Metabolic Health

Metabolism is your body’s way of chemically processing sugar and fat for use throughout the body as energy. An optimal metabolism supports healthy weight control and energy levels, while a dysfunctional metabolism can lead to undesired fluctuations in weight and fatigue or hyperactivity.

Ceruloplasmin

Optimal range: 19 - 39 mg/dL

Ceruloplasmin is a copper-containing enzyme that plays a role in the body's iron metabolism. This test measures the amount of ceruloplasmin in the blood.

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Cyclic AMP, Plasma

Optimal range: 12 - 22 pmol/mL

Cyclic AMP (Cyclic adenosine-3′-5′-monophosphate) serves as a 2nd messenger in signal transmission of many hormones, such as adrenaline, ACTH, LH, FSH, glucagon, and calcitonin.

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Dihydrotestosterone (male)

Optimal range: 30 - 85 ng/dL

Dihydrotestosterone is a hormone that stimulates the development of male characteristics

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Estimated Average Glucose (eAG)

Optimal range: 68 - 114 mg/dL

Your estimated Average Glucose (eAG) number is calculated from the result of your A1c test. Like the A1c, the eAG shows what your average blood sugars have been over the previous 2 to 3 months, but instead of a percentage, the eAG is in the same units (mg/dl) as your blood glucose meter.

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Free Androgen Index

Optimal range: 0 - 6.6 u

The free androgen index is a measure of the biologically active testosterone in the blood. It is a ratio of the total testosterone to the level of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).

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Free testosterone

Optimal range: 32 - 168 pg/mL

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone in humans. A healthcare professional may order a free testosterone blood test if you’re experiencing sexual problems or a secondary condition, like hyperthyroidism, is suspected.  

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Free Testosterone, Direct (Female)

Optimal range: 0 - 4.2 pg/mL

Although Testosterone is generally viewed as a male-only hormone, women’s ovaries also make small amounts of testosterone. It helps many organs and body processes in women. Free testosterone and albumin-bound testosterone are also referred to as bioavailable testosterone. This is the testosterone that is easily used by your body.

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Free Thyroxine

Optimal range: 0.6 - 1.2 ng/dL

Thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. The term “free thyroxine” means the measured thyroxine that is not bound to proteins in the blood.

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Free Thyroxine Index

Optimal range: 4.8 - 12.7 Units

Free thyroxine index is considered to be a reliable indicator of thyroid status in the presence of abnormalities in plasma protein binding. The free thyroxine index has generally been replaced by Free Thyroxine in the assessment of thyroid function, but is occasionally useful when a free T4 result is suspected of being anomalous.

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Glucose

Optimal range: 3.6075 - 5.55 mmol/L

Glucose is a simple sugar used as a primary energy source in our bodies. Blood glucose tests are most frequently ordered for the diagnoses and monitoring of diabetes. 

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Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase

Optimal range: 0 - 0.5 nmol/L

Glutamic acid decarboxylase is an enzyme found in brain and pancreas that converts glutamic acid (glutamate) into GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The glutamic acid decarboxylase test is a test that looks for antibodies directed against the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme.

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Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)

Optimal range: 4.8 - 5.6 %

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is the percentage of hemoglobin molecules with attached glucose molecules. HbA1c is an accurate means to estimate the average blood glucose over the preceding 3 months. 

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Homocysteine

Optimal range: 0 - 10 µmol/L

Homocysteine is an amino acid that requires vitamin B12 and folate to be used by our bodies. As such, homocysteine blood tests are often ordered to identify vitamin B12 / folate deficiency.  Rarely, an abnormally high level of homocysteine indicates a rare genetic disorder called homocystinuria.

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Insulin (Fasting)

Optimal range: 2 - 25 uIU/ml

When insulin enters your bloodstream, it helps cells throughout your body to absorb glucose.

Insulin allows your body to:

  1. Use glucose from the food that you eat for energy; and
  2. Store glucose for future use.

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Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1)

Optimal range: 61 - 200 ng/dL

IGF-1 measurements are adjusted for age because levels tend to decrease as you get older.

Results of IGF-1 are given in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). Normal ranges by age are:

- 182 to 780 ng/mL for ages 16 to 24

- 114 to 492 ng/mL for ages 25 to 39

- 90 to 360 ng/mL for ages 40 to 54

- 71 to 290 ng/mL for people 55 and older

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Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), Serum

Optimal range: 15 - 65 pg/mL

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) helps the body maintain stable levels of calcium in the blood.

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Pregnenolone

Optimal range: 22 - 237 ng/dL

Pregnenolone is a chemical substance that is a precursor to all steroid hormones.

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Reverse T3, Serum

Optimal range: 9.2 - 24.1 ng/dL

Reverse T3 is a biologically inactive thyroid hormone; however, it does block the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3). Higher levels of reverse T3 can decrease the effect of thyroid hormone.

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Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG)

Optimal range: 18 - 57 nmol/L

Sex hormone-binding globulin is a protein that binds primarily to testosterone, making it biologically unusable by our bodies. For this reason, an abnormal level of SHBG indicates that too much or too little testosterone is present in the tissues. In men, this can cause sexual issues like erectile dysfunction or infertility. In women, it can cause irregular menstruation or excess facial hair growth. A healthcare professional may order a SHBG test when total testosterone levels do not fit with one or more of the above-mentioned symptoms.

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T3, Free

Optimal range: 2.6 - 4 pmol/L

Triiodothyronine or T3 is the most biologically active thyroid hormone in humans. The term “free T3” means the amount of T3 that is not bound to proteins in the blood.

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T4, Free

Optimal range: 0.7 - 1.53 ng/dL

Thyroxine or T4 is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. The term “free T4” means measured T4 that is not bound to proteins in the blood.

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T4, Total (Thyroxine)

Optimal range: 4.5 - 12 ug/dL

Thyroxine (T4) is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is sometimes called total thyroxine because it includes both free T4 and T4 bound to proteins.

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T7 Index

Optimal range: 1.2 - 4.3 Units

The T7 Index is used to calculate Free T4, one of the two active thyroid hormones in your bloodstream.

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Testosterone

Optimal range: 298 - 1043 ng/dL

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone in humans. Testosterone blood tests can assess testosterone that is bound to a protein, testosterone that is free in the blood, or both. A healthcare professional may order any of these tests if you’re experiencing sexual or hormonal problems.

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Testosterone (Female/Child)

Optimal range: 0 - 1.7 nmol/L

Testosterone is a male sex hormone or androgen. It is generally low in women and children, but it can be elevated in certain diseases. A certain level of testosterone is important for development and maturation in both genders.

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Testosterone, Serum (Female)

Optimal range: 8 - 48 ng/dL

Testosterone is a male sex hormone produced in a woman’s ovaries in small amounts as well. Combined with estrogen, the female sex hormone, testosterone helps with the growth, maintenance, and repair of a woman’s reproductive tissues, bone mass, and human behaviors.

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Thyroglobulin

Optimal range: 0 - 55 ng/mL

Thyroglobulin is the protein precursor of thyroid hormone and is made by normal well differentiated benign thyroid cells or thyroid cancer cells.

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Thyroglobulin Antibodies

Optimal range: 0 - 0.9 IU/L

Thyroglobulin antibodies are antibodies that recognize and bind to thyroglobulin, interfering with its function. Thyroglobulin is critical for thyroid hormone production, so thyroglobulin antibodies usually indicate thyroid disease.

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Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is an enzyme that is critical for to thyroid hormone synthesis in the thyroid gland. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies bind to and block the action of TPO, resulting in decreases in thyroid hormone levels. 

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Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Optimal range: 0.5 - 4.5 mIU/L

TSH stands for thyroid stimulating hormone, though it is sometimes called thyrotropin or thyrotropic hormone. TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone, which is is critical for the proper function of virtually every cell in the body.

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Thyroxine-binding globulin, TBG

Optimal range: 14 - 31 ug/ml

Thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) is produced in the liver and is the primary circulating (transport) protein that binds thyroid hormones3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and carries them in the bloodstream.

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Total T3

Optimal range: 80 - 200 ng/mL

Triiodothyronine or T3 is the most biologically active thyroid hormone in humans. It is called total T3 because it includes both free T3 and T3 bound to proteins.

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Tri iodothyronine (T3) Uptake

Optimal range: 23.4 - 42.7 %

Triiodothyronine, Serum

Optimal range: 2 - 4.4 pg/mL

Triiodothyronine (T3) is the most biologically active thyroid hormone in humans. It is sometimes called total triiodothyronine because it includes both free triiodothyronine and triiodothyronine bound to proteins.

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