Bacteroides-Prevotella group

Optimal Result: 3400000 - 1500000000 CFU/g stool.

The predominant genera in the human colonic microbiota are Bacteroides and Prevotella, which belong to the major phyla Bacteroidetes. Their composition and metabolic activities are largely modulated by diet and, in addition, they can also affect the metabolism of food. Prevotella is associated with plant-rich diets (high levels of complex carbohydrates and fruit and vegetable intake), whereas Bacteroides is linked to a high intake of fat and protein. Bacteroides and Prevotella species have their own specific habitats in the human body as they are antagonistic.

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- Bacteroides historically included multiple taxonomic groups including Prevotella and others. New classification has separated them into
Bacteroides,Prevotella, and other groups, however it is challenging to separate many of the species. For this reason, the Bacteroides /Prevotella group includes mainly Bacteroides and some Prevotella.

- Displays flexibility to adapt to many environmental conditions/diets Bacteroidesconsist of bile-tolerant organismsand has the capability of
utilizing polysaccharidesand mucins.

- Produces beta glucuronidase, secondary bile acids, acetate, propionate, products of protein breakdown, and is involved in
vitamin metabolism.

- Associated with reduced bacterial gene richness

- Along with Methanobrevibacter smithii, certain Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. can produce methane gas.

- Generally associated with industrialized populations consuming a Western diet.

- Bacteroides growth in culture and propionate formation is favored at a close-to-neutral pH of 6.5, in contrast to butyrate-producing
Faecalibacterium prausnitziiand Roseburia spp., which arefavored at a lower pH of 5.5.

References:

- https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/abstract/S1550-4131(15)00517-3

- https://www.nature.com/articles/nrgastro.2016.4

- https://www.gdx.net/core/supplemental-education-materials/Commensal-Bacteria-Chart.pdf

What does it mean if your Bacteroides-Prevotella group result is too low?

- Tart cherry juicemay normalize high or low levels.

- Reduced with inulin from Jerusalem artichoke or chicory. A systematic review of inulin supplementation in humans showed an increase in Bifidobacterium, and a relative increase in Faecalibacterium and Lactobacillus, and decrease in relative abundance of Bacteroides.

- Lactobacillus kefiri was given to 20 healthy volunteers for one month and after the probiotic was discontinued for a month, Bacteroides, Barnesiella, Clostridium, Veillonellaand other species were significantly reduced compared to baseline samples.

- A study on 250 vegetarian and vegan individuals showed lower counts of Bifidobacterium spp. (vegan), Bacteroides spp. (vegan) and E. coli (vegan and vegetarian).

What does it mean if your Bacteroides-Prevotella group result is too high?

Increased Levels

- A Bacteroides-dominated microbiomeispositively correlated with long-term diets rich in animal protein and saturated fat. A small study on 11 healthy volunteers showed that an animal-baseddiet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophilaand Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium
rectaleand Ruminococcus bromii).

- Tart cherry juicemay normalize high or low levels.

- Increased in obese adolescents who lost more than 4 kg on a calorie-restricted diet

- Increased in overweight men drinking low glycinin soymilk compared to regular soymilk or bovine milk

- Levels of Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Odoribacter, and others enrichedafter pomegranate extract consumption in overweight-obese subjects. Serum endotoxemia marker LBP was reduced.

Four bacteria are enriched with aspirin use versus no medication and includes Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp., Barnesiella spp. and the family Ruminococaceae. Furthermore, Bacteroidesspp. was seen with other medications including NSAIDs with PPIs, and NSAIDs with antidepressants and laxatives.

- Cigarette smoking is associated with increased levels.

- Red wine was positively associated with the relative abundance of Bacteroides in 23
allergic patients, 25 and in 10 healthy males.

- A high beef diet was associated with increases in Bacteroidesfragilis, B. vulgatusand Clostridium spp. in 10 volunteers.

- A ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat diet was associated with a reduction of Faecalibacterium and abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea spp. in race walkers.

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