Immune System

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by “foreign” invaders. These are primarily microbes—tiny organisms such as bacteria, parasites, and fungi that can cause infections.

Antinuclear Antibodies Direct (ANA Direct)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.001 Units

Antinuclear antibodies or ANAs are autoantibodies that react to substances within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies can react to almost anything with the nucleus including DNA, centromeres, histones, ribosomes, and other nuclear proteins.


Complement C4, Serum

Optimal range: 14 - 44 mg/dL

Immature Grans (Abs)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.1 x10E3/µL

Immature granulocytes are white blood cells that are immature. Whenever your body is fighting an infection, it will increase its white blood cell count, and more white blood cells will be immature.


Immature Granulocytes (%)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 0.5 %

Rheumatoid factor

Optimal range: 0 - 13.9 IU/ml

A rheumatoid factor test measures the amount of rheumatoid factor in your blood. Rheumatoid factors are proteins produced by your immune system that can attack healthy tissue in your body.


Vegf, Serum

Optimal range: 62 - 707 pg/mL

VEGF stands for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. VEGF is a growth factor that promotes the growth of new blood vessels.