Endocrinology is the study of medicine that relates to the endocrine system, which is the system that controls hormones. An endocrinologist will deal with diseases that are caused by problems with hormones.

17-OH Progesterone

Optimal range: 35 - 290 ng/dL

17-OHP is produced by the adrenal gland as part of the process of making the important hormone cortisol. The adrenal glands are two small glands. One is located on top of each kidney. Along with special enzymes, or proteins, 17-OH progesterone is converted to a hormone called cortisol.


ACTH, Plasma

Optimal range: 7.2 - 63.3 pg/mL

ACTH, a pituitary hormone, stimulates cortisol production from the adrenal glands. If ACTH levels are too low or too high, it can indicate that the pituitary or the adrenal glands are diseased.



Optimal range: 0 - 4.7 pg/mL

ADH stands for antidiuretic hormone also known as vasopressin. ADH primarily acts in the kidney to resorb water. Vasopressin can also be administered to raise blood pressure.


Aldos/Renin Ratio

Optimal range: 0 - 30 ng/dL per ng/mL/hr

The aldosterone to renin ratio blood test measures the amount of aldosterone divided by the amount of renin in the blood plasma. The test determines whether or not primary hyperaldosteronism is present and causing high blood pressure.



Optimal range: 0 - 30 ng/dL

Aldosterone is a mineralcoritcoid and a hormone. It allows the transport of sodium across the cell membrane. Aldosterone is important in blood pressure regulation and also for the volume of blood found in the blood vessels.


Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH)

Optimal range: 5.5 - 37.4 pmol/L

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a protein hormone produced by cells within the ovary. Understanding your AMH level can help to assess your ovarian egg reserve and therefore your fertility.


Cortisol - AM (Serum)

Optimal range: 6.2 - 19.4 ug/dL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli.


Cortisol, Serum

Optimal range: 2.3 - 19.4 µg/dL

Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is the primary agent used in our body’s flight or fight response to threatening stimuli. Levels naturally peak in the morning and then reach their lowest point at night. A high blood cortisol level at night may indicate a problem with the adrenal glands; however, individuals who work at night and sleep during the day will have an inversed pattern.


Cortisol-Binding Globulin (CBG)

Optimal range: 19 - 45 mg/L

Cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) is a serum alpha-2-globulin-binding protein with high affinity and limited capacity for cortisol. It binds most (±92%) of the serum cortisol; the remaining cortisol (±8%) circulates in a free form or bound to albumin.


DHEAS (Serum)

Optimal range: 102.6 - 416.3 mcg/dL

It stands for Dehydroepiandrosterone and is a building block of steroid hormones that is produced predominantly in the adrenal glands.



Optimal range: 45.4 - 1461 pmol/L

Estradiol (Estrogen) is a female hormone, produced primarily in the ovary. The amount of estrogen produced depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle.

Men also produce estradiol, but only very small amounts.

Shortly before ovulation, estradiol levels surge and then fall immediately after ovulation. They then rise again and remain elevated until 2-3 days before menstruation.


Estradiol (male)

Optimal range: 8 - 35 pg/mL

Estradiol is the main "female" hormone. The full name is 17-beta-Estradiol.

Current research indicates that, in some people, this hormone may play a role in the loss of bone density, prevents male bodies from clearing DHT out of the prostate gland, and can stimulate estrogen-sensitive tumor growth (if estrogen-sensitive cancer cells are already present).

Men need to produce estrogen through a process involving an enzyme called aromatase that transforms testosterone into estradiol.

Aging men sometimes have too much aromatase activity, which causes their testosterone to convert to excess estradiol. This results in depletion of vital testosterone while spiking estradiol to unsafe ranges.


Estradiol, Ultrasensitive, LC/MS

Optimal range: 30 - 100 pg/mL

Please check the reference ranges in the description on the main dashboard as this marker is age and gender specific.

- Estradiol is responsible for the regulation of the estrous and female menstrual reproductive cycles and for the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics.

- Estradiol plays a key role in germ cell maturation and numerous other, non−gender-specific processes, including growth, bone metabolism, nervous system maturation, and endothelial responsiveness.

- Estrogens are crucial for the normal development and maintenance of the breasts and the uterus.

- Excessive estrogen levels, however, can promote cell proliferation and may increase the risk of developing breast and uterine cancers as well as uterine endometriosis.


Estrogens, Total (female)

Optimal range: 50 - 170 pg/mL

Total estrogen is a reliable test for estrogen status and is used to detect hormone imbalances.

Estrogen is known as the “female” hormone. The four major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4).


Estrogens, Total (male)

Optimal range: 60 - 190 pg/mL

Estrogen is known as the “female” hormone. The four major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4).

Although estrogen is identified with females, it is also found in men.


Free Cortisol, Serum

Optimal range: 0.2 - 1.8 ug/dL

This cortisol test measures the level of cortisol in your blood to see if your levels are normal.

Cortisol is made by your adrenal glands, two small glands that sit above the kidneys. A gland in your brain, called the pituitary gland, makes a hormone that tells your adrenal glands how much cortisol to make. If your cortisol levels are too high or too low, it may mean you have a disorder of your adrenal glands, a problem with your pituitary gland, or a tumor that makes cortisol.


A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin in your blood. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy.



Optimal range: 0.3 - 13.4 ng/mL

Leptin is a hormone that is produced by your body’s fat cells. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone essential for normal body weight regulation.


Progesterone (male)

Optimal range: 0.27 - 0.9 ng/mL

Progesterone is present in men but at a much lower level than found in premenopausal women. Progesterone is not only a female hormone. Although in females it is responsible for protecting the unborn child from rejection during pregnancy, progesterone performs various other functions in both men and women. Progesterone is the precursor to other hormones, including testosterone, the sex hormone that emphasizes male characteristics.


Progesterone (Serum)

Optimal range: 0.3 - 50.6 nmol/L

Progesterone plays an important role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. Levels of progesterone rise with pregnancy, and rise even higher if there are twins. Imbalances of progesterone are linked with health challenges in both men and women.


Renin Activity, Plasma

Optimal range: 0.167 - 5.38 ng/mL/hr

Renin is an enzyme produced by the kidney that can raise blood pressure levels. The renin activity plasma test helps your doctor determine whether or not your high blood pressure is due to poor kidney health.