Nutritional Organic Acids (Urine) - DUTCH

These organic acids act as functional markers of nutrient deficiency. When the body has inadequate cellular levels of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 or glutathione, levels of their corresponding organic acid build up and spill into the urine. In some cases, these markers are more effective than measuring the nutrient directly.

b-Hydroxyisovalerate

Optimal range: 0 - 12.5 ug/mg

Elevated b-hydroxyisovalerate is found as a result of biotin insufficiency. This issue often presents in patients as skin problems as well as hair loss. Look for this DUTCH test marker to assess biotin status and determine if intervention is required. Adequate biotin supply will yield a lower level of b-hydroxyisovalerate.

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Indican

Optimal range: 0 - 100 ug/mg

Indican is an indole produced when bacteria in the intestine act on the amino acid, tryptophan. Most indoles are excreted in the feces.

The remainder is absorbed, metabolized by the liver, and excreted as indicanin the urine.

Accumulated levels of Indican in the urine may suggest gastrointestinal dysbiosis or malabsorption.

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Kynurenate (Dutch)

Optimal range: 0.8 - 4.5 ug/mg

Kynurenate is product of the metabolism of L-Tryptophan and appears in urine in Vitamin B6 deficiencies. Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein.

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Methylmalonate (MMA)

Optimal range: 0 - 2.5 ug/mg

The measurement of elevated amounts of methylmalonic acid in the blood or urine serves as a sensitive and early indicator of vitamin B12 deficiency.

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Pyroglutamate

Optimal range: 28 - 58 ug/mg

Pyroglutamate (or Pyroglutamic acid) is an intermediate in the glutathione metabolism and a marker of glutathione deficiency.

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Xanthurenate

Optimal range: 0.12 - 1.2 ug/mg

Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein. Inadequate vitamin B6 is one factor that leads to increased concentrations of kynurenate and xanthurenate in urine.

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