Genova: Amino Acids 40 Profile - Plasma

This test determines essential amino acid imbalances that affect both physical and mental function

1-Methylhistidine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 9.8 µmol/L

It is a component of the dietary peptide anserine. Anserine is beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, and it is known to come from chicken, turkey, duck, rabbit, tuna and salmon.

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3-Methylhistidine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 52 µmol/L

3-Methylhistidine is an amino acid which is excreted in human urine.

The measurement of 3-methylhistidine provides an index of the rate of muscle protein breakdown. 3-Methylhistidine is a biomarker for meat consumption, especially chicken. It is also a biomarker for the consumption of soy products.

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Alanine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 230 - 681 µmol/L

Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and helps the body convert the simple sugar glucose into energy and eliminate excess toxins from the liver.

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Alpha-Amino-n-butyric acid (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 39 µmol/L

Alpha-Amino-n-butyric acid (A-ANB/α-Amino-N-butyric acid) is an intermediate occurring in the catabolism of two essential amino acids, methionine and threonine.

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Alpha-Aminoadipic Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.5 µmol/L

Alpha-aminoadipic acid (a-Aminoadipic acid) is an intermediary metabolite of lysine (primarily) and of tryptophan.

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Alpha-ANB/Leucine

Optimal range: 0 - 0.22 Ratio

Alcohol consumption can result in elevations of the plasma Alpha-ANB/Leucine ratio. But to see this biomarker as a conclusive marker for alcoholism is not proven. The increase in the plasma Alpha-ANB/Leucine ratio does not appear to be specific for alcoholism because it was found elevated in nonalcoholic liver disease.

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Anserine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 43 µmol/L

Anserine is part of a group of Beta-Amino Acids and Derivatives. Anserine is beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, and it is known to come from chicken, turkey, duck, rabbit, tuna and salmon.

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Arginine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 37 - 114 µmol/L

Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is critical for your cardiovascular health and detoxification functions. The amino acid, arginine, is used to make the powerful blood vessel regulator, nitric oxide. Nitric oxide acts to lower blood pressure.

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Asparagine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 31 - 90 µmol/L

Asparagine is a protein amino acid. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it.

Asparagine is synthesized from aspartate and glutamine. Asparagine has three major functions:

  1. incorporation into amino acid sequences of proteins
  2. storage form for aspartate (is a required precursor for synthesis of DNA, RNA and ATP)
  3. source of amino groups for production of other dispensable amino acids via Transaminases.

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Aspartic Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range: 2.9 - 12.6 µmol/L

Aspartic acid is a nonessential protein amino acid. Aspartic Acid, also known as aspartate, is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brainstem and spinal cord. Aspartic acid is the excitatory counterpart to glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

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Beta-Alanine

Optimal range: 0 - 5 µmol/L

Beta-alanine is is a non-essential amino acid.

What are amino acids?

Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body, so they don’t have to be provided by food. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

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Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 3.2 µmol/L

Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) is an amino acid end product of the pyrimidine metabolism. It is excreted in small quantities into the urine in almost all human beings. Thymine, released when RNA and DNA are degraded, enters a catabolic pathway that leads to Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid.

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Carnosine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 6.3 µmol/L

Carnosine is a dietary peptide related marker that consists of histidine and beta-alanine. Carnosine is an incompletely digested peptide that is derived primarily from beef and pork.

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Citrulline

Optimal range: 18 - 57 µmol/L

The amino acid citrulline gets its name from its high concentration in the watermelon Citrullus vulgaris. In human kidneys, citrulline and aspartic acid are united by argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) to produce arginosuccinate. The degradation of arginosuccinate to fumarate and arginine is a primary mechanism for sustaining plasma levels of arginine. The same enzyme acts in liver cells to complete the urea cycle.

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Cystathionine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.3 µmol/L

Cystathionine is an intermediary metabolite that is formed in the sequential enzymatic conversion of methionine to cysteine. Cystathionine is normally detected at very low levels in plasma. It is found between homocysteine and cysteine and is formed by the enzyme cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS).

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Cystine

Optimal range: 0.8 - 27.5 µmol/L

Cystine is the oxidized disulfide form of cysteine (Cys) and is the predominant form of cysteine in the blood due to its greater relative stability. Cystine is derived from dietary protein and, end formed endogenously from cysteine.

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Ethanolamine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 11.6 µmol/L

Ethanolamine is a metabolite of the nonessential amino acid serine. In the presence of adequate levels of functional B-6 (P-5-P) serine is enzymatically converted to ethanolamine.

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g-Aminobutyric Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.5 µmol/L

GABA is a neurotransmitter that inhibits nervous system activity, producing a relaxation effect.

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Glutamic Acid (Plasma)

Optimal range: 24 - 214 µmol/L

Glutamic acid (or Glutamate) is a major mediator of excitatory signals in the brain and is involved in most aspects of normal brain function including cognition, memory and learning.

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Glutamic Acid/Glutamine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.06 - 0.23 Ratio

The Glutamic Acid/Glutamine Ratio is used to identify specimen handling issues that cause spontaneous degradation of glutamine to glutamate, and can reveal the origin of difficulty maintaining systemic pH balance.

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Glutamine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 372 - 876 µmol/L

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and is an important source of energy for many tissues in the body. It is derived from the amino acids histidine and glutamic acid.

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Glycine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 136 - 430 µmol/L

Glycine is an amino acid with various important functions within your body, including detoxification, DNA formation, the synthesis of hemoglobin, and as a part of brain neurotransmission pathways. Glycine and serine are interchangeable.

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Histidine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 41 - 82 µmol/L

Histidine is the amino acid most necessary during stress. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein in our bodies.

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Homocysteine (Genova)

Optimal range: 3 - 14 nmol/ML

Homocysteine is a sulphur-containing amino acid and is an intermediate metabolite of methionine metabolism. Homocysteine is a well-known cardiovascular disease risk factor.

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Homocystine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.6 µmol/L

Homocystine is a common amino acid in your blood. You get it mostly from eating meat. High levels of it are linked to early development of heart disease.

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Hydroxylysine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.6 µmol/L

Hydroxylysine is an amino acid related to collagen.

What is collagen?

Collagen is the most abundant protein in your body. It is the major component of connective tissues that make up several body parts, including tendons, ligaments, skin and muscles.

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Hydroxyproline (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 26 µmol/L

Hydroxyproline is a collagen related amino acid. Hydroxyproline is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver. Hydroxyproline is necessary for the construction of the body’s major structural protein, collagen. Hydroxyproline is present in essentially all tissues and all genetic types of collagen.

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Hydroxyproline/Proline (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.152 Ratio

The Hydroxyproline to Proline Ratio describes the relationship between Proline and Hydroxyproline and can be looked at in relation to your collagen metabolism.

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Isoleucine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 33 - 89 µmol/L

Isoleucine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) alongside both leucine and valine.

Isoleucine is a common component of proteins, peptides and hormones. Leucine is catabolized as a source of carbon for energy production during exercise in skeletal muscle.

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Leucine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 68 - 161 µmol/L

Leucine, together with isoleucine and valine, are essential amino acids that are referred to as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs).

Leucine is nutritionally essential and is required for formation of body proteins, enzymes and some hormones. Leucine itself has a hormone-like activity which is stimulation of pancreatic release of insulin. The branched-chain structure of leucine makes it very important for the formation of flexible collagen tissues, particularly elastin in ligaments. Leucine is relatively abundant in all protein foods.

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Lysine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 99 - 234 µmol/L

Lysine is found in great quantities in muscle tissues, stimulates calcium absorption, carnitine synthesis, and growth and repair of muscle tissue.

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Methionine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 14 - 30 µmol/L

Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning we need to get it from our diet as our body does not produce it. Methionine is a unique sulfur-containing amino acid that can be used to build proteins and produce many molecules in the body.

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Ornithine (Genova)

Optimal range: 28 - 117 µmol/L

Ornithine is a urea cycle metabolite.

Ornithine can stimulate the release of growth hormone. Growth hormone is necessary for tissue repair and growth. Growth hormone is often low in patients with fibromyalgia.

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Phenylalanine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 39 - 74 µmol/L

Phenylalanine is a precursor for the amino acid tyrosine, which is essential for making neurotransmitters (e.g. epinephrinenorepinephrinedopamine) and thyroid hormone. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that communicate between nerve cells in the brain. It can relieve pain, alleviate depression, and suppress the appetite. Low levels may indicate a stressful lifestyle, leading to memory loss, fatigue, and depression.

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Phenylalanine/Tyrosine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.1 Ratio

The Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ratio evaluates the body’s ability to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine; Conversion enzyme requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), niacin (B3), and iron as cofactors.

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Phosphoethanolamine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 7.4 µmol/L

Phosphoethanolamine together with Ethanolamine and Phosphoserine are amino acids that are closely related structurally and they share principal roles in phospholipid metabolism.

Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are important components of cell membranes. Phospholipids are found in high concentrations in the membrane of practically every cell of the body.

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Phosphoserine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.8 µmol/L

Phosphoserine is a product of glycolysis and is formed by amino group transfer from glutamic acid to phosphohydroxypyruvic acid.

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Proline (Plasma)

Optimal range: 99 - 363 µmol/L

Proline is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.

Proline is the precursor to hydroxyproline, which is a major amino acid found in the connective tissue of the body – collagen.

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Sarcosine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 0 - 19.5 µmol/L

Sarcosine is also known as N-methylglycine. It is an intermediate and byproduct in the glycine synthesis and degradation. Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase, while glycine-N-methyl transferase generates sarcosine from glycine.

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Serine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 57 - 133 µmol/L

Serine can be used as an energy source. Formed from threonine and phosphoserine (requiring B6, manganese, and magnesium), serine is necessary for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter used in memory function.

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Taurine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 26 - 100 µmol/L

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid required for bile formation.

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Threonine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 63 - 181 µmol/L

Threonine is an essential amino acid, i.e., it is vital for your health, but it cannot be synthesized by your body and therefore has to be obtained from a diet.

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Tryptophan (Plasma)

Optimal range: 30 - 67 µmol/L

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid required for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

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Tryptophan/LNAA (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.09 - 0.102 Ratio

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, a subunit in protein molecules and a precursor to serotonin. The brain uses tryptophan to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter largely responsible for feelings of happiness and well-being.

Tryptophan cannot be synthesised by the body and must be obtained through diet.

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Tyrosine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 38 - 110 µmol/L

Tyrosin is the non-essential amino acid precursor for dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. Tyrosine hydroxylase converts tyrosine into the dopamine precursor L-DOPA; BH4, Vitamin D and iron are cofactors for that enzymatic activity.

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Valine (Plasma)

Optimal range: 123 - 282 µmol/L

Valine, together with Isoleucine and Leucine are essential amino acids and are collectively referred to as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs).

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