Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins and minerals are substances obtained from food and supplements needed for normal growth and body processes. Deficiencies in certain vitamins and minerals can interfere with normal body function.

Antiparietal Cell Antibody

Optimal range: 0 - 20 Units

An antiparietal cell antibody test is a blood test that looks for antibodies against the parietal cells of the stomach. The parietal cells make and release a substance that the body needs to absorb vitamin B12.


Calcitriol (1,25 di-OH Vit D)

Optimal range: 19.9 - 79.3 pg/mL

Calcitriol is the active form of Vitamin D. It is also known as 1,25(OH)2D. Calcitriol has long been known for its important role in regulating body levels of calcium and phosphorus, and in mineralization of bone.


Intrinsic Factor Antibodies (Serum)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.1 AU/mL

Intrinsic factor antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that are associated with pernicious anemia. This test detects intrinsic factor antibody (IF antibody) circulating in blood.


Methylmalonic Acid, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 378 nmol/L

Methylmalonic acid is a compound that reacts with vitamin B-12 to produce coenzyme A (CoA). When vitamin B-12 deficiencies occur, methylmalonic acid levels increase.


Phosphate (Phosphorus)

Optimal range: 2.5 - 4.5 mg/dL

Along with calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride, phosphorus is one of the six essential minerals required by the human body in significant quantities.


Vitamin A

Optimal range: 18 - 77 ug/dL

Vitamin A is one of the fat-soluble vitamins required for health. It’s especially important for vision, skin and mucous membranes found surrounding all organs. Vitamin A provides free radical-fighting functions for immunity and for anti-aging.


Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Optimal range: 66.5 - 200 nmol/L

Vitamin B1, also called thiamine, is important for nervous system and muscle function. Thiamine acts as a coenzyme for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. It also is essential for the production of hydrochloric acid. 


Vitamin B12

Optimal range: 300 - 647 pg/mL

Vitamin B12 is essential in many basic bodily functions. High levels are not usually cause for concern, but low levels may indicate a medical deficiency or disease. In America, food such as cereal and grains are enriched with many essential vitamins, including vitamin B12. For this reason, dietary deficiency is rare.


Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Optimal range: 0.5 - 8.45 ug/ml

Other names: Niacin / Nicotinamide / Nicotinic Acid

Niacin (nicotinic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin that is also referred to as vitamin B3.

Nicotinamide (nicotinic acid amide) is the derivative of niacin that is incorporated into the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).


Vitamin B6

Optimal range: 5.3 - 46.7 ug/L

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin involved in energy production, synthesis of hemoglobin, serotonin, dopamine, and amino acids, and other enzymatic reactions in the body. 


Vitamin B9 (Folate/Folic Acid)

Optimal range: 5.3 - 20 ng/mL

Folate belongs to the B vitamin family and is used for healthy cell development.  Folate is water-soluble and is expelled daily in urine. For this reason, it is important that our diets have enough folate in them to make up for the loss. Deficiency can easily be caused by conditions that impair absorption in the digestive tract. 


Vitamin C

Optimal range: 0.2 - 2.3 mg/dL

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that functions in immunity, the synthesis of collagen and neurotransmitters, and protein metabolism. It’s an antioxidant that slows down aging. Deficiency is called scurvy.


Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy

Optimal range: 40 - 80 ng/mL

Vitamin D, frequently called the “sun vitamin,” is an essential component of the systems that our bodies use to keep bones and teeth strong. It also has important, emerging roles in immune function and cancer prevention. We have natural processes that regulate vitamin D production from the sun so extremely high levels of it are rare. Deficiency can cause a number of issues including weak bones, called osteomalacia.


Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

Optimal range: 0 - 0 mg/L

Vitamin K

Optimal range: 0 - 0 pg/mL