Immune System

Biomarkers included in this panel:

14.3.3 ETA PROTEIN

The 14-3-3eta protein is a marker of synovial inflammation that is released into synovial fluid and peripheral blood in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and erosive psoriatic arthritis.

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Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Antibody

At the normal neuromuscular junction, a nerve cell tells a muscle cell to contract by releasing the chemical acetylcholine (ACh). ACh attaches to the ACh receptor — a pore or “channel” in the surface of the muscle cell —

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Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

The Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test tells you how many seconds (s) it takes your blood to form a clot after body tissue(s) or blood vessel walls were injured.

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Alpha 2-Macroglobulins, Qn

- Alpha-2-Macroglobulin is produced in the liver. - Increased concentrations are associated with patients with some chronic liver diseases, nephrotic syndrome, and diabetes. - Decreased concentrations are associated with patients with pancreati

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Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (α-MSH) is a peptide with diverse roles in the human body, particularly known for its involvement in skin pigmentation. It's a derivative of the larger pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) molecule, which is a pr

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ANA SCREEN A

ANA IFA is a first line screen for detecting the presence of up to approximately 150 autoantibodies in various autoimmune diseases. A positive ANA IFA result is suggestive of autoimmune disease and reflexes to titer and pattern. Further laboratory te

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ANA SCREEN B

ANA IFA is a first line screen for detecting the presence of up to approximately 150 autoantibodies in various autoimmune diseases. A positive ANA IFA result is suggestive of autoimmune disease and reflexes to titer and pattern. Further laboratory te

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ANA SCREEN, IFA

ANA IFA is a first line screen for detecting the presence of up to approximately 150 autoantibodies in various autoimmune diseases. A positive ANA IFA result is suggestive of autoimmune disease and reflexes to titer and pattern. Further laboratory te

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ANA Screen, IFA (Positive, Negative)

Blood

  The ANA Screen, IFA (Antinuclear Antibody Screen by Immunofluorescence Assay) is a key diagnostic test for detecting antinuclear antibodies, associated with autoimmune diseases like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. This sensitive method uses

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ANA titer

The ANA titer is a measure of the amount of ANA in the blood; the higher the titer, the more autoantibodies are present in the sample. Patient samples are often screened for antinuclear antibodies after being diluted 1:40 and 1:160 in a buffered s

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Anti-C1Q Ab, IgG (RDL)

Serial testing shows that increasing amounts of IgG anti-C1q predict renal flares in SLE patients. Elevated serum titers of anti-C1q antibodies tend to be associated with proliferative forms of lupus, glomerulonephritis and subendothelial deposits of

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Anti-DBL-Strand DNA Ab

The anti-dsDNA test identifies the presence of these autoantibodies in the blood. The test for anti-dsDNA, along with other autoantibody tests, may be used to help establish a diagnosis of lupus and distinguish it from other autoimmune disorders.

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Anti-dsDNA (Double-stranded) Ab by Farr method (RDL)

The anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) tests are used to help diagnose and monitor lupus, also called systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE, a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly targets the body’s ow

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Anti-dsDNA ab (Farr Assay)

The Anti-dsDNA antibody test, particularly the Farr assay, is a highly specific diagnostic tool pivotal in the evaluation and management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a complex autoimmune disorder. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies are

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Anti-Smith Antibody

The Anti-Smith Antibody targets your body’s own proteins and is found almost exclusively in people with lupus. Though not all people with lupus have this antibody (only around 30%), those who do usually receive a diagnosis of lupus. A

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Anticardiolipin Ab, IgM

- Anticardiolipins are antibodies produced by the immune system against the platelet membrane phospholipids responsible for the coagulation of blood clots.  - Anticardiolipin antibodies are often responsible (with lupus anticoagulants and bet

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Anticardiolipin Ab,IgA,Qn

- Anticardiolipins are antibodies produced by the immune system against the platelet membrane phospholipids responsible for the coagulation of blood clots.  - Anticardiolipin antibodies are often responsible (with lupus anticoagulants and bet

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Anticardiolipin Ab,IgG,Qn

- Anticardiolipins are antibodies produced by the immune system against the platelet membrane phospholipids responsible for the coagulation of blood clots.  - Anticardiolipin antibodies are often responsible (with lupus anticoagulants and bet

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Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) Screen, Reflex ANA IFA dsDNA Antibodies

Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) are a group of autoantibodies that target substances found in the nucleus of a cell. The ANA screen is a preliminary test used to detect the presence of these antibodies in the blood, which may indicate the presence of an

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Antinuclear Antibodies Direct (ANA Direct)

Antinuclear antibodies or ANAs are autoantibodies that react to substances within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies can react to almost anything with the nucleus including DNA, centromeres, histones, ribosomes, and other nuclear protein

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Antiphosphatidylserine IgA

This test is used as an aid in the diagnosis of certain autoimmune thrombotic disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (aPS). Antibodies to PS/PT correlate with the presence of lupus anticoagulants (LA) and this test may be useful in cases with d

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Antiphosphatidylserine IgG

This test is used as an aid in the diagnosis of certain autoimmune thrombotic disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (aPS). Antibodies to PS/PT correlate with the presence of lupus anticoagulants (LA) and this test may be useful in cases with d

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Antiphosphatidylserine IgM

This test is used as an aid in the diagnosis of certain autoimmune thrombotic disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (aPS). Antibodies to PS/PT correlate with the presence of lupus anticoagulants (LA) and this test may be useful in cases with d

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Baski sleepy

C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Func

C1 inhibitor is a multispecific, protease inhibitor that is present in normal human plasma and serum, and which regulates enzymes of the complement, coagulation, fibrinolytic, and kinin-forming systems. The enzymes (proteases) regulated by this prote

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C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Serum

Measurement of the C1 esterase inhibitor (the first component of the complement) is used to diagnose hereditary angioedema and to monitor levels of the inhibitor during treatment. The complement system is a group of nearly 60 proteins in

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C3A Desarg Fragment

desArg = without arginine C3a desArg is a cleavage product of C3 complement component activation. Elevated levels of C3a have been reported in patients with acute lyme disease, acute pancreatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and adult respi

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C4a Level by RIA

C4a Level by RIA (Radioimmunoassay) is an important test in immunology, offering insights into the body's immune response, particularly in the context of inflammation and autoimmune disorders. The C4a component is a part of the complement system,

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CARDIOLIPIN AB (IGA)

- Anticardiolipins are antibodies produced by the immune system against the platelet membrane phospholipids responsible for the coagulation of blood clots.  - Anticardiolipin antibodies are often responsible (with lupus anticoagulants and bet

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CARDIOLIPIN AB (IGG)

- Anticardiolipins are antibodies produced by the immune system against the platelet membrane phospholipids responsible for the coagulation of blood clots.  - Anticardiolipin antibodies are often responsible (with lupus anticoagulants and bet

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CARDIOLIPIN AB (IGM)

- Anticardiolipins are antibodies produced by the immune system against the platelet membrane phospholipids responsible for the coagulation of blood clots.  - Anticardiolipin antibodies are often responsible (with lupus anticoagulants and bet

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Carnitine Esters

Carnitine esters are special molecules in our bodies that help turn fat into energy. Think of them as tiny taxis that pick up fat from our bloodstream and take it into the mitochondria, the powerhouses of our cells. Inside the mitochondria, this fat

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Carnitine, Free

Serum carnitine analysis is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with carnitine deficiency (either primary or secondary). Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited genetic condition that affects carnitine uptake

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Carnitine, Total

Serum carnitine analysis is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with carnitine deficiency (either primary or secondary). Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited genetic condition that affects carnitine uptake

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CCP Antibodies IgG/IgA

Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) is an antibody present in most rheumatoid arthritis patients.

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Centromere

Centromere B Antibody is diagnostic for the form of scleroderma known as CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal immotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia). With a high specificity and a prevalence of 80 to 95%, antibodies agai

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Chromatin

Help to diagnose drug-induced lupus (DIL) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Antibodies to both chromatin and histones have been found in patients with procainamide-induced lupus; however, patients with lupus induced by drugs such as quinidine,

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Coccidioides Ab by CF

Serum

Coccidioides Antibodies by Complement Fixation (CF) is a serological blood test used to detect antibodies produced by the body in response to the fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis/posadasii. This test is employed in diagnosing and monitoring cocci

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Coccidioides Ab, IgG, EIA

Coccidioides Ab, IgG, EIA refers to a laboratory test that detects IgG antibodies against the fungus Coccidioides immitis, which causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever. This test is used to diagnose and monitor infections caused by thi

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Coccidioides Ab, IgM, EIA

Complement C1q, Quantitative

Complement C3

Measurements of serum complement components C3 is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of immune complex disease e.g. SLE (Systemic lupus erythematosus) and some blood associated infectious diseases. Complement concentrations are acute phase p

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Complement C3a

C3 is the most abundant protein of the complement system. C3 can be cleaved in two divalent fragments, where C3b is the larger fragment. C3a is the smaller fragment that is released into the surrounding fluids. C3a can bind to receptors on basophils

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Complement C4, Serum

Complement component 4 (C4) is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein. This protein is part of the complement system.

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Complement C4a

Plasma

Complement C4a levels can be elevated in conditions associated with inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases, infections, and some neurological disorders. It can also be used in the evaluation of certain pregnancy-related conditions.

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Complement Component C1Q

Complement Component C1Q is a vital element in the field of immunology and diagnostic medicine, playing a crucial role in the assessment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. This component forms part of the complement system, a group of proteins

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Complement, Total (CH50)

A total complement measurement, also known as a total hemolytic complement or a CH50 measurement, checks how well the complement system is functioning. Complement was discovered by Jules Bordet as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that caus

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Complement, Total (CH50) / Quest

A total complement measurement, also known as a total hemolytic complement or a CH50 measurement, checks how well the complement system is functioning. Complement was discovered by Jules Bordet as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that caus

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Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody

Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are autoantibodies produced by the immune system that are directed against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP). This test detects and measures anti-CCP antibodies in the blood. Citrulline is naturally produced

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Dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT)

Dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT) is a laboratory test often used for detection of lupus anticoagulant (LA). Russell's viper venom [RVV] isolated from the snake Daboia russelii contains a potent activator of factor

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Diphtheria Antitoxoid Antibody

Diphtheria antitoxoid antibodies are specific immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies) produced by the human immune system in response to the diphtheria toxoid vaccine or exposure to the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diph

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DNA AB Double Stranded Titer

The evaluation of patients with suspected systemic rheumatic disease, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

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DNA Double-Stranded Ab, IgG

Useful to evaluate patients with signs and symptoms consistent with lupus erythematosus (SLE). Of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-specific antibodies the antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is the most common. Testing for IgG antib

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DRVVT SCREEN

Dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT) is a laboratory test often used for detection of lupus anticoagulant (LA). Russell's viper venom [RVV] isolated from the snake Daboia russelii contains a potent activator of factor

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ds-DNA Antibody, IgG

Evaluating patients with signs and symptoms consistent with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

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dsDNA

The anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) tests are used to help diagnose and monitor lupus, also called systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE, a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly targets the body’s ow

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ENA to Smith (Sm) Antibody

The ENA (Extractable Nuclear Antigens) to Smith (Sm) antibody test plays a pivotal role in the field of autoimmune diagnostics, particularly in the context of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Smith antibodies are a subset of antinuclear antibodies

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Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP)

Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a ribonuclease that is part of the RNase A superfamily, primarily associated with the body's immune response mechanisms, especially in the context of allergic reactions and parasitic infections. ECP is rele

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Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is a relatively simple, inexpensive, non-specific test that has been used for many years to help detect inflammation associated with conditions such as infections, cancers, and 

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Esterified/Free Ratio

The esterified/free carnitine ratio, often measured in clinical settings, is a valuable indicator of carnitine metabolism balance within the body. This ratio compares the amount of carnitine bound to fatty acids (esterified carnitine) to the amount o

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F004-IgE Wheat

The Wheat Allergy test looks for IgE antibodies which the body develops in response to proteins found in wheat.  Today almost a half of the calories consumed by the human population worldwide come from cereals, with wheat being the most popul

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Free Kappa Lt Chains, Serum

Light chains are proteins produced by immune cells called plasma cells. Also called kappa light chains, they link together with other proteins (heavy chains) to form immunoglobulins (= antibodies) that target and neutralize specific threats to the bo

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Free Lambda Lt Chains, Serum

Light chains are proteins produced by immune cells called plasma cells. Also called “Free Lambda Light Chains” they link together with other proteins (heavy chains) to form immunoglobulins (= antibodies) that

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Gastrin

The Gastrin test is a simple blood test that checks for excess gastrin production. Gastrin is a hormone your stomach makes to fuel the release of gastric acid. Your body needs this to digest and absorb nutrients in your food, part

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GlycA

Serum

The GlycA test assesses a specific NMR signal, distinct from lipoprotein particle analysis, and is regarded as a potential marker of systemic inflammation, offering clinical utility comparable to high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinoge

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Helicobacter pylori Abs, Serum

Serum

The marker Helicobacter pylori Abs, Serum, detected through a serology test using the immunochromatography method, is a crucial diagnostic tool in identifying infections caused by the Helicobacter pylori bacteria. This bacteria is known to cause vari

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Hemoglobin A2 (Quant)

Hemoglobin A2 (Quant), a key parameter in the Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Comprehensive (COMP) panel, is pivotal in diagnosing and managing various blood disorders. This comprehensive panel is designed to detect and monitor conditions involving

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HISTAMINE RELEASE (CHRONIC URTICARIA)

Chronic Urticaria (CU) is a common skin disorder affecting 1 to 6% of the general population.

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Histamine, Plasma

Plasma

Histamine is a substance that is produced by the body as part of an allergic reaction.

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Histone

This test distinguishes drug-induced lupus from other lupus variants and autoimmune conditions. Though not a definitive diagnostic tool, histone antibodies align with drug-induced lupus. It's often ordered alongside a positive ANA test and someti

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HLA-B27 (Human Leukocyte Antigen B27)

- To determine whether you have human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) on the surface of your cells - To help assess the likelihood that you have an autoimmune disorder associated with the presence of HLA-B27. - Autoimmune disorders occur when t

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Human Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-b1)

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a vital protein in human health, belonging to the broader TGF-β superfamily. This protein is a key regulator in numerous bodily functions, primarily focusing on cell growth, division, and develo

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IGE ANTIBODY (ANTI IGE IGG)

Testing for IgE antibodies is essential in diagnosing and managing allergic diseases. IgE is linked to allergic reactions, and its level can indicate the severity of symptoms and the risk of severe reactions like anaphylaxis. Testing helps identify s

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Immature Grans (Abs)

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.

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Immature Granulocytes (%)

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.

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Immunofixation Result, Serum

Serum

Immunofixation electrophoresis or immunosubtraction capillary electrophoresis identifies the type of immunoglobulin protein(s) present as monoclonal bands on a protein electrophoresis pattern. Typically, this testing determines the presence and

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Immunoglobulin A, Qn, Serum

Immunoglobulin A (IgA), one of the five primary immunoglobulins, plays a pivotal role in mucosal homeostasis in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts, functioning as the dominant antibody of immunity in this role. Total IgA (

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Immunoglobulin D, Quant, Serum

Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an antibody isotype that makes up about 1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of immature B-lymphocytes where it is usually coexpressed with another cell surface antibody called IgM. Remains in the bloodstream to fi

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IMMUNOGLOBULIN E

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a key antibody in the immune system, crucial for diagnosing and managing allergies. Testing for IgE is important for identifying specific allergens causing allergic reactions, which can range from mild symptoms like sneezing

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Immunoglobulin E, Total

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) are antibodies produced by the immune system.  IgE antibodies are found in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes. They cause the body to react against foreign substances such as pollen, fungus spores, and animal dander.

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Immunoglobulin G, Qn, Serum

Serum

The most abundant immunoglobulin in human serum is immunoglobulin G (IgG) (approximately 80% of the total). IgG protein is comprised of molecules of 4 subclasses designated IgG1 through IgG4. Each subclass contains molecules with a structurally uniqu

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Immunoglobulin M, Qn, Serum

Serum

Immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid, is the first antibody to be made by the body to fight a new infection. Expressed on the surface of B cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avi

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Influenza Type A Antibody Serum

Serum

Influenza Type A antibody serum refers to the specific antibodies present in the blood serum that are directed against Influenza virus Type A, a highly variable virus responsible for seasonal flu epidemics and occasional pandemics. These antibodies a

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Influenza Type B Antibody Serum

Serum

The marker "Influenza Type B Antibody Serum" refers to the presence of specific antibodies in the serum that are produced in response to infection with Influenza Type B virus or following vaccination against this virus. These antibodies are

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Interleukin-2, Serum

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic (=having multiple effects from a single gene) cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen- activated T lymphocytes. Interleukin 2 is an important disease marker in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (

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Interleukin-6

Interleukin-6 is involved in inflammation and infection responses and also in the regulation of metabolic, regenerative, and neural processes.

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Jo 1 Antibodies, IgG, Serum

This test measures the amount of antibodies to anti-Jo-1 in blood. It is used to help diagnose and manage muscle diseases that affects the immune system such as polymyositis (a type of chronic inflammation of the muscles) associated with autoimm

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JO-1

Presence of Jo-1 (antihistidyl transfer RNA [t-RNA] synthetase) antibody is associated with polymyositis and may also be seen in patients with dermatomyositis. Polymyositis is one of a group of rare diseases called the inflammatory myopathies

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Kappa/Lambda Ratio, Serum

Free light chains will normally be present in the blood at low levels, with a kappa/lambda ratio of approximately 0.26 to 1.65 for individuals with normal kidney function. Excess production of free kappa or lambda chains can alter this ratio. Mono

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Liver Kidney Mic IgG

Liver-Kidney Microsome IgG antibody (anti-LKM), as detected by indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) techniques, may be observed in patients with autoimmune hepatitis type 2 (AIH-2), AIH-2 associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis

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Liver-Kidney Microsomal Antibodies

These antibodies target a human body’s produced enzyme called cytochrome P450 2D6, a protein found primarily in liver cells which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism. The development of the LKM antibodies is strongly associ

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Lupus Anticoagulant

Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining of cells. These substances prevent blood clotting in a test tube.

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Measles Antibodies, IgG

The measles virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family, which also includes parainfluenza virus serotypes 1-4, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and metapneumovirus. Measles is highly contagious, primarily transmitted through direct contact

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Mumps Abs, IgG

The mumps virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family, which also encompasses parainfluenza virus serotypes 1-4, measles, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Mumps is highly contagious, primarily transmitted through inhaling infected re

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PEP A2Glob

PEP A2Glob, also known as Pepsinogen A2 Globulin, is a specific biomarker of considerable interest in the field of gastroenterology and digestive health. Pepsinogen, an inactive precursor of the enzyme pepsin, plays a critical role in protein digesti

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PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINE AB (IGA)

Anti-phosphatidylethanolamine (aPE) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies against phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and is associated with clinical symptoms of thrombosis and repeated pregnancy loss.

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PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINE AB (IGG)

Anti-phosphatidylethanolamine (aPE) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies against phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and is associated with clinical symptoms of thrombosis and repeated pregnancy loss.

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PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINE AB (IGM)

Anti-phosphatidylethanolamine (aPE) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies against phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and is associated with clinical symptoms of thrombosis and repeated pregnancy loss.

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PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE AB (IGA)

The presence of phosphatidylserine antibodies may be associated with thrombosis, fetal loss and thrombocytopenia.

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PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE AB (IGG)

The presence of phosphatidylserine antibodies may be associated with thrombosis, fetal loss and thrombocytopenia.

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PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE AB (IGM)

The presence of phosphatidylserine antibodies may be associated with thrombosis, fetal loss and thrombocytopenia.

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Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) AG

PAI-1 is a serine protein inhibitor that is secreted in response to inflammatory reactions. PAI-1 is the main inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and, as such, plays an important role in t

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Procalcitonin

Procalcitonin is a marker of significant interest in the medical field, particularly when it comes to diagnosing and managing infections. Produced in response to a bacterial infection, procalcitonin levels in the blood can help doctors determine the

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Prothrombin Fragment 1.2

Prothrombin Fragment 1.2 is stable degradation product and its measurement in plasma can be used as a marker of Thrombin generation. Measurement of F1+2 has been used to diagnose Pre-thrombotic states and Thrombotic disorders and in addition to monit

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Prothrombin Time (PT)

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot.

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Prothrombin Time (PT) INR

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot. A prothrombin time test can be used to check for bleeding problems. PT is also used to check whether medicine

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RA Latex Turbid

The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) latex turbid test is a laboratory test that’s used to help your doctor diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.

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Reptilase Clotting Time

The reptilase clotting time measures the rate of fibrin clot formation after the addition of reptilase, a proteolytic enzyme derived from the venom of Bothrops atrox, to citrated plasma. Reptilase is a thrombin-like enzyme.  Unlike thrombi

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RF, IgA by EIA (RDL)

RF, IgG by EIA (RDL)

RF, IgM by EIA (RDL)

Rheumatoid factor (RF)

What is the Rheumatoid factor (RF) test? The rheumatoid factor (RF) test is a blood test that's often used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The test measures the amount of RF in your blood. What is the Rheumatoid factor? The r

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RNA Polymerase III Antibodies

Serum

RNA Polymerase III antibodies are a specific type of autoantibody that can play a significant role in helping doctors understand certain health conditions. Imagine your body's immune system as a well-trained security system. Sometimes, this syste

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RNP/Sm

RNP/Sm Antibody is an extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) associated with Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are autoantibodies in the blood that react with proteins in the cell nucleus. These proteins are kno

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Scl-70

Scl-70 is also known as Topoisomerase I Antibody. Topoisomerase I antibodies were initially named Scl-70 based on immunoblot detection of a 70-kDa protein. The prevalence of Scl-70 antibodies in SSc varies widely across geographies and ethnicit

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Sed Rate by Modified Westergren

The marker Sed Rate by Modified Westergren, also known as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or sedimentation rate, is a common blood test used by doctors to measure inflammation in the body, which is the natural response to injury or infection

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SICKLE CELL SCRN

Sickle Cell Screening (SCRN) is a vital medical procedure designed to detect sickle cell disease, a genetic blood disorder characterized by irregularly shaped red blood cells. This screening is crucial for early diagnosis and management, especially i

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Sirolimus, Whole Blood

Whole Blood

Sm

Sm antibodies are specific for lupus erythematosus (LE) and occur in approximately 30% of LE patients. The levels of Sm antibodies remain relatively constant over time in patients with LE and are usually found in patients that also have RNP (ribonucl

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SM/RNP Antibody

SM/RNP Antibody is an extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) associated with Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are autoantibodies in the blood that react with proteins in the cell nucleus. These proteins are kno

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Smith/RNP (ENA) Ab, IGG

Smith/RNP (ENA) antibodies, predominantly of the IgG class, are a significant marker in the diagnostic landscape of autoimmune diseases, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). These antibodies targ

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Smooth Muscle Abs, IFA

Smooth Muscle Antibodies (SMA), identified through the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), are pivotal in diagnosing autoimmune liver diseases, particularly Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH). SMA-IFA testing detects antibodies targeting actin, a protein in smoo

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SSA

Anti-Ro (SS-A) is an autoantibody associated with SLE or Sjögren’s syndrome. Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly reacts to the tissue in glands that produce moisture

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SSB

Anti-SS-B (anti-La) is an autoantibody associated with SLE or Sjögren’s syndrome. Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly reacts to the tissue in glands that produce moi

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ssDNA

ssDNA is an autoimmune diagnostic test that detects autoantibodies against single stranded DNA (ssDNA). Antibodies to single-stranded DNA is seen in a wide variety of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), drug-indu

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Tacrolimus, Whole Blood

Whole Blood

Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant widely used in organ transplantation, is routinely monitored in whole blood to ensure therapeutic efficacy and minimize toxicity. Chemically known as FK506, tacrolimus binds to the immunophilin FKBP-12, forming

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Tetanus Antitoxoid IgG Ab

Tetanus is a serious disease caused by the toxin from Clostridium tetani bacteria. The toxin makes its way into the nervous system and causes muscle spasms and rigid muscles. If you have been vaccinated for tetanus in the past, this test should sh

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TGF-b1

Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, and regulation of the immune system. Transforming growth factor beta is found in hematopoietic (blood-forming) tissue and initi

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Thrombin time

Thrombin is an enzyme in the blood that acts on the clotting factor fibrinogen to form fibrin, helping blood to clot. The thrombin time assesses the activity of fibrinogen.

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Thrombin-Antithrombin TAT

The Thrombin-Antithrombin Complex keeps clotting in check. Thrombin-Antithrombin (TAT) Complex is a parameter of coagulation (= the process by which a blood clot is formed in order to stop bleeding) and fibrinolysis (= prevents blood clots that oc

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Trans. Growth Fact. beta 1

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine playing a pivotal role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune responses. As a member of the Transfo

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Transforming Growth Factor beta, Plasma

Transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional peptide growth factor that has an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and repair in a variety of tissues.

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Tryptase

Tryptase is an enzyme that is released, along with histamine and other chemicals, from mast cells when they are activated as part of a normal immune response as well as in allergic (hypersensitivity) responses.

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Tumor Necrosis Factor

Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF alpha), is an inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages/monocytes during acute inflammation and is responsible for a diverse range of signalling events within cells, leading to necrosis or apoptosis. The protein

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Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) DNA, Qualitative, Real-Time PCR

Whole Blood DNA

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). VZV produces a generalized vesicular rash on the dermis (chickenpox) in normal children, usually before 10 years of age. After primary infection with VZV, t

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VEGF, Plasma

VEGF stands for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. VEGF is a growth factor that promotes the growth of new blood vessels.

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Von Willebrand Factor Antigen (vWF)

What Is a Von Willebrand Factor Antigen Test? Von Willebrand factor is involved in a few stages of blood clotting. Proteins called clotting factors are needed for blood to clot properly and help prevent too much bleeding. A von Willebrand

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vWF Activity

Blood

A von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity – ristocetin cofactor test lets you evaluate the functioning of the protein vWF, which helps blood to clot. A clot is a lump of blood that the body produces to prevent excessive bleeding by sealing le

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