Endocrinology

Endocrinology is the study of medicine that relates to the endocrine system, which is the system that controls hormones. An endocrinologist will deal with diseases that are caused by problems with hormones.

17-OH Progesterone

Optimal range: 35 - 290 ng/dL

17-OHP is produced by the adrenal gland as part of the process of making the important hormone cortisol. The adrenal glands are two small glands. One is located on top of each kidney. Along with special enzymes, or proteins, 17-OH progesterone is converted to a hormone called cortisol.

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ACTH, Plasma

Optimal range: 7.2 - 63.3 pg/mL

ACTH, a pituitary hormone, stimulates cortisol production from the adrenal glands. If ACTH levels are too low or too high, it can indicate that the pituitary or the adrenal glands are diseased.

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ADH

Optimal range: 0 - 4.7 pg/mL

ADH stands for antidiuretic hormone also known as vasopressin. ADH primarily acts in the kidney to resorb water. Vasopressin can also be administered to raise blood pressure.

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Aldos/Renin Ratio

Optimal range: 0 - 30 ng/dL per ng/mL/hr

The aldosterone to renin ratio blood test measures the amount of aldosterone divided by the amount of renin in the blood plasma. The test determines whether or not primary hyperaldosteronism is present and causing high blood pressure.

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Aldosterone

Optimal range: 0 - 30 ng/dL

Aldosterone is a mineralcoritcoid and a hormone. It allows the transport of sodium across the cell membrane. Aldosterone is important in blood pressure regulation and also for the volume of blood found in the blood vessels.

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Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH)

Optimal range: 5.5 - 37.4 pmol/L

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a protein hormone produced by cells within the ovary. Understanding your AMH level can help to assess your ovarian egg reserve and therefore your fertility.

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Cortisol - AM (Serum)

Optimal range: 6.2 - 19.4 ug/dL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.

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Cortisol, Serum

Optimal range: 2.3 - 19.4 µg/dL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli. Levels naturally peak in the morning and then reach their lowest point at night. A high blood cortisol level at night may indicate a problem with the adrenal glands; however, individuals who work at night and sleep during the day will have an inversed pattern.

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DHEAS (Serum)

Optimal range: 9.58 - 405.306 mcg/dL

It stands for Dehydroepiandrosterone and is a building block of steroid hormones that is produced predominantly in the adrenal glands.

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Estradiol

Optimal range: 45.4 - 1461 pmol/L

Estradiol (Estrogen) is a female hormone, produced primarily in the ovary. The amount of estrogen produced depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle.

Men also produce estradiol, but only very small amounts.

Shortly before ovulation, estradiol levels surge and then fall immediately after ovulation. They then rise again and remain elevated until 2-3 days before menstruation.

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Estradiol (male)

Optimal range: 7.6 - 42.6 pg/mL

Estradiol is the main "female" hormone. The full name is 17-beta-Estradiol.

Current research indicates that, in some people, this hormone may play a role in the loss of bone density, prevents male bodies from clearing DHT out of the prostate gland, and can stimulate estrogen-sensitive tumor growth (if estrogen-sensitive cancer cells are already present).

Men need to produce estrogen through a process involving an enzyme called aromatase that transforms testosterone into estradiol.

Aging men sometimes have too much aromatase activity, which causes their testosterone to convert to excess estradiol. This results in depletionof vital testosterone while spiking estradiol to unsafe ranges.

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Estrogens, Total (male)

Optimal range: 40 - 115 pg/mL

Estrogen is known as the “female” hormone. The four major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4).

Although estrogen is identified with a females, it is also found in men.

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Progesterone (male)

Optimal range: 0.27 - 0.9 ng/mL

Progesterone is present in men but at a much lower level than found in premenopausal women. Progesterone is not only a female hormone. Although in females it is responsible for protecting the unborn child from rejection during pregnancy, progesterone performs various other functions in both men and women. Progesterone is the precursor to other hormones, including testosterone, the sex hormone that emphasizes male characteristics.

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Progesterone (Serum)

Optimal range: 0.3 - 50.6 nmol/L

Progesterone plays an important role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. Levels of progesterone rise with pregnancy, and rise even higher if there are twins. Imbalances of progesterone are linked with health challenges in both men and women.

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Renin Activity, Plasma

Optimal range: 0.167 - 5.38 ng/mL/hr

Renin is an enzyme produced by the kidney that can raise blood pressure levels. The renin activity plasma test helps your doctor determine whether or not your high blood pressure is due to poor kidney health.

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