobulin G, Qn, Serum

Optimal range: 700 - 1600 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and viral infections.

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Immunoglobulin M, Qn, Serum

Optimal range: 40 - 230 mg/dL

Jo 1 Antibodies, IgG, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 0.99 Units

Liver-Kidney Microsomal Antibodies

Optimal range: 0 - 20 Units

These antibodies target a human body’s produced enzyme called cytochrome P450 2D6, a protein found primarily in liver cells which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism. The development of the LKM antibodies is strongly associated with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.

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Lupus Anticoagulant

Optimal range: 0 - 0.1 GPL

Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining of cells. These substances prevent blood clotting in a test tube.

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Prothrombin Time (PT)

Optimal range: 11 - 13.5 seconds

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot.

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Prothrombin Time (PT) INR

Optimal range: 0.8 - 1.1 seconds

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot. 

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RA Latex Turbid

Optimal range: 0 - 13.9 IU/ml

The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) latex turbid test is a laboratory test that’s used to help your doctor diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.

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Rapid plasma reagin (RPR)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.001 Units

The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is a test used to screen for syphilis. The RPR test measures IgM and IgG antibodies to lipoidal material released from damaged host cells as well as to lipoprotein-like material, and possibly cardiolipin released from the treponemes. 

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Rheumatoid factor

Optimal range: 0 - 13.9 IU/ml

A rheumatoid factor test measures the amount of rheumatoid factor in your blood. Rheumatoid factors are proteins produced by your immune system that can attack healthy tissue in your body.

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TGF-b1

Optimal range: 344 - 2382 pg/mL

Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, and regulation of the immune system.

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Thrombin time

Optimal range: 11.3 - 18.5 seconds

Thrombin is an enzyme in the blood that acts on the clotting factor fibrinogen to form fibrin, helping blood to clot. The thrombin time assesses the activity of fibrinogen.

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Tryptase

Optimal range: 2.2 - 13.2 ug/L

Tryptase is an enzyme that is released, along with histamine and other chemicals, from mast cells when they are activated as part of a normal immune response as well as in allergic (hypersensitivity) responses.

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Vegf, Serum

Optimal range: 62 - 707 pg/mL

VEGF stands for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. VEGF is a growth factor that promotes the growth of new blood vessels.

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