Bifidobacterium longum is comprised of multiple subspecies that beneficially modulate the immune system. It is found in probiotic supplements and fermented foods. Lactate producer; acetate producer.
Utilizes diet-derived carbohydrates.
O’Callaghan A, van Sinderen D. Bifidobacteria and Their Role as Members of the Human Gut Microbiota. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:925.
Wong CB, Odamaki T, Xiao J-z. Beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BB536 on human health: Modulation of gut microbiome as the principal action. J Function Foods. 2019;54:506-519.
Haro C, Garcia-Carpintero S, Alcala-Diaz JF, et al. The gut microbial community in metabolic syndrome patients is modified by diet. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;27:27-31.
Li J, Hou Q, Zhang J, et al. Carbohydrate Staple Food Modulates Gut Microbiota of Mongolians in China. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:484.
Cox SR, Lindsay JO, Fromentin S, et al. Effects of Low FODMAP Diet on Symptoms, Fecal Microbiome, and Markers of Inflammation in Patients With Quiescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Randomized Trial. Gastroenterology. 2020;158(1):176-188. e177.
De Palma G, Nadal I, Collado MC, Sanz Y. Effects of a gluten-free diet on gut microbiota and immune function in healthy adult human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2009;102(8):1154-1160.
B. longum and B. adolescentis suppressed by rice in 26 Mongolian individuals who consumed wheat, rice, and oat as the sole carbohydrate staple food for a week each.
A low FODMAP diet in 52 IBD patients resulted in lower Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii than patients on a control diet. However, microbiome diversity and markers of inflammation did not differ between the IBD and control groups.
A small study of 10 healthy subjects showed reduced Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Bifidobacterium longum after 1 month on a gluten-free diet (GFD).
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Long-term consumption of Mediterranean diet partially restored B. longum in metabolic syndrome patients.
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Acetate, Akkermansia muciniphila, Anaerotruncus colihominis, Anaerotruncus colihominis/massiliensis, Ancylostoma/Necator (Hookworm), Ascaris lumbricoides, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides-Prevotella group, Barnesiella spp., Beta-glucuronidase, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, Bifidobacterium spp., Blastocystis spp., Butyrivibrio crossotus, Calprotectin, Candida albicans/dubliniensis, Capillaria philippinensis, Cholesterol, Citrobacter species, Clostridium spp., Collinsella aerofaciens, Coprococcus eutactus, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Desulfovibrio piger, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobius vermicularis, Enterococcus faecalis, Eosinophil Protein X, Escherichia coli, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fecal Color, Fecal Consistency, Fecal Fat, Total, Fecal Occult Blood, Fecal secretory IgA, Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B Ratio), Fusobacterium spp., Giardia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella species, Lactobacillus spp., Long-Chain Fatty Acids, Methanobrevibacter smithii, n-Butyrate %, n-Butyrate Concentration, Odoribacter spp., Oxalobacter formigenes, Pancreatic Elastase 1, Phocaeicola vulgatus, Phospholipids, Prevotella spp., Products of Protein Breakdown (Total), Propionate, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudoflavonifractor spp., Roseburia spp., Ruminococcus bromii, Ruminococcus spp., Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA), Total, Triglycerides, Veillonella spp., Zonulin Family Peptide