Dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT) is a laboratory test often used for detection of lupus anticoagulant (LA). Russell's viper venom [RVV] isolated from the snake Daboia russelii contains a potent activator of factor X which in the presence of phospholipid, prothrombin and calcium ions clots fibrinogen to fibrin. In individuals with a lupus anticoagulant the antibody binds to the phospholipid inhibiting the action of the RVV and prolonging the clotting time.
Lupus Anticoagulants (LAC) refer to auto antibodies against negatively charged phospholipids or complexes of phospholipids with either beta-2-glycoprotein 1 or clotting factors such as prothrombin. They occur in various clinical conditions, especially autoimmune diseases and are now considered to be a significant risk factor in patients with otherwise unexplained thrombosis and may be present in women who have recurrent fetal loss. LAC are detected using phospholipid responsive clotting tests, such as the aPTT, Kaolin Clotting Time (KCT) and dilute Russell Viper Venom test (DRVVT). These tests have varying sensitivity to LAC depending on the LAC characteristics and the reagents used.
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