Wheat/Gluten Proteome Reactivity & Autoimmunity (Cyrex Laboratories)

Inclusion of the specific antigens comprising Antibody Array 3, or Comprehensive Gluten Reactivity and Autoimmunity is based on recent medical research studies. Comprehensive quantitative mapping of T-cell epitopes was determined in CD. Results demonstrated that people respond to a heterogeneous array of peptides; some recognized many peptides from single or multiple gliadin families, while others reacted to only one peptide. These results confirmed that a large number of gluten epitopes may be implicated in the development of CD and associated diseases. Indeed, a T-cell line from one Celiac patient failed to recognize any of the 21 tested peptides, which confirmed that a large number of gluten and other wheat protein epitopes are implicated in development of CD and associated disorders. This suggests that other gliadin peptides and proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of Gluten-Reactivity and CD. Cyrex extended this heterogeneity in T-cell responses to gluten and other peptides originated from wheat to humoral immune responses by measuring IgG and IgA antibodies against nine different wheat antigens and peptides as well as enzymes associated with autoimmunities. Heterogeneity in IgG and IgA antibodies against these twelve antigens was confirmed by variation in antibody response against various wheat associated antigens on individual bases. 

Measuring a patient’s immune response to an array of wheat antigens increases the sensitivity and specificity, and will provide greater confidence in formulation of a diagnosis that allows for better patient compliance with a gluten-free diet.

Assessing wheat/gluten reactivity and intestinal autoimmunity is recommended for people who:

- Have gut dysbiosis, which appears to be resistant to standard therapy

- Are suspected of having intestinal mucosal damage

- Complain of food allergy and intolerance

- Complain of chemical hypersensitivity

- Present multiple-symptom complaints (including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia)

- Suffer from abnormal immune cell count and function

- May suffer from blood-brain barrier permeability, depression, or neuroautoimmunity

- Neuroautoimmune patients to consider:

- Thyroiditis

- Arthritis

- Myocarditis

- Dermatitis

- Endocrinopathy

- Polyendocrinopathy

- Osteoarthritis

- Pernicious Anemia

- Other

Clinical Use:

- Identify possible Celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia or other wheat/gluten-related disorder.

- Assess autoimmune reactivity associated with wheat proteins and peptides.

What is celiac disease?

Celiac disease is a well-recognized medical condition in which gliadins (gluten proteins found in wheat, barley and rye) cause an immune reaction in sensitive individuals which destroys the lining of the small intestine. This can lead to severe digestive symptoms and malabsorption of nutrients However, some celiac patients have no gut symptoms, even though their body is still being damaged, while others experience neurological and psychiatric symptoms instead of the classic digestive distress. 

It is now recognized that many people have reactions to either wheat or gluten that don’t qualify as a celiac disease but still impact on their health. This includes wheat sensitivity and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity. Previously it was thought that the effects of gluten were limited to celiac disease, and strictly gut-oriented, such as bloating, gas, and abdominal pain. 

What are common symptoms of celiac disease, wheat sensitivity and non-celiac gluten sensitivity?

The symptoms of celiac disease, wheat sensitivity and NCGS are very diverse. This can make it difficult to diagnose and it is not possible to distinguish between different gluten-related complaints on the basis of symptoms alone.  

Common symptoms include: 

- Bloating 
- Abdominal pain 
- Fatigue 
- Diarrhoea or constipation 
- Headaches 
- Anxiety 
- Depression 
- Nausea 
- Brain fog
- Heartburn 
- Numbness in arms and legs 
- Ataxia (lack of coordination, gait abnormality, speech changes or abnormalities in eye movements) 
- Mouth ulcers 
- Joint and muscle pain 
- Dermatitis/rashes 
- Anaemia 

Older tests for celiac disease and gluten sensitivity focus on just one protein – alpha gliadin.

It has been discovered wheat is made up of more than 100 different components that can cause a reaction, not just one. The problem is, a person can react to only one of the many proteins in wheat, or a combination of proteins, peptides, and enzymes associated with wheat.

The full range of antigens tested includes: 

- Wheat IgG 
- Wheat IgA 
- Wheat Germ Agglutinin IgG 
- Wheat Germ Agglutinin IgA 
- Non-Gluten Proteins-A IgG* 
- Non-Gluten Proteins-A IgA* 
- Non-Gluten Proteins-B IgG* 
- Non-Gluten Proteins-B IgA* 
- Gliadin Toxic Peptides IgG* 
- Gliadin Toxic Peptides IgA* 
- Native + Deamidated Alpha-Gliadin-33-mer IgG 
- Native + Deamidated Alpha-Gliadin-33-mer IgA
- Alpha-Gliadin-17-mer IgG 
- Alpha-Gliadin-17-mer IgA 
- Gamma-Gliadin-15-mer IgG 
- Gamma-Gliadin-15-mer IgA 
- Omega-Gliadin-17-mer IgG 
- Omega-Gliadin-17-mer IgA 
- Glutenin-21-mer IgG 
- Glutenin-21-mer IgA 
- Gluteomorphin+Prodynorphin IgG 
- Gluteomorphin+Prodynorphin IgA 
- Gliadin-Transglutaminase Complex IgG
- Gliadin-Transglutaminase Complex IgA 
- Microbial Transglutaminase IgG* 
- Microbial Transglutaminase IgA* 
- Transglutaminase-2 IgG 
- Transglutaminase-2 IgA 
- Transglutaminase-3 IgG 
- Transglutaminase-3 IgA 
- Transglutaminase-6 IgG 
- Transglutaminase-6 IgA 

The test is able to identify possible celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia or other wheat/gluten-related disorders. It can also be useful for assessing autoimmune reactivity associated with wheat proteins and peptides. 

How to interpret your test results?

When IgA reactions are predominant, it is an indication of possible Celiac disease and other autoimmunities.

When IgG reactions are predominant, it is an indication of wheat/gluten immune response and possible autoimmunity due to lack of digestive enzymes and/or other factors.When both IgA and IgG reactions occur, it is an indication of wheat/gluten immune response and its progression to Celiac disease and/or other autoimmune disorders.

Alpha-Gliadin-17-mer IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.1 ELISA Index

Alpha-Gliadin-17-mer IgG

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.5 ELISA Index

Gamma-Gliadin-15-mer IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1 ELISA Index

Gamma-Gliadin-15-mer IgG

Optimal range: 0.5 - 1.5 ELISA Index

Gliadin Toxic Peptides IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.5 ELISA Index

Gliadin Toxic Peptides IgG

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.7 ELISA Index

Gliadin-Transglutaminase Complex IgA

Optimal range: 0.2 - 1.5 ELISA Index

The wheat tested is the full kernel containing the protein constituents of wheat. This includes what may be on or in the wheat kernel. These are gluten proteins, and non-gluten proteins (non-gluten proteins A and B and Wheat Germ Agglutinins). A positive result to wheat means that your digestive system is not absorbing these proteins well, therefore your immune system starts producing antibodies to gluten or non-gluten part(s) of wheat.

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Gliadin-Transglutaminase Complex IgG

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.4 ELISA Index

The wheat tested is the full kernel containing the protein constituents of wheat. This includes what may be on or in the wheat kernel. These are gluten proteins, and non-gluten proteins (non-gluten proteins A and B and Wheat Germ Agglutinins). A positive result to wheat means that your digestive system is not absorbing these proteins well, therefore your immune system starts producing antibodies to gluten or non-gluten part(s) of wheat.

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Glutenin-21-mer IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.3 ELISA Index

Glutenin-21-mer IgG

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.5 ELISA Index

Gluteomorphin+Prodynorphin IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.2 ELISA Index

Gluteomorphin+Prodynorphin IgG

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.2 ELISA Index

Microbial Transglutaminase IgA

Optimal range: 0.5 - 2.1 ELISA Index

Microbial Transglutaminase is not made by the human body, it is made by bacteria and is used in the food and drug industry. It is capable of cross reacting with the Gliadin-Transglutaminase complex. Those antibodies may trigger autoimmune reactivity.

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Microbial Transglutaminase IgG

Optimal range: 0.1 - 2 ELISA Index

Microbial Transglutaminase is not made by the human body, it is made by bacteria and is used in the food and drug industry. It is capable of cross reacting with the Gliadin-Transglutaminase complex. Those antibodies may trigger autoimmune reactivity.

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Non-Gluten Proteins-A IgA

Optimal range: 0 - 1.8 ELISA Index

Non-Gluten Proteins-A IgG

Optimal range: 0 - 1.3 ELISA Index

Non-Gluten Proteins-B IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 0.8 ELISA Index

Non-Gluten Proteins-B IgG

Optimal range: 0 - 1.3 ELISA Index

Omega-Gliadin-17-mer IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.2 ELISA Index

Omega-Gliadin-17-mer IgG

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.2 ELISA Index

Transglutaminase-2 IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.6 ELISA Index

Transglutaminase-2 IgG

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.6 ELISA Index

Tissue Transglutaminase-2 (tTG2) -- Transglutaminases are enzymes with multiple functions. One of the key functions is to build tissue structures. tTG2 is found throughout the body, but is the predominant enzyme in the intestinal villi. This makes it a preferred biomarker for possible Celiac disease.

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Transglutaminase-3 IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.5 ELISA Index

Tissue Transglutaminase-3 (tTG3) -- The transglutaminase found in skin and hair shaft follicles is tTG3. In some individuals, the ingestion of gluten causes eruptions on the skin known as dermatitis herpetiformis. Adherence to the gluten-free diet can clear the skin of these eruptions.

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Transglutaminase-3 IgG

Optimal range: 0.2 - 1.6 ELISA Index

Tissue Transglutaminase-3 (tTG3) -- The transglutaminase found in skin and hair shaft follicles is tTG3. In some individuals, the ingestion of gluten causes eruptions on the skin known as dermatitis herpetiformis. Adherence to the gluten-free diet can clear the skin of these eruptions.

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Transglutaminase-6 IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.5 ELISA Index

Tissue Transglutaminase-6 (tTG6) -- The transglutaminase found in the brain and nervous system is tTG6. In some individuals, the ingestion of gluten causes neurological manifestations, such as gluten ataxia (walking or balance disorder) or peripheral neuropathy (tingling in the legs or feet). Adherence to the gluten-free diet can improve these neurological conditions.

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Transglutaminase-6 IgG

Optimal range: 0.2 - 1.5 ELISA Index

Tissue Transglutaminase-6 (tTG6) -- The transglutaminase found in the brain and nervous system is tTG6. In some individuals, the ingestion of gluten causes neurological manifestations, such as gluten ataxia (walking or balance disorder) or peripheral neuropathy (tingling in the legs or feet). Adherence to the gluten-free diet can improve these neurological conditions.

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Wheat Germ Agglutinin IgA

Optimal range: 0.2 - 1.1 ELISA Index

Wheat Germ Agglutinin is not gluten, but is found in whole grain wheat. If your test results are positive (higher than normal levels of antibodies) the most logical suggestion is to not eat whole grain wheat and to be certain other wheat derived foods are not Wheat Germ Agglutinin contaminated.

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Wheat Germ Agglutinin IgG

Optimal range: 0.4 - 1.3 ELISA Index

Wheat Germ Agglutinin is not gluten, but is found in whole grain wheat. If your test results are positive (higher than normal levels of antibodies) the most logical suggestion is to not eat whole grain wheat and to be certain other wheat derived foods are not Wheat Germ Agglutinin contaminated.

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Wheat IgA

Optimal range: 0.1 - 1.2 ELISA Index

Wheat IgG

Optimal range: 0.3 - 1.5 ELISA Index