Genova: Amino Acids 40 Profile - Plasma

This test determines essential amino acid imbalances that affect both physical and mental function

1-Methylhistidine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 9.8 µmol/L

It is a component of the dietary peptide anserine. Anserine is beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, and it is known to come from chicken, turkey, duck, rabbit, tuna and salmon.


3-Methylhistidine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 52 µmol/L

3-Methylhistidine is an amino acid which is excreted in human urine.

The measurement of 3-methylhistidine provides an index of the rate of muscle protein breakdown. 3-Methylhistidine is a biomarker for meat consumption, especially chicken. It is also a biomarker for the consumption of soy products.


Alanine (Genova)

Optimal range: 230 - 681 µmol/L

Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and helps the body convert the simple sugar glucose into energy and eliminate excess toxins from the liver.


Alpha-Amino-n-butyric acid (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 39 µmol/L

Alpha-Amino-n-butyric acid (A-ANB/α-Amino-N-butyric acid) is an intermediate occurring in the catabolism of two essential amino acids, methionine and threonine.


Alpha-Aminoadipic Acid (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.5 µmol/L

Alpha-aminoadipic acid (α-Aminoadipic acid) is an intermediary metabolite of lysine (primarily) and of tryptophan.


Alpha-ANB/Leucine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.22 Ratio

Alcohol consumption can result in elevations of the plasma Alpha-ANB/Leucine ratio. But to see this biomarker as a conclusive marker for alcoholism is not proven. The increase in the plasma Alpha-ANB/Leucine ratio does not appear to be specific for alcoholism because it was found elevated in nonalcoholic liver disease.


Anserine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 43 µmol/L

Anserine is part of a group of Beta-Amino Acids and Derivatives. Anserine is beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine, and it is known to come from chicken, turkey, duck, rabbit, tuna and salmon.


Arginine (Genova)

Optimal range: 29 - 137 µmol/L

Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is critical for your cardiovascular health and detoxification functions. The amino acid, arginine, is used to make the powerful blood vessel regulator, nitric oxide. Nitric oxide acts to lower blood pressure.


Asparagine (Genova)

Optimal range: 31 - 90 µmol/L

Asparagine is a protein amino acid. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it.

Asparagine is synthesized from aspartate and glutamine. Asparagine has three major functions:

  1. incorporation into amino acid sequences of proteins
  2. storage form for aspartate (is a required precursor for synthesis of DNA, RNA and ATP)
  3. source of amino groups for production of other dispensable amino acids via Transaminases.


Aspartic Acid (Genova)

Optimal range: 2.9 - 12.6 µmol/L

Aspartic acid is a nonessential protein amino acid. Aspartic Acid, also known as aspartate, is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brainstem and spinal cord. Aspartic acid is the excitatory counterpart to glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter.


Beta-Alanine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 5 µmol/L

Beta-alanine is is a non-essential amino acid.

What are amino acids?

Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body, so they don’t have to be provided by food. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.


Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 3.2 µmol/L

Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) is an amino acid end product of the pyrimidine metabolism. It is excreted in small quantities into the urine in almost all human beings. Thymine, released when RNA and DNA are degraded, enters a catabolic pathway that leads to Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid.


Carnosine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 6.3 µmol/L

Citrulline (Genova)

Optimal range: 18 - 57 µmol/L

Cystathionine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.3 µmol/L

Cystine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.8 - 27.5 µmol/L

Ethanolamine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 11.6 µmol/L

G-Aminobutyric Acid (genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.5 µmol/L

GABA is a neurotransmitter that inhibits nervous system activity, producing a relaxation effect.


Glutamic Acid (Genova)

Optimal range: 24 - 214 µmol/L

Glutamic Acid/Glutamine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.06 - 0.23 Ratio

Glutamine (Genova)

Optimal range: 372 - 876 µmol/L

Glycine (Genova)

Optimal range: 155 - 518 µmol/L

Glycine is an amino acid with various important functions within your body, including detoxification, DNA formation, the synthesis of hemoglobin, and as a part of brain neurotransmission pathways. Glycine and serine are interchangeable.


Histidine (Genova)

Optimal range: 57 - 114 µmol/L

Homocysteine (Genova)

Optimal range: 3 - 14 nmol/ML

Homocysteine is a sulphur-containing amino acid and is an intermediate metabolite of methionine metabolism. Homocysteine is a well-known cardiovascular disease risk factor.


Homocystine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.6 µmol/L

Hydroxylysine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.6 µmol/L

Hydroxyproline (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 26 µmol/L

Hydroxyproline is a collagen related amino acid. Hydroxyproline is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver. Hydroxyproline is necessary for the construction of the body’s major structural protein, collagen. Hydroxyproline is present in essentially all tissues and all genetic types of collagen.


Hydroxyproline/Proline (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.152 Ratio

Isoleucine (Genova)

Optimal range: 35 - 104 µmol/L

Leucine (Genova)

Optimal range: 74 - 196 µmol/L

Lysine (Genova)

Optimal range: 120 - 318 µmol/L

Lysine is found in great quantities in muscle tissues, stimulates calcium absorption, carnitine synthesis, and growth and repair of muscle tissue.


Methionine (Genova)

Optimal range: 14 - 48 µmol/L

Ornithine (Genova)

Optimal range: 28 - 117 µmol/L

Phenylalanine (Genova)

Optimal range: 42 - 95 µmol/L

Phenylalanine is a precursor for the amino acid tyrosine, which is essential for making neurotransmitters (e.g. epinephrinenorepinephrinedopamine) and thyroid hormone. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that communicate between nerve cells in the brain. It can relieve pain, alleviate depression, and suppress the appetite. Low levels may indicate a stressful lifestyle, leading to memory loss, fatigue, and depression.


Phenylalanine/Tyrosine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.1 Ratio

The Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ratio evaluates the body’s ability to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine; Conversion enzyme requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), niacin (B3), and iron as cofactors.


Phosphoethanolamine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 7.4 µmol/L

Phosphoserine (Genvova)

Optimal range: 0 - 0.8 µmol/L

Phosphoserine is a product of glycolysis and is formed by amino group transfer from glutamic acid to phosphohydroxypyruvic acid.


Proline (Genova)

Optimal range: 99 - 363 µmol/L

Sarcosine (Genova)

Optimal range: 0 - 19.5 µmol/L

Sarcosine is also known as N-methylglycine. It is an intermediate and byproduct in the glycine synthesis and degradation. Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase, while glycine-N-methyl transferase generates sarcosine from glycine.


Serine (Genova)

Optimal range: 60 - 172 µmol/L

Serine can be used as an energy source. Formed from threonine and phosphoserine (requiring B6, manganese, and magnesium), serine is necessary for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter used in memory function.


Taurine (Genova)

Optimal range: 29 - 136 µmol/L

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid required for bile formation.


Threonine (Genova)

Optimal range: 73 - 216 µmol/L

Threonine is an essential amino acid, i.e., it is vital for your health, but it cannot be synthesized by your body and therefore has to be obtained from a diet.


Tryptophan (Genova)

Optimal range: 31 - 83 µmol/L

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid required for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin.


Tryptophan/LNAA (Genova)

Optimal range: 0.09 - 0.102 Ratio

Tyrosine (Genova)

Optimal range: 38 - 110 µmol/L

Tyrosin is the non-essential amino acid precursor for dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. Tyrosine hydroxylase converts tyrosine into the dopamine precursor L-DOPA; BH4, Vitamin D and iron are cofactors for that enzymatic activity.


Valine (Genova)

Optimal range: 146 - 370 µmol/L

Valine, together with Isoleucine and Leucine are essential amino acids and are collectively referred to as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs).