Antinuclear Antibodies Direct (ANA Direct)

Immune System

A healthy result should fall into the range 0 - 0.99 Units.

Antinuclear antibodies are autoantibodies, which means the body mistakenly produces these antibodies that act against normal substances in cells. Antinuclear antibodies or ANAs are autoantibodies that react to substances within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies can react to almost anything with the nucleus including DNA, centromeres, histones, ribosomes, and other nuclear proteins. The presence of ANAs in the blood may or may not provide evidence of autoimmune disease. ANA can be measured indirectly or directly. Indirect measurement of ANAs is done using immunofluorescence. Direct measurement of ANA is achieved with a solid phase assay, namely enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA), fluorescent microsphere assays, or immunoline assays. In solid phase assays, a panel of antigens is used to detect specific antinuclear antibodies. A second antibody is used to detect autoantibodies that are bound to the test antigens. The presence of antibodies on the Direct ANA test is abnormal. Thus, anyone who receives a positive test has detectable antinuclear antibodies. 

Normal Ranges for ANA Direct:

Normal is negative

Abnormal is positive

(Titer applies to indirect detection)

 

Sources:

https://www.uptodate.com/contents/measurement-and-clinical-significance-of-antinuclear-antibodies

https://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/20236/antinuclear-antibodies-ana-multiplex-qualitative-with-medical-decision-support-software-mdss-interpretation

https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=RHEUM%2F89802&topicKey=RHEUM%2F1822&search=ana%20direct&rank=1~150&source=see_link

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