DUTCH

The DUTCH test is a urine steroid hormone test that measures hormones and hormone metabolites from a dried urine sample.

16-OH-E1

Optimal range: 0.7 - 2.6 ng/mg

16α-Hydroxyestrone (16α-OH-E1), or hydroxyestrone, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3,16α-diol-17-one, is an endogenous steroidal estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone, as well as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of estriol. It is a potent estrogen similarly to estrone, and it has been suggested that the ratio of 16α-hydroxyestrone to 2-OH-E1, the latter being much less estrogenic in comparison and even antiestrogenic in the presence of more potent estrogens like estradiol, may be involved in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Conversely, 16α-hydroxyestrone may help to protect against osteoporosis.

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2-Methoxy-E1

Optimal range: 2.5 - 6.5 ng/mg

The 2-Methoxy Estrogens are considered to be protective. Low levels are usually a reflection of overall low estrogens and may be improved with supplemental estrogen.

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2-Methoxy-E2

Optimal range: 0.3 - 0.7 ng/mg

The 2-Methoxy Estrogens are considered to be protective. Low levels are usually a reflection of overall low estrogens and may be improved with supplemental estrogen.

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2-OH-E1

Optimal range: 5.1 - 13.1 ng/mg

2-Hydroxyestrone is an endogenous biomarker and major urinary metabolite of estrone and estradiol. Along with 16α-Hydroxyestrone, 2-Hydroxyestrone is used as an indicator for increased risk of breast cancer. 

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2-OH-E2

Optimal range: 0 - 1.2 ng/mg

Research and clinical studies show that the 2-hydroxylated estrogens (2-OH E2 and 2-OH E1) are a safer pathway of hydroxylation than the 4-hydroxyestrogens (4-OH E2 and 4-OH E1), which bind to and damage DNA, leading to mutations that are associated with increased breast cancer risk.

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24hr Free Cortisol

Optimal range: 80 - 230 ug

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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24hr Free Cortisone

Optimal range: 220 - 450 ug

4-OH-E1

Optimal range: 0 - 1.8 ng/mg

A very carcinogenic estrogen metabolite, levels low in the reference range are desirable. Additional magnesium, liver support, and methylation support may help decrease 4-OH-E1 levels.

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4-OH-E2

Optimal range: 0.15 - 0.5 ng/mg

4 hydroxy estrone (4-OH-E1) and estradiol (4-OH-E2) are metabolites of estrone and estradiol, are very reactive estrogens and may increase risk of estrogen-sensitive cancers.

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5-Hydroxyindoleacetate (5HIAA)

Optimal range: 2.5 - 7.5 ug/mg

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

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5a-Androstanediol

Optimal range: 12 - 30 ng/mg

5a-DHT

Optimal range: 0 - 6.6 ng/mg

5a-DHT is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone. The enzyme 5α-reductase catalyzes the formation of DHT from testosterone in certain tissues including the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, epididymides, skin, hair follicles, liver, and brain.

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5b-Androstanediol

Optimal range: 20 - 75 ng/mg

8-OHdG (Waking)

Optimal range: 0 - 5.2 ng/mg

8-OHdG measures the effect of endogenous oxidative damage to DNA. The marker is used to estimate the risk for various cancers and degenerative diseases. Adjusting treatments and lifestyle to minimize the presence of 8-OHdG is a productive step toward health and longevity.

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a-Pregnanediol (luteal range)

Optimal range: 200 - 740 ng/mg

This test measures pregnanediol, a metabolite of progesterone. It is used in the evaluation and decision making in women who are having difficulty becoming pregnant or maintaining a pregnancy. It is also used to monitor “high-risk” pregnancies.

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a-Pregnanediol (oral progesterone range)

Optimal range: 580 - 3000 ng/mg

This test measures pregnanediol, a metabolite of progesterone. It is used in the evaluation and decision making in women who are having difficulty becoming pregnant or maintaining a pregnancy. It is also used to monitor “high-risk” pregnancies.

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a-Pregnanediol (postmenopausal range)

Optimal range: 15 - 50 ng/mg

This test measures pregnanediol, a metabolite of progesterone. It is used in the evaluation and decision making in women who are having difficulty becoming pregnant or maintaining a pregnancy. It is also used to monitor “high-risk” pregnancies.

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a-Tetrahydrocortisol (a-THF)

Optimal range: 75 - 370 ng/mg

Metabolized cortisol is the sum of a-tetrahydrocortisol (a-THF), b-tetrahydrocortisol (b-THF), and b-tetrahydrocortisone (b-THE). They are a good indication of the total cortisol output from the adrenal gland or clearance out the body.

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Androsterone

Optimal range: 200 - 1650 ng/mg

b-Pregnanediol (luteal range)

Optimal range: 600 - 2000 ng/mg

Pregnanediol is a metabolite of the molecule of progesterone, which is important for fertility and for menstruation. Pregnanediol levels increase after ovulation and when the placenta releases the hormone.

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b-Pregnanediol (male)

Optimal range: 75 - 400 ng/mg

b-Pregnanediol (oral progesterone range)

Optimal range: 2000 - 9000 ng/mg

Pregnanediol is a metabolite of the molecule of progesterone, which is important for fertility and for menstruation. Pregnanediol levels increase after ovulation and when the placenta releases the hormone.

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b-Pregnanediol (postmenopausal range)

Optimal range: 60 - 200 ng/mg

Pregnanediol is a metabolite of the molecule of progesterone, which is important for fertility and for menstruation. Pregnanediol levels increase after ovulation and when the placenta releases the hormone.

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b-Tetrahydrocortisol (b-THF)

Optimal range: 1050 - 2500 ng/mg

b-Tetrahydrocortisone (b-THE)

Optimal range: 1550 - 3800 ng/mg

Cortisol A (Waking)

Optimal range: 12 - 55 ng/mg

Cortisol B (Morning)

Optimal range: 38 - 155 ng/mg

Cortisol C (Afternoon)

Optimal range: 7.3 - 30 ng/mg

Cortisol D (Night)

Optimal range: 0 - 14 ng/mg

Cortisone A (Waking)

Optimal range: 40 - 120 ng/mg

Cortisone B (Morning)

Optimal range: 90 - 230 ng/mg

Cortisone C (Afternoon)

Optimal range: 32 - 95 ng/mg

Cortisone D (Night)

Optimal range: 0 - 55 ng/mg

Creatinine A (Waking)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 2 mg/ml

Creatinine B (Morning)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 2 mg/ml

Creatinine C (Afternoon)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 2 mg/ml

Creatinine D (Night)

Optimal range: 0.2 - 2 mg/ml

DHEA-S (Urine)

Optimal range: 20 - 750 ng/mg

Epi-Testosterone

Optimal range: 2.3 - 14 ng/mg

Epi-Testosterone is one of several naturally-occurring testosterone compounds in the body that act as steroids. Athletes using anabolic steroids may be questioned about anabolic steroid use if testosterone increases while Epi-Testosterone levels stay low.

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Estradiol(E2)

Optimal range: 1.8 - 4.5 ng/mg

Estriol(E3)

Optimal range: 5 - 18 ng/mg

Estrone(E1)

Optimal range: 12 - 26 ng/mg

Etiocholanolone

Optimal range: 200 - 1000 ng/mg

Etiocholanolone is an androstenedione and testosterone metabolite that is excreted in the urine. It is produced from androstenedione and the 5-alpha and 5-beta-reductase metabolic pathways. It is helpful in evaluating adrenal and androgen function.

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Homovanillate (HVA) (DUTCH)

Optimal range: 4 - 13 ug/mg

Homovanillate (aka Homovanillic Acid) is a dopamine metabolite.

Homovanillate and Vanilmandelate are breakdown products from neurotransmitters involved in hormone and nerve impulse transmission, called catecholamines.

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Melatonin (Waking)

Optimal range: 10 - 85 ng/mg

A powerful anti-oxidant made in the pineal gland and gut.

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Metabolized Cortisol (THF+THE)

Optimal range: 2750 - 6500 ng/mg

Methylmalonate (MMA) (DUTCH)

Optimal range: 0 - 2.2 ug/mg

The measurement of elevated amounts of methylmalonic acid in the blood or urine serves as a sensitive and early indicator of vitamin B12 deficiency.

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Progesterone (Urine)

Optimal range: 6 - 20 ng/mL

Although progesterone is found in both males and females, it is primarily known for its role in conception, pregnancy, and the regulation of a woman’s menstrual cycle.

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Pyroglutamate

Optimal range: 32 - 60 ug/mg

Pyroglutamate (or Pyroglutamic acid) is an intermediate in the glutathione metabolism and a marker of glutathione deficiency.

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Testosterone (DUTCH)

Optimal range: 2.3 - 14 ng/mg

Total DHEA Production

Optimal range: 400 - 3000 ng/mg

DHEA is often called the anti-aging hormone. It’s made in the adrenal glands naturally and levels hit their peak in your 20s. They start to dwindle after you hit 30. Estrogen and testosterone are created from DHEA.

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Total Estrogen

Optimal range: 27 - 62 ng/mg

Total estrogen is a reliable test for estrogen status and is used to detect hormone imbalances.

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Vanilmandelate (VMA) (DUTCH)

Optimal range: 2.4 - 6.4 ug/mg

Norepinephrine/Epinephrine Metabolite, can also reflect genetic mutations and nutrition, neurotransmitter and adrenal problems.

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Xanthurenate

Optimal range: 0 - 1.4 ug/mg

Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein. Inadequate vitamin B6 is one factor that leads to increased concentrations of kynurenate and xanthurenate in urine.

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