Human Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-b1)

Optimal Result: 344 - 2382 pg/mL.

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a vital protein in human health, belonging to the broader TGF-β superfamily. This protein is a key regulator in numerous bodily functions, primarily focusing on cell growth, division, and development. Its role is crucial in maintaining the health and stability of tissues and organs. TGF-β1 is particularly significant in the body's healing processes. During wound repair and tissue regeneration, TGF-β1 acts as a critical coordinator, guiding cells in the repair and healing process. This function makes it an essential component in medical and health research, particularly in understanding wound healing mechanisms.

Beyond tissue repair, TGF-β1 is integral to the immune system. It helps balance the immune response, ensuring it is effective but not overly aggressive, which is crucial for preventing autoimmune disorders. However, TGF-β1's functionality has a complex side. In certain situations, such as in various cancers, an overexpression or malfunction of TGF-β1 can aid in tumor growth and metastasis. Additionally, it's implicated in fibrosis, a condition characterized by excessive tissue scarring, and in autoimmune diseases, where it can contribute to the body attacking its own cells.

Understanding TGF-β1's multifaceted role in the body is a significant focus in medical research. This protein's involvement in both normal bodily functions and various diseases makes it a target for potential treatments and therapies. TGF-β1's intricate balance in cell regulation, wound healing, and immune system modulation underscores its importance in health and disease management. Consequently, ongoing research into TGF-β1 not only sheds light on fundamental biological processes but also opens pathways for innovative medical treatments and therapies.


Cho N, Razipour SE, McCain ML. Featured Article: TGF-β1 dominates extracellular matrix rigidity for inducing differentiation of human cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2018 Apr;243(7):601-612. doi: 10.1177/1535370218761628. Epub 2018 Mar 4. PMID: 29504479; PMCID: PMC6582399.

Zivancevic-Simonovic S, Minic R, Cupurdija V, Stanojevic-Pirkovic M, Milosevic-Djordjevic O, Jakovljevic V, Mihaljevic O. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in COVID-19 patients: relation to platelets and association with the disease outcome. Mol Cell Biochem. 2023 Nov;478(11):2461-2471. doi: 10.1007/s11010-023-04674-7. Epub 2023 Mar 4. PMID: 36869188; PMCID: PMC9984293.

Dergilev KV, Vasilets YD, Tsokolaeva ZI, Parfenova EV. Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-β1) Regulates Assembly of Cardiac Spheroids. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2021 Feb;170(4):550-554. doi: 10.1007/s10517-021-05104-8. Epub 2021 Mar 16. PMID: 33725254.

Wettlaufer SH, Scott JP, McEachin RC, Peters-Golden M, Huang SK. Reversal of the Transcriptome by Prostaglandin E2 during Myofibroblast Dedifferentiation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016 Jan;54(1):114-27. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2014-0468OC. PMID: 26098591; PMCID: PMC4742926.

Sayed SK, Galal SH, Herdan OM, Mahran AM. Single nucleotide polymorphism T869C of transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene and systemic lupus erythematosus: association with disease susceptibility and lupus nephritis. Egypt J Immunol. 2014;21(2):9-21. PMID: 25812349.

What does it mean if your Human Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-b1) result is too high?

If the levels of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) are elevated, it can have several significant implications for health. TGF-β1 is involved in regulating cell growth and immune responses, so higher levels can disrupt these processes. In wound healing and tissue repair, elevated TGF-β1 can lead to excessive scar formation, known as fibrosis, which can impair normal tissue function. In the immune system, high TGF-β1 levels might suppress the body’s ability to fight infections and tumors, potentially leading to an increased risk of certain cancers or chronic infections. Additionally, in autoimmune diseases, elevated TGF-β1 can contribute to the body’s immune system attacking its own tissues. Elevated TGF-β1 levels have also been linked to cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure, where they can contribute to adverse remodeling of heart tissue. It's important to understand that the role of TGF-β1 in the body is complex, and its effects when elevated can vary depending on individual health conditions and other factors. Elevated TGF-β1 is a marker that medical professionals can use to assess and manage various health conditions, but it is not a disease itself.

What are potential reasons for an elevated level of Human Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-b1)?

Elevated levels of human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) can be associated with various physiological and pathological conditions. Here are the main reasons:

1. Inflammatory Conditions

 → Chronic Inflammation: TGF-β1 is often elevated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

→ Acute Inflammation: In response to acute injuries, TGF-β1 levels can increase as part of the healing process.

2. Fibrotic Disorders

→ Pulmonary Fibrosis: Elevated TGF-β1 is a key factor in the development and progression of pulmonary fibrosis, where it promotes the accumulation of extracellular matrix components.

→ Liver Cirrhosis: In liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, TGF-β1 contributes to the activation of hepatic stellate cells, leading to increased collagen production.

→ Renal Fibrosis: TGF-β1 is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis, often seen in chronic kidney disease.

3. Cancer

→ Tumor Progression: TGF-β1 can promote tumor progression, metastasis, and immune evasion in various cancers such as breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers.

→ Tumor Suppression: In early stages, TGF-β1 can act as a tumor suppressor, but in later stages, it can switch to promote tumor growth and metastasis.

4. Cardiovascular Diseases

→ Hypertension: Elevated TGF-β1 levels have been linked to hypertension, contributing to vascular remodeling and stiffness.

→ Atherosclerosis: TGF-β1 is involved in the development of atherosclerotic plaques.

5. Autoimmune Diseases

→ Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): Patients with SLE may exhibit elevated TGF-β1 levels.

→ Scleroderma: TGF-β1 is implicated in the fibrosis seen in scleroderma, an autoimmune connective tissue disease.

6. Infection

→ Viral Infections: Certain viral infections, such as HIV and hepatitis C, can lead to elevated TGF-β1 levels.

→ Bacterial Infections: Chronic bacterial infections may also stimulate increased production of TGF-β1.

7. Metabolic Disorders

→ Diabetes Mellitus: TGF-β1 is associated with diabetic complications, particularly diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy.

→ Obesity: Elevated TGF-β1 levels are found in obese individuals and are linked to adipose tissue inflammation.

8. Aging

→ Age-Related Changes: Aging is associated with increased TGF-β1 levels, which may contribute to age-related tissue fibrosis and decline in regenerative capacity.

9. Genetic Disorders

→ Marfan Syndrome: Elevated TGF-β1 is a characteristic of Marfan syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting connective tissue.

→ Loeys-Dietz Syndrome: This genetic disorder is also associated with elevated TGF-β1 levels and involves vascular and skeletal abnormalities.

10. Medications and Treatments

→ Radiation Therapy: TGF-β1 levels can increase following radiation therapy, contributing to radiation-induced fibrosis.

→ Chemotherapy: Certain chemotherapeutic agents may elevate TGF-β1 levels as part of their side effect profile.

Elevated TGF-β1 levels can indicate a range of conditions and are often a sign of underlying pathophysiological processes involving tissue remodeling, inflammation, and fibrosis. Accurate diagnosis typically requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation and consideration of the patient's overall health and medical history.

What are possible treatment options?

Treating elevated levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) involves addressing the underlying condition that is causing the elevation. Here are some general strategies:

1. Treating Underlying Conditions

 Inflammatory Conditions: Using anti-inflammatory medications such as corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can help reduce inflammation and consequently lower TGF-β1 levels.

→ Fibrotic Disorders: Anti-fibrotic agents like pirfenidone and nintedanib are used in conditions like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis to reduce fibrosis and TGF-β1 activity.

→ Autoimmune Diseases: Immunosuppressive drugs targeting specific immune pathways can help manage diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma, potentially reducing TGF-β1 levels.

2. Cancer Therapy

→ Targeted Therapies: In cancers, treatments might include targeted therapies that inhibit TGF-β1 signaling pathways. Drugs that specifically target TGF-β1 or its receptors are under investigation.

→ Chemotherapy and Radiation: Adjusting cancer treatments to manage TGF-β1 levels and mitigate associated side effects may be necessary.

3. Cardiovascular Disease Management

→ Antihypertensives: Managing hypertension with medications like ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) can help reduce TGF-β1 related vascular remodeling.

→ Lifestyle Modifications: Diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes can improve cardiovascular health and potentially reduce elevated TGF-β1 levels.

4. Infection Management

→ Antiviral or Antibiotic Therapy: Treating underlying infections with appropriate antiviral or antibiotic medications can help normalize TGF-β1 levels.

5. Metabolic Disorders Management

→ Diabetes Management: Tight glycemic control through medications, diet, and exercise can reduce diabetic complications and TGF-β1 levels.

→ Weight Management: Addressing obesity through lifestyle changes, diet, exercise, and possibly bariatric surgery can help lower TGF-β1 levels associated with adipose tissue inflammation.

6. Genetic Disorders

→ Specialized Treatments: For genetic disorders like Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, specific interventions and monitoring strategies are required. There are no direct treatments for elevated TGF-β1, but managing the condition can help mitigate its effects.

7. Use of TGF-β1 Inhibitors

→ Experimental Therapies: TGF-β1 inhibitors are in various stages of research and clinical trials. These include monoclonal antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, and other agents designed to block TGF-β1 signaling. These treatments are not yet widely available but show promise for future use.

8. Supportive and Symptomatic Treatment

→ Symptom Management: Supportive treatments to manage symptoms associated with high TGF-β1 levels, such as pain, fatigue, and respiratory issues, can improve quality of life while addressing the root cause.

9. Lifestyle and Nutritional Interventions

→ Healthy Diet: A diet rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory foods may help manage inflammation and reduce TGF-β1 levels.

→ Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity can help reduce inflammation and manage conditions associated with elevated TGF-β1.

10. Monitoring and Follow-Up

→ Regular Monitoring: Frequent monitoring of TGF-β1 levels and associated symptoms can help guide treatment adjustments and ensure the effectiveness of the management plan.

It's crucial to work with healthcare professionals to develop a comprehensive treatment plan tailored to the specific underlying condition causing elevated TGF-β1 levels.

What does it mean if your Human Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-b1) result is too low?

If levels of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) are decreased, it can have various implications for the body's health and functioning. TGF-β1 is crucial for regulating cell growth, development, and healing processes, so reduced levels can disrupt these functions. Low TGF-β1 might hinder the body's ability to heal wounds effectively or regenerate tissues. It can also impact the immune system, potentially leading to inadequate immune responses or increased susceptibility to certain diseases. In the context of diseases like cancer, low TGF-β1 levels might affect the body's ability to suppress tumor growth and progression. Additionally, in certain autoimmune disorders, such as lupus, reduced TGF-β1 levels could be associated with disease progression or severity. It's important to note that TGF-β1 operates in a delicate balance, so both excessively high and low levels can lead to health issues. The specific effects of decreased TGF-β1 levels can vary depending on the individual's overall health, the presence of other medical conditions, and environmental factors.

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