Environmental Toxins


Performed by: Vibrant America

Biomarkers included in this panel:

2-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (2HIB)

2-Hydroxyisobutyric acid is formed endogenously as a product of branched-chain amino acid degradation and ketogenesis. This compound is also the major metabolite of gasoline octane enhancers such as MTBE and ETBE.

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3-Methylhippuric Acid (3MHA)

Methylhippuric Acids (MHAs) are metabolites of xylene (dimethylbenzenes). Xylenes are widely used as solvents in products including paints, detergents, pesticides, fuel, perfumes, and exhaust fumes. The main effect of inhaling xylene vapor is

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4-Methylhippuric Acid (4MHA)

Since 4-methylhippuric acid (4-MHA) is a metabolite of p-xylene, the measurement of 4-MHA in urine may be correlated to a subject's level of xylene exposure.

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Atrazine one of the most widely used herbicides in US to prevent pre- and postemergence broadleaf weeds in crops such as maize (corn) and sugarcane and on turf, such as golf courses and residential lawns. It used to be the most commonly detected pest

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Dimethylphosphate (DMP)

Organophosphates are one of the most toxic groups of substances in the world, primarily found in pesticide formulations. They are inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes, leading to overstimulation of nerve cells, causing sweating, salivation, diarrhea,

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Ethylparaben belongs to the paraben family and is an anti-fungal agent often used in a variety of cosmetics and personal-care products. It is also used as a food preservative. Although parabens are generally considered safe when used in low percentag

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mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP)

MEHP is a metabolite of Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) which belongs to the most common environmental toxin phthalates. Phthalates, often known as plasticizers, are a group of chemicals used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break. T

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N-Acetyl (2-Cyanoethyl) Cysteine (NACE)

NACE is a metabolite of acrylonitrile, which is used in the production of acrylic fibers, resins, and rubber. Acrylonitrile is metabolized by the cytochrome P450s and then conjugated to glutathione. Supplementation with glutathione should assist i

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N-Acetyl Propyl Cysteine (NAPR)

NAPR is a metabolite of 1-bromopropane.  Chronic exposure can lead to decreased cognitive function and impairment of the central nervous system.  Acute exposure can lead to headaches. 1-bromopropane is an organic solvent used for metal c

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Phenylglyoxylic Acid (PGO)

Styrene is used in the manufacturing of plastics, in building materials, and is found in car exhaust fumes. Polystyrene and its copolymers are widely used as food-packaging materials. The ability of styrene monomer to leach from polystyrene packaging

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Triclosan is an antibacterial and antifungal agent present in some consumer products, including toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and surgical cleaning treatments. Humans are exposed to triclosan through skin absorption when washing hands or in

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