Immune System

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by “foreign” invaders. These are primarily microbes—tiny organisms such as bacteria, parasites, and fungi that can cause infections.

Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Antibody

Optimal range: 0 - 0.45 nmol/L

At the normal neuromuscular junction, a nerve cell tells a muscle cell to contract by releasing the chemical acetylcholine (ACh). ACh attaches to the ACh receptor — a pore or “channel” in the surface of the muscle cell — twisting it open and allowing an inward flux of electrical current that triggers muscle contraction.


Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

Optimal range: 26 - 36 seconds

The Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test tells you how many seconds (s) it takes your blood to form a clot after body tissue(s) or blood vessel walls were injured.


Anti-Smith Antibody

Optimal range: 0 - 7 U/mL

The Anti-Smith Antibody targets your body’s own proteins and is found almost exclusively in people with lupus. Though not all people with lupus have this antibody (only around 30%), those who do usually receive a diagnosis of lupus. Anti-Smith antibody is more common in blacks and Asians with SLE (around 60%) than in whites with SLE.


Antinuclear Antibodies Direct (ANA Direct)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.99 Units

Antinuclear antibodies or ANAs are autoantibodies that react to substances within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies can react to almost anything with the nucleus including DNA, centromeres, histones, ribosomes, and other nuclear proteins.


CCP Antibodies IgG/IgA

Optimal range: 0 - 19 Units

Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) is an antibody present in most rheumatoid arthritis patients.


Complement C3

Optimal range: 90 - 180 mg/dL

Investigation of renal/joint/connective tissue disorders and their symptoms.


Complement C3a

Optimal range: 54 - 202 ng/mL

C3 is the most abundant protein of the complement system. C3 can be cleaved in two divalent fragments, where C3b is the larger fragment. C3a is the smaller fragment that is released into the surrounding fluids. C3a can bind to receptors on basophils and mast cells triggering them to release their vasoactive amines (e.g. histamine). Because of the role of these biomarkers in anaphylaxis, C3a is called an anaphylatoxin. C3a is one of the most potent constrictors of smooth muscle cells. C3a has been shown to be a multifunctional pro-inflammatory mediator.


Complement C4, Serum

Optimal range: 14 - 44 mg/dL

Complement component 4 (C4) is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein. This protein is part of the complement system.


Complement C4a

Optimal range: 0 - 650 ng/mL

The complement C4 test is one of the most frequently used complement component tests. Your doctor may order a complement C4 test if you’re experiencing symptoms that indicate an autoimmune disease.


Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody

Optimal range: 0 - 19.9 Units

To help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and differentiate it from other types of arthritis.


ds-DNA Antibody, IgG

Optimal range: 0 - 29.9 IU/ml

Evaluating patients with signs and symptoms consistent with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).


Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

Optimal range: 0 - 32 mm/hr

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is a relatively simple, inexpensive, non-specific test that has been used for many years to help detect inflammation associated with conditions such as infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.


Histamine, Plasma

Optimal range: 0 - 0.99 ng/mL

Histamine is a substance that is produced by the body as part of an allergic reaction.


Immature Grans (Abs)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.1 x10E3/µL

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.


Immature Granulocytes (%)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.5 %

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.


Immunoglobulin A, Qn, Serum

Optimal range: 87 - 352 mg/dL

IgA antibodies are found in areas of the body such the nose, breathing passages, digestive tract, ears, eyes, and vagina. IgA antibodies protect body surfaces that are exposed to outside foreign substances. This type of antibody is also found in saliva, tears, and blood. About 10% to 15% of the antibodies present in the body are IgA antibodies. A small number of people do not make IgA antibodies.


Immunoglobulin D, Quant, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 14.11 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin E, Total

Optimal range: 6 - 495 IU/ml

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) are antibodies produced by the immune system. 

IgE antibodies are found in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes. They cause the body to react against foreign substances such as pollen, fungus spores, and animal dander. They are also involved in allergic reactions to milk, some medicines, and some poisons.


Immunoglobulin G, Qn, Serum

Optimal range: 586 - 1602 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and viral infections.


Immunoglobulin M, Qn, Serum

Optimal range: 26 - 300 mg/dL

Immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid, is the first antibody to be made by the body to fight a new infection. Expressed on the surface of B cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avidity (forms multiple binding sites with antigen). Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B-cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG. 


Interleukin-2, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 31.2 pg/mL

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic (=having multiple effects from a single gene) cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen- activated T lymphocytes. Interleukin 2 is an important disease marker in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), but there are no published data on its diagnostic value in adults.



Optimal range: 0 - 1.8 pg/mL

Interleukin-6 is involved in inflammation and infection responses and also in the regulation of metabolicregenerative, and neural processes.


Jo 1 Antibodies, IgG, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 0.99 Units

This test measures the amount of antibodies to anti-Jo-1 in blood. It is used to help diagnose and manage muscle diseases that affects the immune system such as polymyositis (a type of chronic inflammation of the muscles) associated with autoimmune disease.


Liver-Kidney Microsomal Antibodies

Optimal range: 0 - 20 Units

These antibodies target a human body’s produced enzyme called cytochrome P450 2D6, a protein found primarily in liver cells which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism. The development of the LKM antibodies is strongly associated with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.


Lupus Anticoagulant

Optimal range: 0 - 0.1 GPL

Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining of cells. These substances prevent blood clotting in a test tube.


Prothrombin Time (PT)

Optimal range: 9 - 11.5 seconds

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot.


Prothrombin Time (PT) INR

Optimal range: 0.8 - 1.1 seconds

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot. 


RA Latex Turbid

Optimal range: 0 - 13.9 IU/ml

The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) latex turbid test is a laboratory test that’s used to help your doctor diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.


Rheumatoid factor

Optimal range: 0 - 14 IU/ml

A rheumatoid factor test measures the amount of rheumatoid factor in your blood. Rheumatoid factors are proteins produced by your immune system that can attack healthy tissue in your body.



Optimal range: 344 - 2382 pg/mL

Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, and regulation of the immune system. Transforming growth factor beta is found in hematopoietic (blood-forming) tissue and initiates a signaling pathway that suppresses the early development of cancer cells. It enhances the deposition of extracellular matrix and may play potential role in wound healing and cirrhosis formation. Many cells synthesize TGF-b and almost all of them have specific receptors for this peptide.

TGF Beta-1 is a protein that has important regulatory effects throughout innate immune pathways.  This protein helps control the growth and division (proliferation) of cells, the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation), cell movement (motility), and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis).  The TGF Beta-1 protein is found throughout the body and plays a role in development before birth, the formation of blood vessels, the regulation of muscle tissue and body fat development, wound healing, and immune system function (especially regulatory T-cells).

TGF Beta-1 can impair T-regulatory cell function, which in turn contributes to the activation of autoimmunity, yet TGF Beta-1 also plays a role in suppressing autoimmunity. Neurologic, autoimmune and many other systemmic problems also are found with high TGF Beta-1.


Thrombin time

Optimal range: 11.3 - 18.5 seconds

Thrombin is an enzyme in the blood that acts on the clotting factor fibrinogen to form fibrin, helping blood to clot. The thrombin time assesses the activity of fibrinogen.


Transforming Growth Factor beta, Plasma

Optimal range: 463 - 5423 pg/mL

Transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional peptide growth factor that has an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and repair in a variety of tissues.



Optimal range: 2.2 - 13.2 ug/L

Tryptase is an enzyme that is released, along with histamine and other chemicals, from mast cells when they are activated as part of a normal immune response as well as in allergic (hypersensitivity) responses.


VEGF, Plasma

Optimal range: 0 - 115 pg/mL

VEGF stands for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. VEGF is a growth factor that promotes the growth of new blood vessels.