- ANA stands for "Antinuclear antibodies".
- Antibodies are proteins produced by white blood cells, which normally circulate in the blood to defend against foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
- The antibodies that target “normal” proteins within the nucleus of a cell are called antinuclear antibodies (ANA).
- Most people have antinuclear antibodies, but typically in small amounts. The presence of large amount of autoantibodies or ANAs can indicate an autoimmune disease.
- A negative ANA reading means no antinuclear antibodies are present in the body.
- A positive ANA reading alone does not indicate an autoimmune disease.
The ANA titer is a measure of the amount of ANA in the blood; the higher the titer, the more autoantibodies are present in the sample.
Patient samples are often screened for antinuclear antibodies after being diluted 1:40 and 1:160 in a buffered solution. If staining is observed at both the 1:40 and 1:160 dilutions, then the laboratory continues to dilute the sample until staining can no longer be seen under the microscope. The level to which a patient's sample can be diluted and still produce recognizable staining is known as the ANA "titer."
Here is an example:
1:160 positive (titer reported as 1:160)
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14.3.3 ETA PROTEIN, Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Antibody, Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), Alpha 2-Macroglobulins, Qn, ANA SCREEN, IFA, ANA titer, Anti-DBL-Strand DNA Ab, Anti-Smith Antibody, Anticardiolipin Ab, IgM, Anticardiolipin Ab,IgA,Qn, Anticardiolipin Ab,IgG,Qn, Antinuclear Antibodies Direct (ANA Direct), Antiphosphatidylserine IgA, Antiphosphatidylserine IgG, Antiphosphatidylserine IgM, C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Func, C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Serum, C3A Desarg Fragment, CARDIOLIPIN AB (IGA), CARDIOLIPIN AB (IGG), CARDIOLIPIN AB (IGM), CCP Antibodies IgG/IgA, Complement C3, Complement C3a, Complement C4, Serum, Complement C4a, Complement, Total (CH50), Complement, Total (CH50) / Quest, Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody, Dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT), DRVVT SCREEN, ds-DNA Antibody, IgG, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Free Kappa Lt Chains, Serum, Free Lambda Lt Chains, Serum, Gastrin, Histamine, Plasma, HLA-B27 (Human Leukocyte Antigen B27), Immature Grans (Abs), Immature Granulocytes (%), Immunofixation Result, Serum, Immunoglobulin A, Qn, Serum, Immunoglobulin D, Quant, Serum, Immunoglobulin E, Total, Immunoglobulin G, Qn, Serum, Immunoglobulin M, Qn, Serum, Interleukin-2, Serum, Interleukin-6, Jo 1 Antibodies, IgG, Serum, Kappa/Lambda Ratio, Serum, Liver-Kidney Microsomal Antibodies, Lupus Anticoagulant, PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINE AB (IGA), PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINE AB (IGG), PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINE AB (IGM), PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE AB (IGA), PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE AB (IGG), PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE AB (IGM), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) AG, Prothrombin Fragment 1.2, Prothrombin Time (PT), Prothrombin Time (PT) INR, RA Latex Turbid, Reptilase Clotting Time, Rheumatoid factor, TGF-b1, Thrombin time, Thrombin-Antithrombin TAT, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Plasma, Tryptase, VEGF, Plasma