GI360 stool profile / Doctor's Data

The GI 360 gives full insight into the root causes of dysbiosis.

This test is also useful for:

- Gastrointestinal Symptoms

- Inflammation

- Joint Pain

- Mucosal Barrier Dysfunction

- Autoimmune Disease

- Food Sensitivities

- Chronic or Acute Diarrhea

- Abdominal Pain

- IBD/IBS

- Nutritional Deficiencies

- Bloody Stool

- Fever and Vomiting

Acinetobacter junii

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Acinetobacter junii is rarely a cause of disease in humans. A. junii has mainly been associated with bacteremia in preterm infants and pediatric oncologic patients.

Acinetobacter junii is one of more than 50 different species belonging to the genus Acinetobacter, most of which are nonpathogenic environmental organisms. They may cause opportunistic infections only in people with compromised immune status or with an indwelling device (such as urinary catheters, vascular access devices, endotracheal tubes, tracheostomies, enteral feeding tubes and wound drains), or both.

Acinetobacter species are ubiquitous and can be isolated from many sources including soil, water, sewage, and food. Acinetobacter species can colonize skin, wounds, the oral mucosa, and respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

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Actinobacteria

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Actinobacteria is one of the largest bacterial phyla, comprised of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Actinomycetales

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Actinomycetales are considered low abundance colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract with primary residence on the skin.

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Adenovirus F40/41

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses.

Adenovirus is a cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants, young children, the elderly and immuno-compromised patients. The Adenovirus serotypes most frequently associated with gastroenteritis are Adenovirus 40 and 41.

Adenovirus gastroenteritis generally causes watery diarrhea lasting one to two weeks.

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Akkermansia muciniphila

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Akkermansia muciniphila may represent 3–5% of the microbial composition in the healthy human intestinal tract, and have a crucial role in the regulation of the gut barrier and other homeostatic and metabolic functions.

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Alistipes onderdonkii

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

- Alistipes does not contribute significantly to short chain fatty acid production.

- A diet rich in animal protein and fat increases the abundance of Alistipes.

- High abundance of Alistipes was identified as a possible predictor of successful weight loss.

- Alistipes may positively correlate with depression.

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Alistipes spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Alistipes does not contribute significantly to short chain fatty acid production. A diet rich in animal protein and fat increases the abundance of Alistipes. High abundance of Alistipes was identified as a possible predictor of successful weight loss. Increased abundance of Alistipes has been correlated with a greater frequency of pain in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome patients.

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Bacilli Class

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

The phylum Firmicutes constitutes the most diverse and abundant group of gastrointestinal microbiota which are grouped into four classes, Bacilli, Clostridia, Erysipelotrichi, and Negativicutes. They make up approximately 39% of the gut microbiota, on average, in healthy adults, but can comprise as much as 80% of the community.

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Bacillus licheniformis

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Bacteroides fragilis

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Species in the genus Bacteroides carry out broad metabolic functions, including degradation of complex plant polysaccharides, proteolytic activities, de-conjugation of bile acids, mucosal barrier integrity, short chain fatty acid production, fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism.

Bacteroides spp. are maintained at a higher abundance in breastfed individuals into adulthood.

Bacteroides fragilis plays an important role in the prevention of intestinal inflammation. An energy-restricted diet has been shown to increase B. fragilis in overweight adolescents. An increase in B. stercoris has been associated with higher risk of colon cancer. Decreased levels of Bacteroides spp. have been reported in association with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Parkinson’s disease.

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Bacteroides pectinophilus

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Bacteroides pectinophilus contributes to breakdown of dietary pectins which are prebiotics. Pectins are complex, plantderived carbohydrates that are indigestible by human enzymes, but can be easily degraded by certain commensal bacteria in the gut.

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Bacteroides spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Species in the genus Bacteroides carry out broad metabolic functions, including degradation of complex plant polysaccharides, proteolytic activities, de-conjugation of bile acids, mucosal barrier integrity, short chain fatty acid production, fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. 

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Bacteroides spp. & Prevotella spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

The predominant genera in the human colonic microbiota are Bacteroides and Prevotella, which belong to the major phyla Bacteroidetes.

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Bacteroides stercoris

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Species in the genus Bacteroides carry out broad metabolic functions, including degradation of complex plant polysaccharides, proteolytic activities, de-conjugation of bile acids, mucosal barrier integrity, short chain fatty acid production, fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. Bacteroides spp. are maintained at a higher abundance in breastfed individuals into adulthood.

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Bacteroides zoogleoformans

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Bifidobacterium spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Considered amongst the most beneficial commensal bacteria in the human gut, Bifidobacterium spp. are able to degrade monosaccharides, galacto-, manno-, and fructo-oligosaccharides, as well as some complex carbohydrates. Many of the non-digestible oligosaccharides, found as natural components in mother’s milk, select for colonization of these species which dominate the infant gut shortly after birth.

Bifidobacteria may provide health benefits directly through interactions with the host, and indirectly through interactions with other microorganisms. Bifidobacterium spp. take part in production and adsorption of vitamins, such as vitamins K and B12, biotin, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine.

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Carbohydrates

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Simple sugars are absorbed in the small intestine and should not be appreciably present in the colon because they are a primary energy source for pathogenic or dysbiotic bacteria and yeast.

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Catenibacterium mitsuokai

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Consumption of a Western diet has been shown to increase Catenibacterium mitsuokai in the human gut microbiota.

Catenibacterium mitsuokai ferments glucose, mannose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, lactose and salicin in the production of lactic acid, acetic acid as well as iso-butyric acid.

The presence of Catenibacterium mitsuokai has been positively associated with obesity-related insulin resistance.

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Citrobacter farmeri / amalonaticus

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Citrobacter spp., a gram-negative bacterium and member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is considered dysbiotic at 3+ or greater. Citrobacter freundii complex (including C. freundii, C. braakii, C. gullenii, C. murliniae, rodentium, C. wermanii, C. youngae, C. koseri and C. farmeri) can cause diarrheal disease.

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Citrobacter freundii complex

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Citrobacter spp., a gram-negative bacterium and member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is considered dysbiotic at 3+ or greater.

Citrobacter freundii complex (including C. freundii, C. braakii, C. gullenii, C. murliniae, rodentium, C. wermanii, C. youngae, C. koseri and C. farmeri, can cause diarrheal disease.

Symptoms are the result of an E. coli-like heat-stable enterotoxin and hydrogen sulfide.

Citrobacter freundii complex has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal infection and inflammation, acute dysentery, and dyspepsia.

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Clostridia Class

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Markers in this class are important producers of short-chain fatty acids, and have many well-documented roles in promoting a healthy intestinal barrier, immune balance, and protection against pathogens.

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Clostridium L2-50

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Clostridium methylpentosum

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Appropriate digestion and metabolism of complex dietary carbohydrates from plants drives healthy diversity in the gut microbiota. Clostridium methylpentosum ferments the naturally occurring sugar L-rhamnose that is released by microbial breakdown of plant-derived pectin.

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Coprobacillus cateniformis

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Coprobacillus cateniformis ferment glucose and other common sugars primarily to acetic and lactic acid, and to a lesser extent butyrate and valerate.

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Dialister invisus

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Dialister invisus is generally considered an endodontic pathogen (Endo is the Greek word for inside and odont is Greek for tooth). Dialister invisus is often associated with periodontitis, caries, halitosis, and endodontic infections. 

Dialister invisus (D. invisus) is capable of generating both acetate and propionate, and the abundance of this bacterium is reduced in patients with CD.

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Dialister invisus is generally considered an endodontic pathogen (Endo is the Greek word for inside and odont is Greek for tooth). Dialister invisus is often associated with periodontitis, caries, halitosis, and endodontic infections. 

Dialister invisus (D. invisus) is capable of generating both acetate and propionate, and the abundance of this bacterium is reduced in patients with CD.

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Dorea spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Dorea is a genus within the Lachnospiraceae family that is in the Firmicutes phylum. Dorea species are known to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide as end-products of glucose fermentation and may be associated with bloating.

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Enterobacter cloacae complex

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Enterobacter cloacae complex is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family. E cloacae complex is a group of six closely related species with similar resistance patterns:

E. cloacae, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, E. kobei, E. ludwigii, and E. nimipressuralis.

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Enterobacteriaceae

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of bacteria within the Proteobacteria phyla. Enterobacteriaceae is inclusive of normal commensal species, harmless opportunists, and many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Shigella and Proteus.

Other potential disease-causing bacteria in this family include Enterobacter and Citrobacter species.

Overall, Enterobacteriaceae were found at higher levels in patients with NAFLD and PD. Diets rich in in complex carbohydrates are associated with lower levels of Enterobacteriaceae, in comparison to diets rich in fat and/or protein.

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Escherichia spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Eubacterium biforme

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Eubacterium hallii

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Eubacterium hallii and Eubacterium rectale are both part of the Lachnospiraceae family that is in the Firmicutes phylum.

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Eubacterium siraeum

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant butyrate producing bacteria in a healthy gastrointestinal tract.

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Firmicutes

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

Gram-negative Bacteroidetes and grampositive Firmicutes are bacterial phyla that dominate the entire human digestive tract, including the mouth, nose, throat, and colon.2 An abnormal result in one or both of these phylum suggest imbalanced normal microbes in the GI tract. Further, high Firmicutes and low Bacteroidetes (resulting in a high F/B ratio) suggest microbial imbalance which may be related to increased caloric extraction from food, fat deposition and lipogenesis, impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased inflammation.

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Klebsiella pneumoniae

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Klebsiella spp. are gram-negative bacilli belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and closely related to the genera Enterobacter and Serratia. Klebsiella spp. are considered dysbiotic in the amount of 3 - 4 +. Klebsiella spp. are widely distributed in nature and in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. In humans, they may colonize the skin, oral cavity, pharynx, or gastrointestinal tract. Regarded as normal flora in many parts of the colon, intestinal tract and biliary tract, the gut is the main reservoir of opportunistic strains.

This bacteria has the potential to cause intestinal, lung, urinary tract, and wound infections, but overgrowth of Klebsiella spp. is commonly asymptomatic.

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Klebsiella pneumoniae/variicola

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Klebsiella spp. are gram-negative bacilli belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and closely related to the genera Enterobacter and Serratia. Klebsiella spp. are widely distributed in nature and in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. In humans, they may colonize the skin, oral cavity, pharynx, or gastrointestinal tract.

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Lachnospiraceae

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

The Lachnospiraceae family is a diverse group of butyric acid producers, which have been associated with beneficial microbial and epithelial cell growth. Consumption of a Mediterranean diet decreased levels of species belonging to Lachnospiraceae.

Lachnospiraceae are known to increase with intake of cruciferous vegetables and wheat bran, and decrease with a resistant starch diet.

 

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Decreased and normal levels of Lactobacillus spp. have been reported in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Lactobacillus spp. abundance was shown to be lower in the active phase of ulcerative colitis. Lactobacillus levels were shown to be increased after inulin consumption, but decreased after consumption of maltodextrin. Polyphenols derived from chocolate, green tea, blackcurrant, red wine
and grape seed extracts have been shown to increase Lactobacillus species. The increased abundance of Lactobacillus species has been associated with amelioration (=improvement) of inflammation.

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Lactobacillus spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Lactobacillus species is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus.

Lactobacillus bacteria are commonly found in the human gut, mouth and vagina. They are considered generally as “good bacteria”, and in fact may contribute to good health, often being included in probiotic supplements. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a byproduct of glucose metabolism.

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Lactococcus garvieae

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Mycoplasma hominis

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Mycoplasma hominis is from the Tenericutes phylum.

Tenericutes are cell wall-less bacteria that do not synthesize precursors of peptidoglycan. Tenericutes consist of four main clades designated as the Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma, Pneumoniae and Hominis clusters. Tenericutes are typically parasites or commensals of eukaryotic hosts.

Mycoplasma hominis is a fastidious bacterium, which usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and may cause systemic infections in neonates and genital infections in adults. It can also be the cause of serious extra-genital infections, mainly in immunosuppressed or predisposed subjects.

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Parabacteroides johnsonii

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

The abundance of Parabacteroides spp., major anaerobic producers of acetate and succinate is increased with a high fat diet and is positively correlated with body weight. Parabacteroides spp., along with certain Bacteroides spp., have been shown to distinguish healthy adults from patients with irritable bowel syndrome or ulcerative colitis. Reduced abundance of this group of bacteria has also been linked to Crohn’s disease in children. Parabacteroides spp. has been found to be less abundant in patients with multiple sclerosis.

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Parabacteroides spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 %

The abundance of Parabacteroides spp., major anaerobic producers of acetate and succinate is increased with a high fat diet and is positively correlated with body weight. Parabacteroides spp., along with certain Bacteroides spp., have been shown to distinguish healthy adults from patients with irritable bowel syndrome or ulcerative colitis. Reduced abundance of this group of bacteria has also been linked to Crohn’s disease in children. Parabacteroides spp. has been found to be less abundant in patients with multiple sclerosis.

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Phascolarctobacterium spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Phascolarctobacterium faecium can produce short-chain fatty acids, including acetate and propionate, and may be associated with metabolic effects and mental state of the host.

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Proteobacteria

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Proteobacteria (phylum)

Proteobacteria include a wide variety of pathogens, including species within the Escherichia, Shigella Salmonella, Vibrio, and Helicobacter genera. The phylum includes a number of species that are permanent residents of the microbiota and capable of inducing nonspecific inflammation and diarrhea when their presence is increased. Proteobacteria make up approximately 2% of the gut microbiota in healthy adults.

A high-fat diet is positively associated with an abundance of Proteobacteria. Slightly increased abundance of Proteobacteria may be associated with low-grade inflammation. Proteobacteria are increased in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Higher abundance of Proteobacteria has been associated with a moderate to severe disease course in newly discovered ulcerative colitis patients. They are associated with diarrhea in IBS.

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RBC

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Rothia mucilaginosa

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Ruminococcus albus & R. bromii

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Members of Ruminococcus sensu produce acetate, but not butyrate. Ruminococcus gnavus, like Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucin degrading specialist.

HIGHER LEVELS:

- Higher levels of Ruminococcus spp. were associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

- Increased abundance of Ruminococcus spp. has been reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

- Ruminococcus gnavus has been found to be in higher abundance in diarrhea predominant IBS.

- Intake of resistant starch has been associated with increased levels of R. bromii.

LOWER LEVELS:

- Reduced levels of R. bromii were observed in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

- Ruminococcus spp. are reportedly decreased in abundance with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

- A diet rich in animal protein and fat was found to reduce the abundance of this species in human gut.

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Ruminococcus gnavus

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Members of Ruminococcus sensu produce acetate, but not butyrate.

Ruminococcus gnavus, like Akkermanisia muciniphila is a mucin degrading specialist. 

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Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Lancefield’s group B streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive facultative anaerobe. Found in around 30% of healthy adult gastrointestinal tracts and vaginas, it can cause severe infections. The bacterium is the leading cause of septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in neonates. Additionally, a recent study showed that neonates of GBS+ women have a different microbiota composition compared to GBS-, possibly leading to disease development later in life.

Eubacterium is a genus of gram-positive bacteria. They are one of the most abundant species in healthy colons and use lactate and acetate to produce butyrate, and 1,2 propanediol to produce propionate.

Depletion of Eubacterium rectale has been associated with high fat diets, colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis. Species belonging to this genus are also involved in the metabolism of polyphenols - health-promoting metabolites, which can reduce incidence of carcinogenesis. Eubacterium rely on sources of resistant starches for survival.

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Streptococcus parasanguinis

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Streptococcus is a member of Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) that belonged to Firmicutes phylum. Many strains of Streptococcus are non-pathogenic and occur as commensal flora on the skin, the oral cavity, nasopharynx, upper respiratory tract, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tracts.

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Streptococcus salivarius

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Higher abundance of S. salivarius and S. thermophilus (Firmicutes phylum) have been associated with a moderate to severe disease course in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.

These findings are in accordance with a study that showed that UC patients have significantly increased Streptococcus spp. and depletion of Bifidobacterium spp. Higher levels of Streptococcus spp. were also observed in patients with colorectal cancer compared to healthy controls. Administration of S. salivarius together with Bifidobacterium bifidum was shown to reduce the incidence of acute diarrhea and rotavirus shedding in infants. S. salivarius and S. thermophilus are also widely used in dairy products like yogurt and cheese.

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Streptococcus salivarius ssp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Higher abundance of S. salivarius and S. thermophilus (Firmicutes phylum) have been associated with a moderate to severe disease course in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.

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Higher abundance of S. salivarius and S. thermophilus (Firmicutes phylum) have been associated with a moderate to severe disease course in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. These findings are in accordance with a study that showed that UC patients have significantly increased Streptococcus spp. and depletion of Bifidobacterium spp. Higher levels of Streptococcus spp. were also observed in patients with colorectal cancer compared to healthy controls.

Administration of S. salivarius together with Bifidobacterium bifidum was shown to reduce the incidence of acute diarrhea and rotavirus shedding in infants. S. salivarius and S. thermophilus are also widely used in dairy products like yogurt and cheese.

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Higher abundance of S. salivarius and S. thermophilus (Firmicutes phylum) have been associated with a moderate to severe disease course in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. These findings are in accordance with a study that showed that UC patients have significantly increased Streptococcus spp. and depletion of Bifidobacterium spp. Higher levels of Streptococcus spp. were also observed in patients with colorectal cancer compared to healthy controls.

Administration of S. salivarius together with Bifidobacterium bifidum was shown to reduce the incidence of acute diarrhea and rotavirus shedding in infants. S. salivarius and S. thermophilus are also widely used in dairy products like yogurt and cheese.

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Streptococcus spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Higher abundance of S. salivarius and S. thermophilus (Firmicutes phylum) have been associated with a moderate to severe disease course in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. These findings are in accordance with a study that showed that UC patients have significantly increased Streptococcus spp. and depletion of Bifidobacterium spp. Higher levels of Streptococcus spp. were also observed in patients with colorectal cancer compared to healthy controls. Administration of S. salivarius together with Bifidobacterium bifidum was shown to reduce the incidence of acute diarrhea and rotavirus shedding in infants. S. salivarius and S. thermophilus are also widely used in dairy products like yogurt and cheese.

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Veillonella spp.

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Veillonella are anaerobic, gram-negative cocci, part of the normal flora of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vaginal tract.

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Yeast

Optimal range: 0 - 0 Units

Yeast may normally be present in small quantities on the skin, in the mouth and intestine. While small quantities of yeast may be normal, yeast observed in higher quantities is considered abnormal.

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