Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins and minerals are substances obtained from food and supplements needed for normal growth and body processes. Deficiencies in certain vitamins and minerals can interfere with normal body function.

Antiparietal Cell Antibody

Optimal range: 0 - 20 Units

An antiparietal cell antibody test is a blood test that looks for antibodies against the parietal cells of the stomach. The parietal cells make and release a substance that the body needs to absorb vitamin B12.


Calcitriol (1,25 di-OH Vit D)

Optimal range: 19.9 - 79.3 pg/mL

Calcitriol is the active form of Vitamin D. It is also known as 1,25(OH)2D. Calcitriol has long been known for its important role in regulating body levels of calcium and phosphorus, and in mineralization of bone.


Copper, Pl

Optimal range: 0.8 - 1.75 ug/ml

Copper is part of enzymes, which are proteins that help biochemical reactions occur in every cell. Copper is involved in the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron. The symptoms of a copper deficiency are similar to iron deficiency anemia. The liver makes a special protein, ceruloplasm, to transport copper and help convert iron to a form that can be used by other tissues.


Intrinsic Factor Antibodies (Serum)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.1 AU/mL

Intrinsic factor antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that are associated with pernicious anemia. This test detects intrinsic factor antibody (IF antibody) circulating in blood.


Intrinsic Factor Blocking Antibody

Optimal range: 0 - 0.01 Units

Intrinsic factor is a protein that is produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It binds to vitamin B12, thereby allowing absorption of the vitamin by intestinal cells. In pernicious anemia, an autoimmune disorder, autoantibodies are formed against intrinsic factor leading to its deficiency. The lack of intrinsic factor then causes malabsorption of vitamin B12 and subsequent anemia. Autoantibodies can also be formed directly against the parietal cells which similarly leads to inadequate intrinsic factor activity and vitamin B12 deficiency.



Optimal range: 16.6 - 27.7 nmol/L

- Manganese is an important factor in many critical biochemical processes including antioxidant function.

- Manganese is a mineral element that is both nutritionally essential and has the potential to be very toxic. This fact is further complicated by the small range of dosage for clinical benefit and toxicity with serious consequences.

- The principle antioxidant enzyme within our mitochondria (energy) is superoxide dismutase and the enzymes requires manganese for optimal performance.

- Manganese is also required for normal skeletal development and cartilage synthesis.

- Wound healing is also impacted by manganese, as the synthesis of collagen in skin cells is dependent on the presence of adequate manganese.

- Manganese is also important functioning as a co-factor in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and cholesterol.

- Manganese is considered anti-osteoporotic and anti-arthritic.


Methylmalonic Acid, Serum

Optimal range: 0 - 378 nmol/L

Methylmalonic acid is a compound that reacts with vitamin B-12 to produce coenzyme A (CoA). When vitamin B-12 deficiencies occur, methylmalonic acid levels increase.



Optimal range: 5.2 - 72.1 ng/mL

Nicotinic Acid

Optimal range: 0 - 5 ng/mL

Niacin (nicotinic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin that is also referred to as vitamin B3.

Nicotinamide (nicotinic acid amide) is the derivative of niacin that is incorporated into the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).


Phosphate (Phosphorus)

Optimal range: 2.8 - 4.1 mg/dL

Along with calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride, phosphorus is one of the six essential minerals required by the human body in significant quantities.

Phosphorus is a mineral involved in DNA and RNA synthesis, part of ATP, helps activate enzymes. May be elevated due to Vit D toxicity, hypoparathyroidism, kidney dysfunction. May be decreased due to poor absorption, Vit D deficiency, elevated insulin, high carb diets, diarrhea, poor protein digestion.


Vitamin A

Optimal range: 18 - 77 ug/dL

Vitamin A is one of the fat-soluble vitamins required for health. It’s especially important for vision, skin and mucous membranes found surrounding all organs. Vitamin A provides free radical-fighting functions for immunity and for anti-aging.


Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Optimal range: 66.5 - 200 nmol/L

Vitamin B1, also called thiamine, is important for nervous system and muscle function. Thiamine acts as a coenzyme for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. It also is essential for the production of hydrochloric acid. 


Vitamin B12

Optimal range: 232 - 1245 pg/mL

Vitamin B12 is essential in many basic bodily functions. High levels are not usually cause for concern, but low levels may indicate a medical deficiency or disease. In America, food such as cereal and grains are enriched with many essential vitamins, including vitamin B12. For this reason, dietary deficiency is rare.


Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), Plasma

Optimal range: 6.2 - 39 nmol/L

Vitamin supplementation within 24 hours prior to blood draw may affect the accuracy of results.

Vitamin B2 is involved in metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protein. The clinical manifestations of deficiency are non-specific.

Clinical manifestations include mucocutaneous lesions of the mouth and skin, corneal vascularization, anemia, and personality changes.


Vitamin B2, Whole Blood

Optimal range: 137 - 370 ug/L

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Optimal range: 0.5 - 8.45 ug/ml

Other names: Niacin / Nicotinamide / Nicotinic Acid

Niacin (nicotinic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin that is also referred to as vitamin B3.

Nicotinamide (nicotinic acid amide) is the derivative of niacin that is incorporated into the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).


Vitamin B6

Optimal range: 3.4 - 65.2 ug/L

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin involved in energy production, synthesis of hemoglobin, serotonin, dopamine, and amino acids, and other enzymatic reactions in the body. 


Vitamin B9 (Folate)

Optimal range: 3 - 20 ng/mL

Folate belongs to the B vitamin family and is used for healthy cell development.  Folate is water-soluble and is expelled daily in urine. For this reason, it is important that our diets have enough folate in them to make up for the loss. Deficiency can easily be caused by conditions that impair absorption in the digestive tract. 

Folate refers to the many forms of vitamin B-9. These include folic acid, dihydrofolate (DHF), tetrahydrofolate (THF), and more. The body uses B vitamins to create new cells.

Folic acid is a synthetic form of folate. Food manufacturers add it to many products because it does not occur naturally. Bread, pasta, rice, and breakfast cereals tend to contain added folic acid.


Vitamin C

Optimal range: 0.2 - 2.3 mg/dL

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that functions in immunity, the synthesis of collagen and neurotransmitters, and protein metabolism. It’s an antioxidant that slows down aging. Deficiency is called scurvy.


Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy

Optimal range: 30 - 100 ng/mL

What is Vitamin D?

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin in a family of compounds that includes vitamins D1, D2, and D3.

Vitamin D is both a nutrient we eat and a hormone our bodies make. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that has long been known to help the body absorb and retain calcium and phosphorus; both are critical for building bone.

Also, laboratory studies show that vitamin D can: 

- reduce cancer cell growth,

- help control infections

- and reduce inflammation.

Many of the body’s organs and tissues have receptors for vitamin D, which suggest important roles beyond bone health, and scientists are actively investigating other possible functions.

Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium and maintain strong bones throughout your entire life.

Vitamin D must go through several processes in your body before your body can use it. The first transformation occurs in the liver. Here, your body converts vitamin D to a chemical known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D, also called calcidiol.


Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

Optimal range: 7 - 25.1 mg/L

A vitamin E test measures the amount of vitamin E in your blood. Vitamin E (also known as tocopherol or alpha-tocopherol) is a nutrient that is important for many body processes. It helps your nerves and muscles work well, prevents blood clots, and boosts the immune system. Vitamin E is a type of antioxidant, a substance that protects cells from damage.


Vitamin K

Optimal range: 130 - 1500 pg/mL

Zinc, RBC

Optimal range: 878 - 1660 ug/dL

Zinc is an essential trace element. Subnormal levels are associated with alcoholic cirrhosis, cystic fibrosis, myocardial infarction, acute and chronic infections. High levels may be due to industrial exposure.